• Title/Summary/Keyword: non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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Delayed Elimination After High-dose Methotrexate in Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (소아 급성림프모구백혈병 및 비호지킨림프종 환자에서 고용량 methotrexate 투여 후 배설지연)

  • Yoon, Hye Won;Ree, Yoon Sun;Song, Hyo Sook;Kim, Jae Song;Son, Eun Sun
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2019
  • Background: High doses of methotrexate (MTX) are often used in various chemotherapy protocols to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in children, but its delayed elimination increases the occurrence of adverse events, such as bone marrow suppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the elimination of MTX at 24 and 48 hours. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records of ALL or NHL pediatric patients who received $5g/m^2$ MTX infusion over 24 hours (between June, 2012 and July, 2018) at the Yonsei University Health System, Korea. The delayed elimination of MTX concentrations was assessed with 100 or $150{\mu}M$ MTX at 24 hours, and 2 or $5{\mu}M$ at 48 hours. Results: Among the 85 MTX cycles administered, 23 cycles were classified in delayed elimination group, and 62 cycles showed normal elimination. At 24 hours, the delayed elimination group with MTX concentration > $100{\mu}M$ showed higher percentage than group with MTX concentration < $100{\mu}M$ (45.8% vs. 19.7%, p = 0.015). However, no differences were observed at $150{\mu}M$ MTX (p = 0.66). At 48 hours, the delayed elimination was higher than the normal elimination at both concentration baselines (p < 0.001 at $2{\mu}M$, p = 0.024 at $5{\mu}M$). Conclusions: MTX concentrations greater than $100{\mu}M$ show high probability of delayed elimination at 24 hours. When MTX levels are above normal, leucovorin and hydration regimens should be continued to prevent delayed elimination.

Primary Thyroid Lymphoma: Multi-Slice Computed Tomography Findings

  • Li, Xu-Bin;Ye, Zhao-Xiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1135-1138
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    • 2015
  • Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the MSCT characteristics of PTL in order to enhance the awareness of this uncommon entity among both clinicians and radiologists. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathological data and MSCT images of 27 patients with PTL were retrospectively reviewed. The MSCT appearances were classified into three types: type 1, solitary nodule surrounded by normal thyroid tissue; type 2, multiple nodules in the thyroid, and type 3, enlarged thyroid glands with a reduced attenuation with or without peripheral thin hyperattenuating thyroid tissue. Results: The patients were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 68 years (range, 51-86years) and compression symptoms or enlarged cervical lymph nodes at diagnosis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was in 20 patients. All patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma of B-cell in origin, including 22 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 5 of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). For MSCT appearance, type 1 pattern was observed in 2 patients, type 2 in 8, and seventeen type 3 in 17. The lesions occurred in more than one lobe with a mean maximal transverse diameter of 6.9 cm and an ill-defined margin. Most tumors showed a homogeneous attenuation equal to that of surrounding muscles before contrast and obvious enhancement after contrast. Cervical lymph node involvement and invasion of the trahea and (or) esophagus were mainly observed in patients with DLBCL. Conclusions: PTL should be clinically considered in elder patients presenting with a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and cervical lymphadenopathy. The MSCT characteristics of PTL includes a mass diffusely affecting more than one thyroid lobe, isointense to muscle and obvious enhancement before and after contrast. DLBCL, the most common histological subtype of PTL, is associated with a higher invasive tendency.

