A Methodology for Selection of Habitat Management Areas for Amphibians and Reptiles Considering Soil Loss

토양유실을 고려한 양서파충류의 서식지 관리지역 선정방법

  • Kim, Ji-Yeon (Graduate School of Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Dong-Kun (Dept. of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University) ;
  • Mo, Yong-Won (Center for Climate Change Adaptation, National Institute for Environmental Studies)
  • 김지연 (서울대학교 대학원 생태조경.지역시스템공학부) ;
  • 이동근 (서울대학교 조경.지역시스템공학부) ;
  • 모용원 (일본국립환경연구소 기후변화적응센터)
  • Received : 2018.10.12
  • Accepted : 2018.12.03
  • Published : 2018.12.31


As disaster risk and climate change volatility increase, there are more efforts to adapt to disasters such as forest fires, floods, and landslides. Most of the research, however, is about influence of human activities on disaster and there is few research on disaster adaptation for species. Previous studies focusing on biodiversity in selecting conservation areas have not addressed threats of disaster in the habitats for species. The natural disasters sometimes play role of drivers of ecological successions in the long run, but they might cause serious problems for the conservation of vulnerable species which are endangered. The purpose of this study is to determine whether soil loss (SL) is effective in selecting habitat management areas for amphibians and reptiles. RUSLE model was used to calculate soil loss (SL) and the distribution of each species (SD) was computed with MaxEnt model to find out the biodiversity index. In order to select the habitat management area, we estimated the different results depending if value of soil loss was applied or not by using MARXAN, a conservation priority selection tool. With using MARXAN, conservation goals can be achieved according to the scenario objectives, and the study has been made to meet the minimum habitat area. Finally, the results are expressed in two; 1) the result of soil loss and biodiversity with MATRIX method and 2) the result of regional difference calculated with MARXAN conservation prioritization considering soil loss. The first result indicates that the area with high soil loss and low species diversity have lower conservation values and thus can be managed as natural disturbances. In the area where soil loss is high and species diversity is also high, it becomes where a disaster mitigation action should be taken for the species. According to the conservation priorities of the second result, higher effectiveness of conservation was obtained with fewer area when it considered SL in addition to SD, compared to when considered only biodiversity. When the SL was not taken into consideration, forest area with high distribution of species were important, but when SL considered, the agricultural area or downstream of the river were represented to be a major part of habitats. If more species data or disaster parameters other than soil loss are added as variables later, it could contribute as a reference material for decision-making to achieve various purposes.

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0001.png 이미지

Figure 1. Study flow

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0002.png 이미지

Figure 2. Study site

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0003.png 이미지

Figure 3. Boundary Length Modifier (BLM) optimization

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0004.png 이미지

Figure 4. SL and Stream order

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0005.png 이미지

Figure 5. Species Diversity (Calculated with SD)

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0006.png 이미지

Figure 6. MATRIX result and areas of MARXAN results

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_f0007.png 이미지

Figure 7. Box plot graph of SL and Species Diversity

Table 1. Support practice factor (P factor) for each land use (Notification No. 2015-138 of the Ministry of Environment)

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_t0001.png 이미지

Table 2. Environment variables list applied to MaxEnt model

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_t0002.png 이미지

Table 3. Relative contribution of the environmental variables to the MaxEnt model (Rana dybowskii)

