• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein levels

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Effects of Dietary Protein Levels on Organ Growth and Protein Metabolism in Early and Normally Weaned Rats (단백질 섭취수준이 조기 이유 및 정상이유 흰쥐의 기관성장과 단백질 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 박미나
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1998
  • This study was designed to examine how dietary protein levels affect organ growth and protein metabolism in early and normally weaned rats. Early and normally weaned rats separated fro the dam on the 15th and 121st day postpartum, respectively. were fed diets containing three levels of protein : low(10%) , normal (20%),and high(40%) . On the 35th day, the weight and DNA, RNA and protein contents in brain , liver, and kidney were determined to ascertain organ and cellular growth. Furthermore, serum total protein , albumin , $\alpha$-amino N and creatine and urinary urea N, and creatinine were determined in order to ascertain protein metabolism and renal functions. Dietary protein levels were not observed to significantly affect total DNA content, which may represent an index of cell number in the liver, brain and kidney. Fresh weight and protein/DNA ratio, which may represent indices of cell size, significantly increased in proportion to dietary protein in the kidney. As for the early weaned rats , the liver cell size significantly decreased. Dietary protein levels and weaning periods did not affect serum total protein and albumin . However, serum urea-N significantly increased in proportion to dietary protein levels whereas serum $\alpha$-amino N was decreased by early weaning . Nitrogen retention was lower in early weaned rats fed low or high levels of protein than in normally weaned rats. The results demonstrate that low or high levels of dietary protein have less desirable effects on protein metabolism in prematurely weaned rats.

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THE EFFECTS OF PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE TOTAL SULPHUR AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF BROILERS DURING TWO GROWTH PERIODS

  • Kassim, H.;Suwanpradit, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 1996
  • Studies on the effects of protein levels on the total sulphur amino acid (TSAA) requirements of chickens were conducted on the starter broilers by feeding four levels of crude protein(16, 18, 20 and 23%) at three levels of TSAA (0.83, 0.93 and 1.03%) and on the grower broilers by feeding three levels of crude protein (16, 18 and 20%) at three levels of TSAA(0.72, 0.79 and 0.86%). The metabolisable energy of the diets was maintained constant at 3,200 kcal/kg and the experiments were carried out for two growing periods: starter (0-3 wk) and grower (3-6 wk). The results showed that there were significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio under different protein levels of the starters. Crude protein, ME and TSAA intake were significantly affected by increasing the CP levels. The TSAA requirement of the starter broilers is recommended at 0.93% and it is not influenced by different protein levels used in the experiment. For the grower period, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio improved significantly at higher protein diets. Birds fed higher protein diet consumed greater quantities of protein. Responses to TSAA supplementation for body weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio were not significant. The present results showed that the TSAA level of 0.79 to 0.86% was required for grower diets and that the protein levels of the diet did not influence the TSAA requirement.

THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON EGG QUALITY IN STARCROSS LAYERS

  • Uddin, M. Salah;Tareque, A.M.M.;Howlider, M.A.R.;Khan, M. Jasimuddin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.399-405
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    • 1991
  • The interaction of 4 dietary crude protein (13, 16, 19 or 22%) and 4 metabolizable energy (2600, 2800, 3000 or 3100 kcal ME/kg) levels on egg quality performances of Starcross layers were assessed between 245 and 275 days of age. The egg weight increased significantly with the increasing dietary protein and energy levels. But egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, yolk dry matter, yolk protein, yolk fat, albumen protein and shell tickness were similar at all dietary protein and/or energy levels. The egg specific gravity and albumen weight increased but the yolk, weight, Haugh unit and albumen drymatter decreased with the increase of dietary protein levels and showed irregular trend with energy levels. The albumen dry matter and egg shell weight, however, were not affected by energy and protein levels. Simultaneous increase of protein and energy increased specific gravity, albumen index and shell thickness at a greater rate than that increased by the increase of protein or energy alone.

Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Sub-adult Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus During the Summer Season

  • Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Kang, Yong-Jin;Lee, Jong-Yun;Kim, Kang-Woong;Choi, Se-Min
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 2008
  • A $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the proper dietary protein and lipid levels for the growth of sub-adult flounder Paralichthys olivaceus reared during the summer season. Six experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (45%, 50% and 55%) and two levels of lipid (9% and 14%). Duplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 298 g) were hand-fed to apparent satiation during the summer season ($21.8{\pm}1.7^{\circ}C$) for 60 days. Survival of each group was over 83% and there was not significant difference among all groups. Weight gain of fish fed the 45% protein diet with 14% lipid was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 50% and 55% protein diets with 9% and 14% lipids, but weight gain of fish fed the 45% protein diet with 9% lipid was significantly lower than that of fish fed the 55% protein diets with 14% lipid. Feed efficiency tended to increase with increasing dietary lipid level at each protein levels, although no significant differences were observed at 50% and 55% protein levels. Protein efficiency ratio, daily feed intake, condition factor and hepatosomatic index were not significantly affected by dietary protein and lipid levels. Crude lipid content of the liver tended to increase with increasing dietary lipid level at the same protein levels, but the opposite appearance was found for moisture content. The contents of moisture, crude protein and crude lipid of the dorsal muscle were not significantly affected by dietary protein and lipid levels. Based on data obtained form this study, inclusion of dietary protein at level of 45% appears sufficient to support optimal growth, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 14% has beneficial effects on feed utilization of sub-adult flounder during the summer season.

Optimal Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels for Growth of Juvenile Israeli Carp Cyprinus carpio

  • Aminikhoei, Zahra;Choi, Jin;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.265-271
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    • 2015
  • A feeding trial of four dietary protein levels (20, 30, 40, and 50%) and two lipid levels (7 and 14%) with a factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile Israeli carp Cyprinus carpio. Triplicate groups of fish (average body weight, $1.3{\pm}0.02g$) were fed the experimental diets for 9 weeks. Survival of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or dietary lipid level. Weight gain and feed efficiency increased as dietary protein levels increased up to 40 and 50%, respectively. Weight gain was higher in fish fed the high-lipid diets with 20 and 40% protein content. Feeding efficiency increased as the dietary lipid level increased for the 30, 40, and 50% protein diets. Daily feed intake decreased with increasing protein level and the minimum feed consumption was observed in fish fed the 50% protein diet with 14% lipid content. Moisture and lipid contents of the whole body were affected by both dietary protein and lipid levels. The crude lipid content of fish fed the 14% lipid diet was higher than that of fish fed the 7% lipid diet at each protein level. The results of this study indicate that a diet containing 40% protein with 14% lipid content is optimal for the growth and effective protein utilization of juvenile Israeli carp.

The Effects of Dietary Protein and Caffeine Consumption Levels on Calcium Phosphorus, Sodium and Potassium Metabolism in the Rats of Different Ages (단백질과 카페인의 섭취수준이 나이가 다른 흰쥐의 칼슘, 인 , 나트륨 및 칼륨 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 여정숙;승정자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 1994
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary protein and caffeine consumption levels on Ca, P, Na and K metabolism. One hundred twenty rats were divided into twelve groups according to age, protein level and caffeine consumption such as group(120-130g young rat, 250-300g adult rat) , dietary protein group (20% normal protein , 85 low protein) , caffeine consumption group(0, 3.5mg, 7.0mg). Low protein diet containing high caffeine levels caffeine levels increased calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium contents of urine and fecal in rats. Young rat has higher level of calcium, phosphorus , sodium and potassium than adult rat. In the serum, calcium contents were not affected by age, dietary protein levels and caffeine consumption . However, phosphorus, sodium and potassium contents of serum in adult rat were higher than young rat. In the liver, potassium decreased with decreasing dietary protein levels. In the kidney, calcium , phosphorus and potassium contents were not different by age group, dietary protein levels and caffeine consumption , but sodium content was significantly reduced in the adult rat.

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Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on the Growth Performance, Feed Utilization and Innate Immunity of Juvenile Red Seabream Pagrus major (사료 내 단백질과 지방 수준이 참돔(Pagrus major) 치어의 성장, 사료효율 및 비특이적 면역력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Sam;Oh, Dae-Han;Choi, Se-Min;Kim, Kang-Woong;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Lee, Bong-Joo;Han, Hyon-Sob;Lee, Kyeong-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.308-313
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    • 2015
  • A $3{\times}3$ factorial study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth, feed utilization and innate immunity of red seabream Pagrus major. Nine diets consisting of three protein levels (42%, 46% and 50% crude protein) and three lipid levels (10%, 14% and 18% crude lipid) were formulated. Triplicate groups of red seabream were fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation (5-6 times a day, from 08:00 to 18:00 h at 2-h intervals) for 10 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed P46L14 (46% protein and 14% lipid), P50L10 (50% protein and 10% lipid) and P50L14 (50% protein and 14% lipid) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of fish fed P42L18 (42% protein and 18% lipid). The feed conversion ratios (FCR) of the fish were affected by dietary lipid levels (P<0.039), but not dietary protein levels. The FCR tended to increase with increasing dietary lipid levels from 10% to 18% with the 46% and 50% protein levels. The weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate, feed intake and survival of fish were not affected by either dietary protein or lipid levels. Myeloperoxidase activity in the group fed P50L14 (50% protein and 14% lipid) was significantly higher than that in the group fed P42L10 (42% protein and 10% lipid) or P50L18 (50% protein and 18% lipid). However, the myeloperoxidase activity of fish was not affected by either dietary protein or lipid level. The fish fed P46L14 (46% protein and 14% lipid) and P46L18 (46% protein and 18% lipid) showed significantly higher superoxide dismutase activity than did the fish fed P46L10 (46% protein and 10% lipid), P50L10 (50% protein and 10% lipid) of P50L18 (50% protein and 18% lipid). In conclusion, the optimum protein and lipid levels for the growth and feed utilization of juvenile red seabream were 46% and 14%, respectively, and the optimum dietary protein to energy ratio was 27.4 g/MJ.

Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish Silurus asotus

  • Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Lim, Sang-Gu;Kang, Yong-Jin;Kim, Kang-Woong;Son, Maeng-Hyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2012
  • A $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40%) and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%). Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g) were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid) diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.

Effects of High Protein and Calcium Intakes on Calcium Metabolism and Renal Function in Ovariectomized Osteporosis Rat Model (골다공증 모델 흰쥐에서 고수준의 단백질의 칼슘 섭취가 칼슘대사 및 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 오주환
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.605-613
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    • 1997
  • This study was to investigate interaction between dietary protein and Ca levels in Ca metabolism and renal function in osteporosis rats. Five week-old female rats were fed a low Ca diet for 4 weeks after ovariectomy operation to establish rat models of osteoporosis. The ovariectomized osteoporosis rats were divided into six groups and were fed experimental diets which contained two levels of protein, normal (20%) and high(40%) , and three levels of Ca, low (0.06%), normal (0.47%) and high(0.94%) for 4 weeks , respectively. The ovaricetmized rat model of osteoporosis showed a remarkable decrease in serum Ca concentration, fresh weight and breaking force of femur, Ca and P contents of femur, and apparent absorption and retention of Ca. The supplementations of Ca and P contents of femur, and apparent absorption and retention of Ca. The supplementations of Ca at the dietary levels of normal and high levels significantly enhanced Ca bioavailability shown in the above experimental rat models of osteoporosis, regardless of dietary protein levels ; whereas the rats which were fed the low Ca diet demonstrated rather a decrease in its bioavailability. Irrespectively of the dietary Ca levels, the rats which were fed high protein diet exhibited an increase in kidney weight, urinary Ca, volume and hydroxyproline, and glomerular filtration ratio(GFR). The results show that dietary protein and calcium levels affect the renal function and Ca metabolism independently, while the interaction between protein and calcium have not been shown.

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Effect of different fat and protein levels in calf ration on performance of Sahiwal calves

  • Sharma, Bharti;Nimje, Prapti;Tomar, S.K.;Dey, Dipak;Mondal, Santu;Kundu, S.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2020
  • Objective: The current study was carried out to examine the response of different levels of fat and protein in calf starter on nutrient utilisation, nitrogen metabolism, weight gain, blood parameters, and immunity level in pre-ruminant calves. Methods: Twenty four calves (5 days old) were divided into six groups in a 2×3 factorial design, with two levels of fat (10% and 14%) and three levels of protein (18%, 21%, and 24%). The calves were kept in individual pens for 120 days and fed with whole milk (1/10th of body weight) and calf starter ad-libitum. Daily dry matter intake was recorded; whereas body weight was taken on fortnightly basis to calculate average daily gain. During the growth trial blood samples were collected at 30 days interval to estimate blood glucose, albumin, total protein, total leucocyte count, total immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin G levels. A metabolic trial of seven days was carried out to find out the digestibility of different nutrients. Results: The dry matter intake was reduced (p<0.05) with higher fat and protein levels whereas feed conversion efficiency was improved (p<0.05) with higher protein level. Different levels of fat and protein in calf ration did not affect average daily gain in calves. The dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein digestibility were significantly (p<0.01) higher with increased level of protein. The nitrogen retention was also significantly higher (p<0.05) at 24% protein level, similarly the total immunoglobulin was significantly (p<0.05) high in higher protein fed groups, showed better immunity. Conclusion: The present finding suggested that 10% fat and 18% protein level of calf starter could be used in Sahiwal calves for optimum performance in terms of weight gain and immunity.