Analysis of treatment outcomes for primary tonsillar lymphoma

  • Lee, Yun Hee;Cho, Seok Goo;Jung, Seung Eun;Kim, Sung Hoon;O, Joo Hyun;Park, Gyeong Sin;Yang, Suk Woo;Lee, In Seok;Rhee, Chin Kook;Choi, Byung Ock
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Although each Waldeyer's ring sub-site is considered an independent prognostic factor, few studies have assessed the prognosis and treatment of tonsillar lymphoma. Treatment outcomes were analyzed in patients with primary tonsillar lymphoma who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were evaluated, with a median follow-up of 53 months. Age, sex, and histology, amongst other factors, were reviewed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were analyzed. Results: Most patients had Ann Arbor stage I-II (94.7%), IPI score of 0 (89.5%), and complete remission after chemotherapy (89.5%). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 74.6% and 80%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen resulted in a better PFS than the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen (88.9% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.053). RT dose was related to the survival outcome (p = 0.010 for PFS, p = 0.044 for OS). Patients were classified into the CHOP + RT (>40 Gy) group and R-CHOP + RT (${\leq}40Gy$) group. The 5-year PFS rates were 50% in the CHOP + RT group, and 100 % in the R-CHOP + RT group (p = 0.018). The 5-year OS rates were 66.7% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.087). Conclusion: Primary tonsillar lymphoma patients typically have favorable outcomes. Chemotherapy (R-CHOP) combined with relatively lower dose consolidative RT may be safe and effective for primary tonsillar lymphoma.

A Case of the Minimal Change Nephropathy Associated with Small Cell Lung Cancer (소세포폐암에 동반된 미세변화 신증후군 1예)

  • Ko, Kwang Il;Song, Min Keun;Shin, Dong Yeob;Kim, Dong Hyun;Kim, Chan Ho;Han, Chang Hoon;Lee, Sun Min;Choi, Yoon Jung;Kim, Chong Ju
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.65 no.1
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    • pp.37-40
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    • 2008
  • Nephrotic syndrome is a relatively rare complication of malignancy. A few cases of nephrotic syndrome accompanying Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia and other malignancies have been reported since the first case of the nephrotic syndrome associated with extrarenal malignancy was reported in 1922. Hodgkin's disease and solid tumors are known to be the most common malignancies accompanying nephrotic syndrome. The pathologic findings of kidney in patients with Hodgkin's disease commonly show minimal change nephropathy. Membranous glomerulonephropathy is the most common pathologic feature in patients with solid tumors. Although membranous glomerulonephropathy related to small cell lung cancer has rarely been reported in Korea, minimal change nephropathy accompanying small cell lung cancer has never been reported. We present here a case of a 70 year-old male with minimal change nephropathy that was related to small cell lung cancer. We detected small cell lung cancer during the diagnosis work-up of nephrotic syndrome. We suggest that nephrotic syndrome can be a manifestation of underlying malignancy.

Parotid Mass as First Presentation of Malignant Lymphoma (이하선 종괴로 발현된 악성 림프종)

  • Chung Woong-Youn;Lee Hyo-Sang;Seo Jin-Hak;Yang Woo-Ik;Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 2001
  • Background: Primary malignant lymphoma of the parotid gland is a rare disease and defined as any malignant lymphoma that first manifests in the parotid gland, regardless of the subsequent stage of the diseases, whether it arises in the parenchyma or intraglandular lymph nodes. This study was performed to review the clinicopathological characteristics of primary parotid lymphoma and identify its optimal treatment modality. Materials and Methods: Six cases with parotid mass as first presentation of malignant lymphoma between 1988 and 2000, were studied on the basis of clinical features, diagnostic tools, treatment modality, treatment outcomes, and clinical stage by Ann Arbor Criteria. All were microscopically reevaluated and classified by NCI working formulation. Results: All patients were males and mean age was 36.7 years (2-66 years). Rapid growing non-tender mass was presented in all the cases and cervical lymphnodes were palpated in 4 cases. However, there was not any evidence of concurrent autoimmune disease such as Sjogren's syndrom or Rheumatoid arthritis. One case was confirmed by surgical specimen after superficial parotidectomy, 2 by excisional biopsy, and 3 by incisional biopsy. The stage of disease by NCI working formulation was IE in 1 patient, IIE in 4 and IV in 1. All were classified into non-Hodgkin' lymphoma, of which there were 5 cases of B-cell type and 1 case of T-cell type. There were 3 diffuse large cell lymphomas, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, 1 MALT lymphoma and 1 T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Three cases were treated by chemotherapy only, 2 by radiotherapy only and 1 by chemo-radiotherapy. One case with Burkitt lymphoma was died from the disease and one case was lost to follow-up. The others are alive with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions: Although primary parotid lymphoma is rare and difficult to diagnose preoperatively, most were detected in early stage and showed a relatively good response to the chemotherapy or radiotherapy like other types of extranodal malignant lymphoma.

