This study was to investigate interaction between dietary protein and Ca levels in Ca metabolism and renal function in osteporosis rats. Five week-old female rats were fed a low Ca diet for 4 weeks after ovariectomy operation to establish rat models of osteoporosis. The ovariectomized osteoporosis rats were divided into six groups and were fed experimental diets which contained two levels of protein, normal (20%) and high(40%) , and three levels of Ca, low (0.06%), normal (0.47%) and high(0.94%) for 4 weeks , respectively. The ovaricetmized rat model of osteoporosis showed a remarkable decrease in serum Ca concentration, fresh weight and breaking force of femur, Ca and P contents of femur, and apparent absorption and retention of Ca. The supplementations of Ca and P contents of femur, and apparent absorption and retention of Ca. The supplementations of Ca at the dietary levels of normal and high levels significantly enhanced Ca bioavailability shown in the above experimental rat models of osteoporosis, regardless of dietary protein levels ; whereas the rats which were fed the low Ca diet demonstrated rather a decrease in its bioavailability. Irrespectively of the dietary Ca levels, the rats which were fed high protein diet exhibited an increase in kidney weight, urinary Ca, volume and hydroxyproline, and glomerular filtration ratio(GFR). The results show that dietary protein and calcium levels affect the renal function and Ca metabolism independently, while the interaction between protein and calcium have not been shown.