• Title, Summary, Keyword: shade effect

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The influence of shade allocation or total shade plus overhead fan on growth performance, efficiency of dietary energy utilization, and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle under tropical ambient conditions

  • Castro-Perez, Beatriz I.;Estrada-Angulo, Alfredo;Rios-Rincon, Francisco G.;Nunez-Benitez, Victor H.;Rivera-Mendez, Carlos R.;Urias-Estrada, Jesus D.;Zinn, Richard A.;Barreras, Alberto;Plascencia, Alejandro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.1034-1041
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of shade allocation and shade plus fan on growth performance, dietary energy utilization and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle under tropical ambient conditions Methods: Two trials were conducted, involving a total of 1,560 young bulls (289±22 kg BW) assigned to 24 pens (65 bulls/pen and 6 pens/treatment). Pens were 585 ㎡ with 15 m fence line feed bunks. Shade treatments (㎡ shade/animal) were: i) limited shade (LS) to 1.2 ㎡ shade/animal (LS1.2); ii) limited shade to 2.4 ㎡ shade/animal (LS2.4); iii) total shade (TS) which correspond to 9 ㎡/animal, and iv) total shade equipped with fans (TS+F). Trials lasted 158 and 183 days. In both studies, the average weekly maximum temperature exceeded 34℃. Results: Increasing shade allocation tended (p = 0.08) to linearly increases average daily gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI, quadratic effect, p = 0.03). This effect was most apparent between LS1.2 and LS2.4. Shade allocation, per se, did not affect gain efficiency or estimated dietary net energy (NE). Compared with TS, TS+F increased (p<0.05) ADG, gain efficiency, and tended (p = 0.06) to increase dietary NE. There was a quadratic effect of shade on longissimus area and marbling score, with values being lower (p<0.01) for LS2.4 than for LS1.2 or TS. Likewise, marbling score was lower for TS+F than for TS. Percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart (KPH) linearly decreased with increasing shade. In contrast, KPH was greater for TS than for TS+F. Conclusion: Providing more than 2.4 ㎡ shade/animal will not further enhance feedlot performance. The use of fans in combination with shade increases ADG and gain efficiency beyond that of shade, alone. These enhancements were not associated with increased DMI, but rather, to an amelioration of ambient temperature humidity index on maintenance energy requirement.

Effect of Shade Net on Reduction of Freezing Damage at a Tea Garden (차밭에 설치된 차광망의 동해경감 효과)

  • Hwang, Jung-Gyu;Kim, Yong-Duck
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.146-154
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    • 2014
  • In the result of effect on freezing damage reduction by the shade net colors and the shade rate to tea trees during wintering period, the high shade ratio decreased tea trees growth and increased freezing damage and 55% of shade ratio based on non treatment developed new leafs and green leaf productivity. By the shade net colors, colorless shade net (55% of shade type) treatment and green shade net treatment increased green leaf productivity and decreased damaged area compare to non treatment shade net and black shade net treatment. Colorless net shade treatment reduced over 50% of freezing damage and increased (10a) 68 kg for green leaf productivity compare to non treatment shade net. The colors of shade net treatments for reduction freezing damaged in order of Black < Green < Colorless but reduction of freezing damage was so high. In the relative microclimates, treatment shade nets were $0.7^{\circ}C$ lower, average relatively humidity 14.9% higher, soil temperature $0.6^{\circ}C$ lower and soil moisture 4.6% higher than non treatment shade net. And treatment shade nets decreased average wind speed 0.7 m/s and it showed us treatment net shades effected to excessive evapotranspiration and soil dry by wind and considered one of good solution for freezing damages.

Effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations: in vitro study of color masking ability

  • Oh, Seon-Hee;Kim, Seok-Gyu
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.368-374
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    • 2015
  • PURPOSE. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type on the final shade of zirconia all-ceramic restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three different types of disk-shaped zirconia coping specimens (Lava, Cercon, Zirkonzahn: ${\phi}10mm{\times}0.4mm$) were fabricated and veneered with IPS e.max Press Ceram (shade A2), for total thicknesses of 1 and 1.5 mm. A total of sixty zirconia restoration specimens were divided into six groups based on their coping types and thicknesses. The abutment specimens (${\phi}10mm{\times}7mm$) were prepared with gold alloy, base metal (nickel-chromium) alloy, and four different shades (A1, A2, A3, A4) of composite resins. The average $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$ values of the zirconia specimens on the six abutment specimens were measured with a dental colorimeter, and the statistical significance in the effects of three variables was analyzed by using repeated measures analysis of variance (${\alpha}$=.05).The average shade difference (${\Delta}E$) values of the zirconia specimens between the A2 composite resin abutment and other abutments were also evaluated. RESULTS. The effects of zirconia specimen thickness (P<.001), abutment shade (P<.001), and type of zirconia copings (P<.003) on the final shade of the zirconia restorations were significant. The average ${\Delta}E$ value of Lava specimens (1 mm) between the A2 composite resin and gold alloy abutments was higher (close to the acceptability threshold of 5.5 ${\Delta}E$) than th ose between the A2 composite resin and other abutments. CONCLUSION. This in-vitro study demonstrated that abutment shade, ceramic thickness, and coping type affected the resulting shade of zirconia restorations.

