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Association of Nutrient Intake and Pregnancy Outcome with Gestational Weight Gain (임신 중 체중증가에 따른 영양섭취 및 임신결과와의 관련성)

  • Han, Young-Sun;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2010
  • Gestational age and infant birth weight are influenced by gestational weight gain. This study was aimed to examine the effects of gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant women were recruited at two hospitals in Seoul area. Characteristics and dietary intakes of pregnant women were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Gestational weight gain was categorized as less (Under-gain) than, within (Recommended gain), or greater (Over-gain) than the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Maternal height and pre-pregnancy weight in the over-gain group significantly higher than under-gain and recommended gain group. Mini dietary assessment score of eating bean has significantly higher in under-gain group than recommended gain group and eating kimchi has significantly higher in undergain group than over-gain group. Score of eating fruit was significantly higher in over-gain group than other groups. The mean intake of carbohydrate in the recommended gain group were significantly higher than under-gain group, and mean intake of potassium in the over-gain group were significantly higher than under-gain group. Under-gain group showed the high rate of the preterm delivery and low birth weight infant delivery. However recommended gain group showed 46% reduced risk of preterm delivery (OR = 0.54 CI = 0.30-0.98). Risk of macrosomia increased with increasing gestational weight gain (p for trend < 0.05). In conclusion, pregnancy outcomes were influenced by gestational weight gain. Therefore, these finding suggested adequate gestational weight gain according to BMI for reducing the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and macrosomia.

Comparison of Eating Habits Based on Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Centered on Recommended Standards of the Institute of Medicine (임신 중 체중증가에 따른 식습관 비교 - IOM 권고기준을 중심으로 -)

  • Oh, Jeong-Shin;Cho, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.99-117
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate weight gain during pregnancy based on pre-pregnant Body Mass Index, to compare eating habits based on the recommended standards for weight gain presented by the Institute of Medicine, and to identify factors affecting the weight gain of pregnant women. The subjects were grouped into three categories according to the recommended weight gain standards presented by the Institute of Medicine: the inadequate group, the adequate group and the excessive group. The excessive group had a significantly higher pre-pregnant Body Mass Index than that of the two other groups. Based on a comparison of the eating habits and nutrient intake of the women to the recommended standards for weight gain, the excessive gain group had large meals and ate more frequently outside of the home when compared to the pre-pregnancy period. Based on an analysis of correlations between weight gain during pregnancy and diet factors, the adequate gain group had positive correlation between weight gain and a "balanced meal" and had negative correlation with "convenience meals". The excessive gain group had a positive correlation with "convenience meals" and had a negative correlation with "meal skipping." All the pregnant women were more frequent in the "overeating categories" and all ate more "fruit," as their weight gain was higher. In particular, the excessive gain group was frequently evaluated as "overeating". These results indicate that the factors affecting weight gain during pregnancy were the Body Mass Index before pregnancy, eating types, and eating habits. As the Body Mass Index before pregnancy was higher, the ingestion of a 'balanced meal' was less, and overeating and gluttony were more frequent. Therefore weight gain was enhanced.

Maternal Weight Gain Pattern and Birth Weight (임신 삼분기별 산모의 체중 증가 양상과 신생아 체중과의 상관 관계)

  • Kim, Mok-Jin;Lee, Ho-Yeol;Lee, Young-Gi;Park, Yoon-Kee;Lee, Doo-Jin;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 1998
  • Maternal weight gain during pregnancy has been consistently associated with infant birth weight and pregnancy outcome. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between maternal weight gain pattern and birth weight. Consequently, maternal weight gain is monitored carefully and is encouraged during prenatal care in order to improve pregnancy outcome. Our study group included both 424 uncomplicated women and infant delivered at the Yeungnam University Hospital between 1993-1996. All recorded prenatal weight gain measurements were used to estimate maternal trimester weight gain, pattern of gain (based on low versus not-low gain at each trimester), and total gain at delivery. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between these weight gain measurements and fetal birth weight. Each kilogram of maternal gain in the first, second, and third trimesters was associated with statistically related to the increase in fetal birth weight by 31.3, 19.0, and 24.5g, respectively. When compaired with the pattern of gain that was not low in any trimester, patterns with low gain in the first trimesters were associated with significant decreases in birth weight, but no important change in birth weight was seen for the group whose gains were not low in the first trimester. The results suggest that specific patterns of maternal weight gain, particularly weight gain during the first trimester, are related to fetal birth weight.

