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Meta Analysis of STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Mathematics) Program Effect on Student Learning

융합인재교육(STEAM) 프로그램이 학생에 미친 효과에 대한 메타분석

  • Received : 2018.11.14
  • Accepted : 2018.12.19
  • Published : 2018.12.31

Abstract

This study examined overall effect of STEAM programs on student learning through meta-analysis of journal articles published for the past six years. We examined the areas of effects that the research tested and analyzed overall effect across the research. We first identified academic journal articles that utilized quasi-experimental design in examining STEAM effects on student learning and presented appropriate data for meta-analysis such as effect size. A total of 63 articles were identified to be appropriate for meta-analysis. Using R packages, we first identified outliers and eliminated them in the analysis of mean effect size. Thus, 172 effect sizes from 60 studies were analyzed. The results showed that the mean effect was medium (effect size = 0.52). Analysis showed that moderators of the effect were affective measures, thinking skills, character measures, and career aspirations, which meant the studies that measured these variables had more effect than achievement measures. On the other hand, the school level (elementary, middle, and high school), the absence or presence of student products as program requirements, hours of intervention, and sample size did not moderate the effect. Thus, regardless of these variables STEAM programs produced medium effect in general. Based on these results, further research areas and topics are suggested.

이 연구에서는 지난 6년간 국내 학술지에 보고된 STEAM 수업의 효과에 대한 연구들이 확인한 효과의 전반적인 영역을 검토하고 어떤 변인들이 어떤 영향을 주어 어느 정도의 효과를 평균적으로 산출하는지 분석하여 전체적인 STEAM의 효과를 분석하였다. 메타분석에 충분한 자료를 제시하는 논문을 파악 후 이상치가 제시된 논문을 제외한 총 60편의 172개의 효과크기를 분석하였다. 연구 결과 STEAM의 효과는 논문에서 보고하는 다양한 종속 변수에 있어서 평균 중간 정도임을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 효과크기에 영향을 주는 조절변인을 분석한 결과 학생의 정의적 특성, 사고력, 인성 및 진로의향을 측정하는 연구에서 보다 큰 효과크기를 보이는 것으로 드러났다. 한편, 대상 학생의 학교급, 수업에서 물리적 산출물 유무, 수업시수, 연구대상 학생의 수는 효과크기에 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 드러났다. 즉, 평균 효과크기는 이들 변인들과 무관하게 기대할 수 있음을 나타낸다. 이들 결과에 비추어 추후 필요한 연구영역 및 주제를 제시하였다.

Keywords

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Figure 1. Influence before elimination of outliers (N=183)

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Figure 2. SAMD statistic results

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Figure 3. Funnel plots before and after outlier elimination

Table 1. Definition of moderators and coding results

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Table 2. Mean effect size for combined dependent variables

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Table 3. Results of hierarchical meta-regression analysis of moderators

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