A Quantitative Study on the Effect of Temperature Control by a Shade Tree and the Lawn Area (식물의 온도 완화효과에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • 안계복;김기선
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1986
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of temperature control by a shade tree and the lawn area. In this investigation, we find out that artificial-lawn, concerte, and exposed soil are more higher temperature than covered with plant materials. The results of the measurement may to summerized as follows; 1) Low-temperature effects of zoysia japonica is more controlled by condition of growth than leaf length of grass. Surface temperature make 0.7$^{\circ}C$ difference between long grass (15cm), and short grass (5cm), but make 5$^{\circ}C$ difference between good growth grass (230/10$\textrm{cm}^2$) and bad growth grass (80/10$\textrm{cm}^2$). 2) The surface temperature of the lawn area is 40.5$^{\circ}C$ lower on a maxinum than that of the artificial lawn (July 28, 1985). During the day of summer, shade area under the shade tree is 0.9$^{\circ}C$ lower then lawn area surface temperature, 6.9$^{\circ}C$ lower than bad growth lawn, 10.3$^{\circ}C$ lower than exposed soil, and 18$^{\circ}C$ lower than concrete surface temperature. 3) Natural irrigation effect on the surface temperature fluctuation. But this effect is changed by compositions of ground materials and time-lapse. 4) Sunny day is more effective than cloud day. 5) In summer season, surface temperature make a difference compare to temperature of 0.5-1.5m height from ground : Surface temperature is 3.4$^{\circ}C$ lower at the lawn area (11 a.m.), 4.2$^{\circ}C$ lower at the shade area the shade tree, 12.7$^{\circ}C$ higher at the concrete area (3p.m.), 38.8$^{\circ}C$ higher at the artificial lawn (2p.m.) 6) According to compositions of ground materials and season have specific vertical temperature distribution curve. 7) In summer season, temperature distribution of 0.5-1.5m hight at the shade tree is 4.8-5.7$^{\circ}C$ lower than concrete area (noon-3p.m.)

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Analysis of the Climate inside Multi-span Plastic Greenhouses under Different Shade Strategies and Wind Regimes

  • He, Keshi;Chen, Dayue;Sun, Lijuan;Huang, Zhenyu;Liu, Zhenglu
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.473-483
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    • 2014
  • In this work, the effects of shade combination, shade height and wind regime on greenhouse climate were quantified. A two-dimensional (2-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed based on an 11-span plastic greenhouse in eastern China for wind almost normal to the greenhouse orientation. The model was first validated with air temperature profiles measured in a compartmentalized greenhouse cultivated with mature lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., 'Yang Shan'). Next, the model was employed to investigate the effect of shade combinations on greenhouse microclimate patterns. Simulations showed similar airflow patterns in the greenhouse under different shade combinations. The temperature pattern was a consequence of convection and radiation transfer and was not significantly influenced by shade combination. The use of shade screens reduced air velocity by $0.02-0.20m{\cdot}s^{-1}$, lowered air temperature by $0.2-0.8^{\circ}C$ and raised the humidity level by 0.9-2.0% in the greenhouse. Moreover, it improved the interior climate homogeneity. The assessment of shade performance revealed that the external shade had good cooling and homogeneity performance and thus can be recommended. Furthermore, the effects of external shade height and wind regime on greenhouse climate parameters showed that external shade screens are suitable for installation within 1 m above roof level. They also demonstrated that, under external shade conditions, greenhouse temperature was reduced relative to unshaded conditions by $1.3^{\circ}C$ under a wind speed of $0.5m{\cdot}s^{-1}$, whereas it was reduced by merely $0.5^{\circ}C$ under a wind speed of $2.0m{\cdot}s^{-1}$. Therefore, external shading is more useful during periods of low wind speed.

A Study on Threshold of Hearing of Sun shade Motor Sound Using Masking Effect (마스킹 효과를 이용한 선셰이드 모터음의 최소가청치 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Hyeonho;Seong, Wonchan;Kim, Seonghyeon;Park, Dongchul;Kang, Yeonjune
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2013
  • Panaroma Sun roof's sun shade motor elicits two major sounds when operating: the tonal sound and the white noises. Generally, the sound related to the sharpness contributes the most to the quality of motors' tonal sound. The primary purpose of this study was to set the loudness of the motor's objective tonal sound utilizing the masking effect by its white noises. To conduct this study, the sound made by the operating sun shade motor was categorized into two different subsets of masker and test tone to examine the masking threshold. Also, the shifts of masking threshold were observed with the varying masker loudness.