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_t0003.png 이미지

Table 4. Conservation goal value for each species

HKBOB5_2018_v21n6_55_t0004.png 이미지


Supported by : 한국환경산업기술원


  1. Ardron, J. A..H. P. Possingham and C. J. Klein. 2010. Marxan Good Practices Handbook, Version 2. Pacific Marine Analysis and Research Association (June) : 165.
  2. Baillie, J..C. Hilton-Taylor and S. N. Stuart (Editors). 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. A Global Species Assessment. Page Earth. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  3. Beazley, K..L. Smandych.T. Snaith.F. Mackinnon.P. Austen-Smith and P. Duinker. 2005. Biodiversity considrations in conservation system planning: map-based approach for nova scotia, Canada. Ecological Applications 15(6) : 2192-2208.
  4. Berry, P..Y. Ogawa-Onishi and A. McVey. 2013. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity. Biology 2(3) : 872-893.
  5. Choi, S. K..S. J. Lim and Y. C. Park. 2018. Environmental Factors Affecting Habitat Selection of the Endangered Japanese Paradise Flycatcher(Terpsiphone atrocaudata). Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 52(1) : 45-52. (In Korean)
  6. Do, M. S..H. Jang.D. Kim.K. Koo.S. Lee and H. Nam. 2018. The Study on habitat analysis and ecological niche of Korean Brown Frogs (Rana dybowskii, R. coreana and R. huanrensis) using the species distribution model. Korean Journal of Herpetology 9(June) : 1-11. (In Korean)
  7. Elith, J..C. H. Graham.R. P. Anderson.M. Dudik.A. Guisan.R. J. Hijmans.F. Huettmann.J. R. Leathwick.A. Lehmann.J. Li.L. G. Lohmann.B. A. Loiselle.G. Manion.M. Nakamura.Y. Nakazawa.J. M. Overton.A. Townsend.S. J. Phillips.K. Richardson.R. Scachetti-pereira.E. Robert.J. Soberon.S. Williams.J. Elith.C. H. Graham.R. P. Anderson.M. Dudik.S. Ferrier.A. Guisan.R. J. Hijmans.F. Huettmann.J. R. Leathwick.A. Lehmann.J. Li.L. G. Lohmann.B. A. Loiselle.G. Manion.C. Moritz.M. Nakamura.Y. Nakazawa.J. M. Overton.A. T. Peterson.S. J. Phillips.K. Richardson.R. Scachetti-pereira.R. E. Schapire.J. Sobern.S. Williams.M. S. Wisz and N. E. Zimmermann. 2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species' distributions from occurrence data. ECOGRAPHY 29 : 129-151.
  8. Game, E. T. and H. S. Grantham. 2008. Marxan User Manual: For Marxan version 1.8.10.
  9. Gardner, T. A..J. Barlow and C. A. Peres. 2007. Paradox, presumption and pitfalls in conservation biology: The importance of habitat change for amphibians and reptiles. Biological Conservation 138 : 166-179.
  10. Heo, J..I. Kim.J. Kim.H. Lee.S. Jeong.N. Ra.J. Lee and D. Park. 2013. Climate Parameters Influencing the Breeding Migration of Rana huarenesis and Hynobius leechii in Woraksan National Park. Korean Journal of Herpetology : 35-36. (In Korean)
  11. Jeong, S..C. H. Park.D. Woo.D. K. Lee.C. Seo and H. G. Kim. 2015. Selecting Core Areas for Conserving Riparian Habitat Using Habitat Suitability Assessment for Eurasian Otter. J. Korean Env. Res. Tech. 18(2) : 19-32. (In Korean)
  12. Kee, K.-D. 2012. Abnormal Climate and Landslide in South Korea. Journal of climate research 7 : 119-135. (In Korean)
  13. Kim, G..S. Kong.O. S. Kim.S. W. Son and E. J. Lee. 2017. A Strategy on Extracting Terrestrial Protected Areas of the Republic of Korea under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Journal of the Association of Korean Geographers 6(3) : 407-423. (In Korean)
  14. Kim, H..D. Lee.Y. Mo.S. Kil and C. Park. 2013. Prediction of Landslides Occurrence Probability under Climate Change using MaxEnt Model. J. Environ. Impact Assess 22(1) : 39-50. (In Korean)
  15. Kim, J.-H..K.-T. Kim and J.-W. Lee. 2011. Development of Soil Erosion Analysis Systems Based on Cloud and HyGIS. Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies 14(4): 63-76. (In Korean)
  16. Kim, J.-H..C. Lee.K. Kim and Y. Choi. 2007. The Soil Loss Analysis using Landcover of WAMIS. Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies 10(4) : 122-131. (In Korean)
  17. Kim, J..J. Yoon.J. Park.J. Choi and J. Yoon. 2018. Utilizing the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) Technique Comparative Analysis of Soil Erosion Risk in the Geumhogang Riparian Area. Korean Journal of Remote Sensing 34(2) : 179-190. (In Korean)