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Reduced-dose whole-brain radiotherapy with tumor bed boost after upfront high-dose methotrexate for primary central nervous system lymphoma

  • Lee, Tae Hoon;Lee, Joo Ho;Chang, Ji Hyun;Ye, Sung-Joon;Kim, Tae Min;Park, Chul-Kee;Kim, Il Han;Kim, Byoung Hyuck;Wee, Chan Woo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This retrospective study compares higher-dose whole-brain radiotherapy (hdWBRT) with reduced-dose WBRT (rdWBRT) in terms of clinical efficacy and toxicity profile in patients treated for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Materials and Methods: Radiotherapy followed by high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy was administered to immunocompetent patients with histologically confirmed PCNSL between 2000 and 2016. Response to chemotherapy was taken into account when prescribing the radiation dose to the whole brain and primary tumor bed. The whole brain dose was ≤23.4 Gy for rdWBRT (n = 20) and >23.4 Gy for hdWBRT (n = 68). Patients manifesting cognitive disturbance, memory impairment and dysarthria were considered to have neurotoxicity. A median follow-up was 3.62 years. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 70.0% and 48.9% with rdWBRT, and 63.2% and 43.2% with hdWBRT. The 3-year OS and PFS among patients with partial response (n = 45) after chemotherapy were 77.8% and 53.3% with rdWBRT, and 58.3% and 45.8% with hdWBRT (p > 0.05). Among patients with complete response achieved during follow-up, the 3-year freedom from neurotoxicity (FFNT) rate was 94.1% with rdWBRT and 62.4% with hdWBRT. Among patients aged ≥60 years, the 3-year FFNT rate was 87.5% with rdWBRT and 39.1% with hdWBRT (p = 0.49). Neurotoxicity was not observed after rdWBRT in patients aged below 60 years. Conclusion: rdWBRT with tumor bed boost combined with upfront HD-MTX is less neurotoxic and results in effective survival as higher-dose radiotherapy even in partial response after chemotherapy.

Cytomorphologic Comparison of Hodgkin Lymphoma and Anaplastic Large cell Lymphoma in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (호지킨 림프종과 역형성 대세포 림프종의 세침흡인 세포소견 비교)

  • Koh, Jae-Soo;Park, Sun-Hoo;Kim, Min-Suk;Cho, Soo-Youn;Chung, Soo-Young;Ryu, Han-Suk;Kim, Jung-Soon;Ha, Hwa-Jung;Ryoo, Baek-Youl;Lee, Seung-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.126-135
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    • 2006
  • To study the differentiating cytomorphological features of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), cytomorphological features of 16 patients with HL (n=8) or ALCL (n=8) were analyzed. In the initial cytological diagnosis prior to biopsy, HLs were properly diagnosed in 4 out of 8 cases (4 HL, 2 atypical, 2 benign), whereas all ALCL were diagnosed as malignancies. However, correct diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was made in only two ALCL patients (2 NHL, 1 HL, 1 sarcoma, 4 malignancy without specific type). Overall, the percentage of large abnormal cells ranged from 30% to 90% in ALCL except for one case, whereas it was less than 5% in all 8 HL. A spectrum of atypical cells was more characteristic of ALCL. In contrast, HL showed an sharp difference between reactive lymphoid cells and neoplastic ones (bimorphic pattern). Moreover, the emergence of kidney-shaped abnormal cells or wreath-like multinucleated cells was helpful in diagnosing ALCL. The combination of thesefeatures would be useful in differentiating HL and ALCL. Nevertheless, these two types of lymphomas cannot be definitely distinguished based on cytomorphological features alone. Therefore, the aim of FNAC would be to suggest a specific diagnosis and indicate the need for a biopsy.