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Effect of Shading on the Quality of Raw, Red and White Ginseng and the Contents of Some Minerals in Ginseng Roots (해가림 종류가 수삼, 홍삼 및 백삼의 품질과 무기물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영호;유연현
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 1990
  • The quality of raw, red and white ginseng and the contents of some minerals were examined using 6-year-old ginseng roots produced in different shades, thatch and polyethylene net (P..E.). The yield of first and second grade ginseng roots was higher in the thatch shade than in the P.E. shade. The smaller sizes of ginseng routs were probably due to loss of ginseng yield called by alternaria blight in the third and fourth years, and lower quality was dale to more rusty roots in the P.E. shading. For red ginseng. rates of heaven and earth grades were higher in the P.E. than thatch shade. producing red ginseng with less inside cavity Production of white ginseng was higher in the thatch shade than in the P.E. shade. showing a higher yield, better piece grade, lower inside crack and better quality index in the thatch. The contents of some minerals such as K, Ca, Mg and Mn of fine ginseng roots differed between the two shades, some of which had a significant correlation with the quality indices of white ginseng. Keywords Thatch shade, polyethylene shade, alternaria blight, rulsty root, quality of ginseng.

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A CORRELATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT SOURCE, BACKGROUND COLOR, AND TIME SPENT ON THE ABILITY TO MATCH TOOTH SHADE (광원(光源), 배경색(背景色), 소요시간(所要時間)이 치아색(齒牙色) 선택(選擇) 능력(能力)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kwon, Oh-Im
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 1978
  • Color is an important factor in dental esthetics. Application of natural tooth color will not fail to produce pleasing results. But a standardized method of shade matching has not been adopted. If we are to overcome the color matching problem in dentistry, an understanding of the nature of color and light is essential. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different light sources and different background colors on the ability of observers to correctly match shades of artifical teeth. And observation was made to determine if the time spent in making a shade match was a factor in the correctness of the response. A test method was devised and 50 individuals made observations which were recorded and analyzed. $X^2$-test gave results indicating that the time factor had no effect on the response made. An analysis of variance showed the following effects significant at the five percent level; (1) light source (2) background color (3) subject. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study; (1) The time spent in making shade selection is not a factor in the correctness of the selections. (2) The light source used is an important factor in matching tooth shade; and there is no significant difference between the light sources in shade matching. (3) Under the conditions of this study, the greatest accuracy in shade matching was obtained on the brown background.

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Effect of Different Light Intensities on the Growth and Leaf Gas Exchanges in Miscanthus sinensis and Pennisetum purpurascens (참억새 및 수크령의 광도차에 따른 생육변화 및 가스교환에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwack, Hye Ran;Lee, Jong Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 2004
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of light intensities on the growth responses, carbohydrate contents and the characteristics of leaf gas exchange in Miscanthus sinensis and Pennisetum purpurascens. The plant height and leaf length were increased to about 30% in the sun. However, those were reduced severely in the shade, and leaf necrosis was also observed. The representative growth index and the dry weight of 2 species were 50% higher than shade and the rate was reduced according to the decrease of light intensities. Total carbohydrate contents showed very similar changes to that of dry weight. However, any notable influences were observed at above the light intensities of 250~500${\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ in the half shade. The size of spikes and the earliest spiking appeared in the sun and the spike color was decolorized as decreased in light intensities, irrespective of species. Photosynthetic rate of 2 species was 2 times higher in the sun than those in the shade, and it showed the typical photoresponses of sun plant. Stomatal conductances and intercelluar $CO_2$ concetration showed similar changes to that of photosynthetic rate. On the contrary, vapor pressure deficit was increased more in the shade than in the sun.

Effect of Light Intensity and Temperature on the Growth and Root Yield of Panax ginseng (광도와 온도가 인삼의 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이종화
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 1988
  • This study was conducted to investigate the optimum temperature and light intensity of photosynthesis and transmittance in the shade for better growth and root yield of ginseng. The 3-year-old ginseng plants grown under the shade of 5, 10 and 20% transmittance did not show any significant difference in the stem length, stem diameter, leaf area and root length. The root diameter markedly increased under the shade of 10% and 20% transmittance, and the root was the heaviest under the shade of 20% transmittance. The 6-year-old ginseng plants grown at 20% transmittance showed the largest root diameter but the root length was not influenced by transmittance. The root was heaviest in the shade of 20% transmittance.

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