  18. Knutson, M. G..J. R. Sauer.D. a Olsen.M. J. Mossman.L. a Hemesath and M. J. Lannoo. 1999. Effects of landscape composition and wetland fragementation on frog and toad abundance and species richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, United States of America. Conservation Biology 13(6) : 1437-1446.
  19. Ku, J..J.-H. Ra.J.-H. Kim.S.-J. Lee and O.-S. Kwon. 2015. Relation Analysis with Nature Conservation and Flood Prevention for Land Mosaic Scenarios Assessment. Journal of the Korean Institute of Forest Recreation 19(1) : 93-107. (In Korean)
  20. Kwon, W.-T..K.-O. Boo and I. Heo. 2007. Climate Change during the recent 10 years in Korea. Journal of Korea Water Resources Association: 278-280. (In Korean)
  21. Lee, S.-H. 2013. Conservation Plan for Landscapes of the Surrounding Areas, National Park. Proc. Korean Soc. Environ. Ecol. Con. 23(2) : 19-20. (In Korean)
  22. Mo, Y..J. H. Park.Y.-H. Son and D. K. Lee. 2016. Establishment of Additional Protected Areas and Applying Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) for Sustainability of Suncheonman-Bay. J. Korean Env. Res. Tech. 19(1) : 171-184. (In Korean)
  23. NIBR. 2011. Red Data Book of Endangered Amphibians and Reptiles in Korea. Page National Institute of Biological Resources.
  24. NIBR. 2014. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. NIBR & Korean National Red List Committee 11.
  25. Nishida, H..J. Yokoyama.S. J. Wagstaff and P. Callomon. 2017. Disaster and Biodiversity.
  26. Park, S.-C..B.-H. Han and J.-I. Kwak. 2015. Studies on the Management Plan in Urban Ecological Protected Area of Seoul. J. KILA 43(6) : 109-126.
  27. Park, S. D. and S. S. Shin. 2011. Applying Evaluation of Soil Erosion Models for Burnt Hillslopes-RUSLE, WEPP and SEMMA. J. of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers B 31(3B) : 221-232. (In Korean)
  28. Park, S. D..K. S. Lee and S. S. Shin. 2012. Statistical Soil Erosion Model for Burnt Mountain Areas in Korea-RUSLE Approach. J. Hydrol. Eng. 17(2) : 292-304.
  29. Phillips, S. J..R. P. Anderson and R. E. Echapire. 2006. Modelling and analysis of the atmospheric nitrogen deposition in North Carolina. Ecological Modeling 190 : 231-259.
  30. Renard, K. G..G. R. Foster.G. A. Weesies.D. K. McCool and D. C. Yoder. 1997. Predicting Soil Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning With the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook No. 703.
  31. Semlitsch, R. D. and J. R. Bodie. 2003. Biological Criteria for Buffer Zones around Wetlands and Riparian Habitats for Amphibians and Reptiles. Conservation Biology 17(5) : 1219-1228.
  32. Shim, W. J. and S. J. Park. 2018. Applicability of Soil Erosion Models in Korean Environmental Conditions using the 137 Cs Method. Journal of the Korean Geographical Society 53(1) : 1-18. (In Korean)
  33. Shin, M..R. Jang.C. Seo and M. Lee. 2015. A Comparative Study on Species Richness and Land Suitability Assessment. J. Environ. Impact Assess 24(1) : 35-50. (In Korean)
  34. Shin, S. S..S. D. Park.J. S. Lee and K. S. Lee. 2013. SEMMA Recision to Evaluate Soil Erosion on Mountainous Watershed of Large Scale. J. Korea Resources Association 46(9) : 885-896. (In Korean)
  35. Sidle, R. C..T. Gomi.M. Akasaka and K. Koyanagi. 2017. Ecosystem changes following the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes in Japan: Future perspectives. Ambio: 1-14. Springer Netherlands.
  36. Wischmeier, W. H. and D. D. Smith. 1965. Predicting Rainfall-Erosion Losses From Cropland east of the Rocky Mountains: Guide for Selection of Practices for Soil and Water Conservation. Page Agriculture handbook no. 282, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUTURE.
  37. Wischmeier, W. H. and D. D. Smith. 1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses - A Guide to Conservation Planning. Page Agriculture handbook no. 537, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGHRICULTURE.
  38. Yoon, J.-S. and J.-H. Koh. 2017. Analysis of Heavy Rain Hazard Risk Based on Local Heavy Rain Characteristics and Hazard Impact. Journal of Cadastre & Land InformatiX 47(1) : 37-51. (In Korean)
  39. Notification No. 2015-138 of the Ministry of Environment,