• Title, Summary, Keyword: retrograded starch(RS3)

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Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistant Rice RS3 on Quality and Textural Characteristics of Madeleine (효소저항성 쌀전분의 첨가가 마들렌의 품질 및 텍스처 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.191-201
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    • 2010
  • This study attempted to examine the application of retrograded starch (RS3) isolated from rice flour into Madeleine which is easy to make, supply enough energy and micro nutrients with adequate drinks, and prevent an adult disease. This could be a popular food to anyone regardless of age and gender who avoid rice and become high value-added, processed rice foods. For this, control Madeleine was made from wheat flour and an experimental one was made from 5 or 10% rice RS3 addition as well as wheat flour. Four different types of rice were produced from Premium Ho-Pyong Rice, that is, dry milled rice flour(RFD), soaked for 8 hours and milled, followed by air-dried rice flour(RFW), rice starch(RST), and retrograded rice starch or enzyme-resistant starch(RS3). The results found were as follows: Proximate compositions were decreased with soaking to make RFW, RST and RS3, compared to RFD. RS3 had the highest L, +a and ${\Delta}E$ with the lowest +b, changing it to a dark color, explaining the need for heat control during processing. At $80^{\circ}C$, the swelling power was shown in the order of RST>RFW>RFD>RS3 and the solubility of RS3 was the highest. There were significant differences in viscosities of peak, trough, cold, breakdown and total setback of all rice samples using RVA (p<0.001). Due to the pH of RS3, the Madeleine batter became acidic (p<.01) and expanded, resulting in more air cells and open texture. With an increasing RS3 level in Madeleine, several textural attributes among 'fresh' and 'stored at room temperature' Madeleine samples were significantly different by using Texture Analyzer. While the addition of RS3 in Madeleine did not significantly affect the sensory evaluation, indicating RS3 isolated from rice as a beneficial ingredient for processed rice products.

Action of ${\alpha}$-Amylase and Acid on Resistant Starches Prepared from Normal Maize Starch

  • Lim, Jin-Woo;Mun, Sae-Hun;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2005
  • Effects of acid and ${\alpha}$-amylase on resistant starches including retrograded RS3 and cross-linked RS4 prepared from normal maize starch were investigated. Acid and ${\alpha}$-amylase hydrolytic patterns of RS3 were similar, while those of native starch and RS4 differed. Acid hydrolysis rate of RS3 was markedly higher at initial stage, then slowly decreased up to 20 days, whereas that of RS4 increased continuously. The sizes of acid- and ${\alpha}$-amylase-treated RS3 residues decreased, but those of RS4 remained unchanged. X-ray patterns of all treated residues did not change; however, the peak intensities increased. Swelling power of RS3 increased to 150% at $95^{\circ}C$, whereas that of RS4 differed depending on the treatment condition. Swelling power of acid-treated RS4 residue increased markedly, but that of ${\alpha}$-amylase-treated one remained constant. Gel filtration chromatography profiles of untreated RS3 and RS4 residues were similar, whereas that of acid-treated RS4 residue was different from them. RS showed different hydrolytic behavior by acid and ${\alpha}$-amylase depending on the type, and susceptibility of RS3 was higher than that of RS4.

Influence of Amylose Content on Formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 1998
  • Influence of amylose content on formation and characteristics of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. RS yield increased up to 36.1 % as the amylose content of corn starch increased. Starch granules of Amyulomaize V and Ⅶ were more rounded and smaller than those of regular corn ; some were elongated and had appendages. After autoclaving -cooling cycles, the granular structure disappeared and a continous spongy-like porous network was visible in regular corn starch ; the granular structure was stillevident in parts in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches. In all isolated RS residues , the porous structures were no longer visible and more compact formations predominated. While regular corn starch showed an A-type X-ray profile, Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches exhibited a combination of B- and V-types. Regular corn starch lost most of its crystallinity during autoclaving , but the crystallinity was still left in Amylomaize starches as diffuse or poor B-types. All RS residues showed the presence of poor B-type regardless of amylose contents. Transition temperatures and enthalypy of native starches were a little higher in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches than those of regular corn starch . Regardless of amylose contents, all RS residues exhibited an endothermic transition over a similar temperature range (135 $^{\circ}C$~169$^{\circ}C$), with a mean peak temperature of ~154$^{\circ}C$, which is generally foud for retrograded amylose crystallities. Higher transition temperature, enthalypy, and RS yield of AMylomaize V and Ⅶ starches were related granular stability shown by the microscopic and crystallographic studies.