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The Relationship between the Infant Birth Weight and the Body Weight Gain during Pregnancy of Women in the Taegu Area (임신부 체중증가와 신생아 체중과의 관계)

  • 정효지;김은정;최봉순;최경호;신정자;윤성도
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.522-529
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to find the factors which are related to the weight gain during pregnancy of women and infant birth weight. The information of the general characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of the 506 women who had a delivery during Jan to Dec, 1997 in a hospital at Taegu area were collected from the medical records. The results are as follows. The mean age of the subjects was 29 years old and the average prepregnancy weight was 52.75kg. They gained 13.51kg of weight during the pregnancy. The weight gain during pregnancy was higher in prepregnancy BMI<20kg/m$^2$, the infant weight was heavier in groups that had over 14kg of weight gain during the pregnancy than other groups. The prepregnancy BMI was negatively correlated to weight gain during pregnancy(r=0.2825), and positively correlated to number of pregnancy(r=0.2146), number of living delivery(r=0.1409), and infant weight(r=0.1250). The baby weight was Positively correlated to weight gain during pregnancy(r=0.1392) and Apgar score(r=0.1627). The results showed that the prepregnancy BMI and weight gain during pregnancy may be the influential factors on the infant weight, thus we need to develop the specific nutritional management program according to the status of prepregnancy weight.

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Anthropometric and Body Compositional Measurements and Pregnancy Outcomes (임신부의 체위와 체조성 및 임신의 결과)

  • 이종임;임현숙;조영숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1057-1065
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    • 1998
  • Anthropometric and body compositional changes and the outcomes of the pregnancies of 90 healthy Korean women were investigated in a longitudinal study. Their weight increased from 51.3$\pm$5.9kg to 65.1$\pm$7.8kg during their pregnancies. The total weight gain was 13.8$\pm$4.5kg, and therefore, weekly weight gain was 340$\pm$110g during the entire period of the pregnancy. The weight gain was composed of approximately 50-60% fat mass and 40-50% fat-free mass. Skinfold thicknesses, both of triceps and subscapular, increased during the pregnancies. The fat mass calculated from skinfold thickness and that measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis went on increasing during the pregnancies. Although there was a considerable difference with respect to the fat mass observed using the three methods, fat mass gain was 5.0-6.1kg and fat-free mass gain was 4.0-5.3kg from the first trimester to the third trimester of pregnancies. There were significant correlations between maternal anthropometric parameters and indices of pregnancy outcomes. Especially, the infant's birth weight was associated with maternal pre-pregnancy weight and weight gains during the pregnancies. The infant's birth length was related to the maternal weight observed at term(p<0.05) and weight gain during the entire pregnancies (p<0.05) . Neither increase of fat mass nor fat-free mass affected the outcomes of pregnancy. These results show that maternal weight gain during pregnancy is led by increments of approximately above 50% fat mass. The fat mass increase seems to be larger in central areas than in subcutaneous areas. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy, especially during late pregnancy, is a factor affecting the birth weight and length of infant. On the basis of the body compositional changes, it can be predicted that the additional energy requirement for pregnancy in Korean women is more than 200-230 MJ (64,500-76,250kca1). (Korean J Nutrition 31(6) : 1057-1065, 1998)

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Postnatal weight gain in the first two weeks as a predicting factor of severe retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment

  • Kim, Jongmoon;Jin, Jang Yong;Kim, Sung Shin
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the relative weight gain at 2-week intervals up to 6 weeks after birth to predict retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment among very low birth weight infants. Methods: A total of 211 preterm infants with birth weights <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome was the development of ROP requiring treatment. Body weight measurements were recorded daily. Relative weight gains (g/kg/day) were calculated at the second, fourth, and sixth week after birth. Results: Of the 211 infants, 89 developed ROP, of which 41 spontaneously regressed and 48 with early treatment of ROP type I required laser treatment. The relative weight gain at 2, 4, and 6 weeks postnatal age was significantly lower in infants with ROP requiring treatment than in infants without ROP or those with spontaneous regression (P<0.001, P=0.005, and P=0.004, respectively). On logistic regression, poor relative weight gain in the first 2 weeks was found to be related to ROP requiring treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 0.809; 95% confidence interval, 0.695-0.941; P=0.006). Relative weight gain at 2 weeks postnatal age was significantly lower in infants with ROP requiring treatment compared to that in ROP requiring no treatment (P=0.012). Conclusion: Poor postnatal weight gain in the first 2 weeks of life is an important and independent risk factor for ROP requiring treatment. Postnatal weight gain can predict the development of severe ROP requiring treatment.

