Effects of Vegetative Buffers on Reducing Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss of Highland Field in Korea

고랭지밭의 토양침식 저감을 위한 완충식생대의 효과

  • 진용익 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원 고령지농업연구센터) ;
  • 이정태 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원 고령지농업연구센터) ;
  • 이계준 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원 고령지농업연구센터) ;
  • 황선웅 (국립식량과학원 벼맥류부) ;
  • 장용선 (국립농업과학원) ;
  • 박창영 (국립식량과학원 기능성작물부) ;
  • 서명철 (국립식량과학원 기능성작물부) ;
  • 류종수 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원 고령지농업연구센터) ;
  • 정진철 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원 고령지농업연구센터) ;
  • 정일민 (건국대학교)
  • Received : 2009.07.13
  • Accepted : 2009.08.12
  • Published : 2009.08.28

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vegetative buffer to reduce runoff and soil and nutrient loss at highland agricultural area. The soil of experimental field was classified as Ungyo series (Fine, Humic Hapludults). An area of each field with lysimeter was $50m^2(width\;2.5m{\times}length\;20m)$ and was a gradient of 17%. Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) was cultivated by general management in each field. For establishing vegetative buffer, rye (Secalecereale L.), tall fescue (Festucaarundinacea Schreb) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) were planted at the edge of field. Rye buffers were 1m, 2m and 4m wide. Both orchard grass and tall fescue buffers were 2m wide. Vegetative buffers were set up in September 2005 and chinese cabbage was planted in June 2006. Soil loss, runoff and nutrient loss were measured from June to August in 2006. Since the precipitation amount was heavy in July, amounts of runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss were the highest in July during this study period. In comparison with control, vegetative buffers of rye 2m, orchard grass 2m and tall fescue 2m reduced runoff by 3%, 1% and 2%, respectively. In comparison among width of rye buffer, rye 1m, rye 2m, and rye 4m reduced by 1%, 4% and 13%, respectively. Vegetative buffers of rye 2m, orchard grass 2m and tall fescue 2m showed the reducing of soil loss by 59%, 46% and 28%, respectively. In comparison among width of rye buffer, the highest reducing effect of 88% was observed in 4m treatment. Additionally, vegetative buffer reduced N, P and K losses in runoff and eroded soil which were 10 to 54%, 7 to 24% and 11 to 21%, respectively. In different widths, wider vegetative buffer showed lower loss of N, P and K in runoff and eroded soil. As a result of this study, the vegetative buffer of rye was most effective for reducing runoff and soil loss in comparisons with other plants. In addition, wider range of buffers recommended for reducing runoff and soil loss, if possible.

본 연구는 고랭지 경사밭에서 발생하는 유거수량, 토양유실, 영양물질 유출량을 감소시키는 완충식생대의 효과를 연구하기 위하여 수행하였다. 시험에 사용된 포장의 토양은 운교통이고, 가로 2.5m, 세로 20m인 무저 lysimeter에서 시험하였다. 연구포장은 경사율 17%를 가진 경사밭이며, 배추를 재배하였다. 완충식생대로 이용된 초종은 Rye(Secale cereale L.), Tallfescue(Festuca arundinacea Schreb) Orchardgrass(Dactylis glomerata L.)이다. 이들은 경사밭 아래 부분에 조성되었다. 호밀 식생대의 폭은 1m, 2m, 4m를 두었고, Orchard grass와 Tall fescue는 2m로 설정하였다. 완충식생대를 조성하기 위해 각 초종을 2005년 9월에 파종하였고, 배추는 2006년 6월에 정식하였다. 토양유실량, 유거수량, 영양물질 유출량의 측정은 2006년 6월부터 8월까지 수행하였다. 유거수량, 토양유실량 및 영양물질 유실량은 강우가 집중된 7월에 가장 높았다. 유거수를 감소시키는 완충식생대의 효과를 대조구와 비교해 볼 때, 2m로 폭이 같은 완충식생대에서 호밀은 3%, Orchard grass는 1%, Tall fescue는 2% 저감 효과가 있었다. 폭이 다른 호밀 완충식생대간의 비교에서, 1m는 1%, Rye 2m는 3%, Rye 4m는 13%의 저감효과가 나타나 Rye 4m의 효과가 가장 좋았다. 토양유실저감측면에서 대조구와 비교할 때, 2m 완충식생대 중 호밀식생대는 59%, Orchard grass 46%, Tall fescue 28% 토양유실을 줄이는 것으로 나타나 같은 폭에서 호밀식생대의 효과가 가장 좋았다. 폭이 다른 호밀 식생대의 비교에서 1m는 62%, 2m는 60%, 4m는 88%의 토양유실 저감 효과가 나타나, 4m의 효과가 토양유실을 저감하는데 가장 좋은 효과를 보였다. 한편, 유거수와 토양에서 발생한 N, P, K 유출 저감에서는 호밀 2m완충식생대에서 각각 54%, 16%, 11%, Orchard grass는 각각 22%, 24%, 22%를, Tall fescue는 10%, 7%, 12% 영양물질유출을 줄였다. 호밀완충식생 중에서 폭이 큰 4m에서 영양물질 유출저감효과가 가장 좋았다. 이 연구의 결과, 유거수량, 토양유실 저감효과는 호밀완충식생대가 다른 초종의 식생대보다 좋아서 유거수, 토양유실 그리고 영양물질 유출 저감을 위해 폭이 큰 호밀완충식생대의 설치가 효과적이라 생각된다.

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