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Effects of Resistant Starch on the Viscosity and Stability of Fat-Free Dressing (무지방 드레싱의 점도와 안정성에 미치는 저항전분의 효과)

  • Song, Ji-Young;No, Jun Hee;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To develop fat-free dressing containing a resistant starch (RS) as a dietary fiber, the viscosity and stability of various type RSes prepared from wheat, maize, potato, rice, waxy rice, and amaranth starches were investigated by using Brookfield viscometer. The shape of RS granule in the dressing during storage was also observed. Methods: The viscosity of fat free dressing with different retrograded RS3 (RS3V) prepared from waxy rice starch with 0.1% lemon vinegar and ascorbate mixed solution had higher RS3 that was maintained constant during storage. Annealing and heating prior to cross-linking, and heating after cross-linking increased RS level of RS4 type starches. Results: The viscosities and stabilities of dressings with RS were different depending on starch sources and RS preparation conditions. The heated RS4 (HRS4) increased in viscosity and stability with RS4 addition. Especially the fat-free dressings with HRS4 prepared from rice and waxy rice starches maintained stability regardless of separation after one month storage with only 7% separation after 6 month storages. The shape of RS4 granule in acidic medium of dressing did not change until 6 months. Conclusion: In this study, RS4 made by the rice and waxy rice starches showed high viscosity and maintained stability of the fat-free dressings during storage.

Effects of Transglutaminase on the Physical Properties of Resistant Starch-added Wheat Flour Doughs and Baguettes

  • An, Young-Hyun;Gang, Dong-Oh;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.608-613
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    • 2005
  • Effects of transglutaminase (TG) on physicochemical properties of dough prepared with 20% resistant starch (RS)-added wheat flour were investigated. RS levels of wheat flours added with native wheat starch (NS), Hi-maize (RS2), retrograded (RS3), and cross-linked (RS4) wheat starches were 2.97, 11.88, 5.79, and 9.09%, respectively. Peak viscosity of NS-added flour was higher, whereas setback was lower, than those added with other resistant starches. TG had no effect on pasting behaviors of RS-added flours. Water absorption ranged from 66.5 to 79.0%, and development time increased with RS addition. TG increased tensile strength of dough after fermentation and bread volume, due to well-developed gluten network resulting from cross-linking facilitated by TG Addition of TG decreased hardness of baguettes, with RS2-added baguette showing lowest value. These results indicate addition of TG enhanced eating quality of RS-added breads.

Effect of Storage Conditions, Rice, Cooker and Oil Types on the Changes of Resistant Starch Contents of Cooked Rice (저장조건, 쌀, 조리기구와 유지 종류가 밥의 저항전분 함량 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Ren, Chuanshun;Kim, Ji Myoung;Park, Sara;Jeong, On Bit;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2016
  • The changes of resistant starch (RS) contents of cooked rice with soybean and coconut oils under different storage conditions were investigated and RS contents were compared between the rice and cooker types. The japonica (Hopyeong) and the indica (Thailand) type rice were cooked (washed rice: water = 100: 130) using an electric cooker and a saucepan. The coconut oil and soybean oil (3%, based on rice, w/w) were added into cooking water before heating. The RS contents of freeze-dried cooked rice powders (newly-cooked rice, stored for 12 h in the refrigerator, microwave heating after storage for 12 h in the refrigerator) were measured by the AOAC method. The RS contents of cooked rice using a saucepan were higher than those using an electric cooker. The indica type cooked rice had a higher RS content than the japonica type cooked rice, regardless of storage conditions. However, addition of oil before cooking rice resulted in increased RS content on storage in the refrigerator. The highest RS content of the cooked indica type rice with soybean oil ($5.89{\pm}0.22%$) that was stored for 12 h in the refrigerator was analyzed. The results suggested that the cooked rice formed retrograded (RS3) and amylose-lipid complex (RS5) type RS; furthermore, the RS content is affected by storage conditions, rice, cooker and oil types.

The Influence of the Annealing of Corn Starch on the formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 1999
  • The Physical properties of corn starch were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry during the formation of enzyme-resistant starch(RS). Samples were studied in their native states and after annealing at 50, 55, 60 and 65℃ in excess water(starch : water=1:3) for 48hr. Starch granules became smaller and more rounded after annealing than in their native state. Annealing did not change the X-ray profile of native corn starch. After autoclaving-cooling cycles, native starch lost most of its crystallinity but annealed ones showed some of their crystallinity left as diffuse or poor B-type, which didn't relate to increasing Rs yields. During formation of RS, however, both native and annealed starches changed their X-ray profile from A-type to poor B-type of retrograded amylose. Annealing caused an increase in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy, but a narrowing of gelatinization temperature range. Only starch annealed at 65℃, however, showed a decrease in enthalpy even though its gelatinization temperature increased, which appeared to be due to the partial gelatinization in the amorphous region during annealing. Peak height index(PHI), the ratio of ΔH to Ti-To, increased by annealing. PHI values, therefore, showed the possibility as an indicator to predict RS yield which cannot be differentiated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data.

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