Maternal anthropometric measurements and other factors: relation with birth weight of neonates

  • Tabrizi, Fatemeh Moghaddam;Saraswathi, G.
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.132-137
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to examine the influence of anthropometric measurements of pregnant women, gestational weight gain, fundal height, and maternal factors, namely age, education, family income, parity along with maternal hemoglobin, on birth weight of neonates. A cross sectional study was performed in Khoy City in north west of Iran. Four hundred and fifty healthy pregnant women in the age between 16-40 years were selected for this study from seven health urban centers and one referral hospital. Findings showed that the mean age, height, fundal height, maternal weight, and gestational weight gain during pregnancy were 26.1 years, 159.1 cm, 32.9 cm, 72.0 kg, 11.8 kg respectively. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.2 kg and 11% of neonates showed low birth weight. Age, family income, maternal height, weight, gestational weight gain and fundal height were significantly associated with birth weight of neonates. Using binary logistic regression analysis, fundal height, maternal hemoglobin, family income and gestational weight gain of pregnant women could be considered as predictive factors of birth weight of neonates.

Weight Gain Study of Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Relation to Gestational Age and Birth Weight (출생시 체중과 재태기간에 따른 극소 저출생 체중아의 체중 변화)

  • Kim Hae-Soon;Shin Yeong-Hee
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of gestational age and birth weight with weight gain of very low birth weight infants(VLBWI) during their hospital stay. Method: This is a 5 year retrospective study of which data were collected through review of medical records. Subjects were 124 VLBW infants with a birth weight more than 1000g and less than 1500g who received neonatal intensive care at the university hospital between January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2001. Result: After calculating the z scores of birth weights and discharge weights, z scores of discharge weight and birth weight were compared with the median weight of a fetus of comparable gestational age based on an intrauterine growth reference. There was a significant difference between z scores of birth weight and discharge weight(t=11.60, df=122, p=0.000). Regardless of intensive care during the prolonged hospital stay, VLBW infants showed slow growth rate compared with the median weight of a fetus of comparable gestational age. Conclusion: VLBW infants developed a poor velocity of weight gain during the prolonged hospital stay after birth. The development worsened during the period of physiological weight loss and regain, and they did not reach to comparable growth rate of normal fetus even at the time of discharge. This poor growth velocity of VLBW infants influence negatively for their future growth. Therefore nureses who work at the neonatal intensive care unit must develop an effective nursing intervention protocol to promote the velocity of weight gain and to conduct the parental educational sessions to emphasize the importance of weight gain for VLBW infants at home.

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Exosomal Protein Profiles as Novel Biomarkers in Weight Gain After Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study

  • Cho, Young-Eun;Lee, Hyangkyu;Kim, Hyungsuk;Yun, Sijung;Cashion, Ann
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2020
  • Purpose:Weight gain after kidney transplantation is a critical factor that can lead to poor outcomes with cardiovascular complications. Many studies have been conducted to identify predictive markers of future weight changes at the time of transplant. Recently, circulating exosomes and its contents including miRNAs and proteins have attracted attention as potential biomarkers. In this pilot study, we investigated exosomal proteins and weight change after kidney transplant. Methods: Recipients (n = 10) were classified into two groups; weight gainers (n = 5, 9.7 ± 4.4kg) and weight losers (n = 5, -6.4 ± 1.8kg) based on their weight changes at 12-months posttransplant. Based on the exosomal protein profiles obtained by the LC-MS/MS, differentially expressed proteins were identified between the groups. Results: Concentration and the mean size of exosomes significantly increased at 12-months compared to the baseline (p= .009) in the total group. Eleven exosomal proteins were found at the baseline as differentially expressed between the two groups. In the weight gain group, complement proteins including HV169, C3, C4B, and C4A, were significantly upregulated. Conclusion: Our pilot study suggests that exosomal complementary proteins are associated with weight gain after kidney transplantation. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these exosomal proteins in the underlying mechanisms of weight changes in kidney transplant recipients.

Association between Maternal Feeding Practices and Excessive Weight Gain in Infants

  • Ra, Jin Suk
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.90-98
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the association between maternal feeding practices and excessive weight gain in infants. Methods: This study adopted a cross-sectional design and included 240 pairs of mothers and their infants (129 boys and 111 girls) in public healthcare centers in the Daejeon area in South Korea. Via multivariate analyses, the association between maternal feeding practices and excessive weight gain in infants was identified. Results: Among 240 infants in this study, 39 (16.3%) infants gained excessive weight during 12 months after birth. Using multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for covariates, more than 7 months of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a reduced likelihood of excessive weight gain in infants during the 12 months after birth (adjusted odds ratio: 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.02~0.81, p=.029). Conclusion: Based on these results, nurses in communities and clinics should educate mothers on the importance of longer durations of exclusive breast feeding and develop strategies for encouraging such behavior. Furthermore, support for exclusive breast feeding should be provided in various settings.