Demographic Survey of Four Thousand Patients with 10 Common Cancers in North Eastern Iran over the Past Three Decades

  • Nikfarjam, Zahra;Massoudi, Toktam;Salehi, Maryam;Salehi, Mahta;Khoshroo, Fahimeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10193-10198
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality in developing countries and correct and valid information about the epidemiology of this disease is the first step in the planning of health care in each region. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency, mean age and sex ratio of the most 10 common non-skin cancers in the world and Iran, among patients referred to an oncology clinic. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Mashhad, north east of Iran. The data obtained from the records of patients referred to the private oncology center between the years of 1985-2012". According to the latest report of GLOBOCAN study commonest malignancies included were lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, stomach, liver, cervix, esophageal, bladder cancers and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Results: A total of 4,606 cases were analyzed. The mean age was $55.5{\pm}13.8years$ (male: $59.5{\pm}13.9$, female: $52.6{\pm}12.9$). Overall, breast cancer (1,264 cases, relative frequency of 27.4%) was the most prevalent cancer; however the mean ages of diagnosis were not significantly different between 5-year time period divisions (p=0.290). The most common cancer in men was esophageal cancer (26.3%).The lowest mean age was related to women diagnosed with breast cancer ($48.5{\pm}11.8$) and men with non-Hodgkins lymphoma ($48.4{\pm}17.8$). There were statistically significant differences between the mean age of men and women with gastric (p=0.003) and esophageal cancers (p<0.001). Male to female sex ratios in our study for bladder, lung and stomach cancers were 6.57, 2.60 and 2.50 respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that breast cancer tends to be found in younger female patients and bladder cancer appears more often in men. Screening in target population in addition to early diagnosis may reduce death and disability.

Patterns of care and treatment outcomes for primary thyroid lymphoma: a single institution study

  • Cha, Hyejung;Kim, Jun Won;Suh, Chang-Ok;Kim, Jin Seok;Cheong, June-Won;Lee, Jeongshim;Keum, Ki Chang;Lee, Chang Geol;Cho, Jaeho
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of care and treatment outcomes in patients with primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) in a single institution. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 29 patients with PTL treated between April 1994 and February 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy (n = 17) or thyroidectomy (n = 12). Treatment modality and outcome were analyzed according to lymphoma grade. Results: The median follow-up was 43.2 months (range, 3.8 to 220.8 months). The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range, 21 to 83 years) and 24 (82.8%) patients were female. Twenty-five (86.2%) patients had PTL with stage IEA and IIEA. There were 8 (27.6%) patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the remaining patients had high-grade lymphoma. Patients were treated with surgery (n = 2), chemotherapy (n = 7), radiotherapy (n = 3) alone, or a combination of these methods (n = 17). Treatment modalities evolved over time and a combination of modalities was preferred, especially for the treatment of high-grade lymphoma in recent years. There was no death or relapse among MALT lymphoma patients. Among high-grade lymphoma patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) were 75.6% and 73.9%, respectively. Complete remission after initial treatment was the only significant prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.037) and PFS (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Patients with PTL showed a favorable outcome, especially with MALT lymphoma. Radiotherapy alone for MALT lymphoma and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy for high-grade lymphoma can be effective treatment options for PTL.

Clinicopathologic Assessment of Ocular Adnexal Lymphoproliferative Lesions at a Tertiary Eye Hospital in Iran

  • Asadi-Amoli, Fahimeh;Nozarian, Zohreh;Bonaki, Hirbod Nasiri;Mehrtash, Vahid;Entezari, Samaneh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3727-3731
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    • 2016
  • Background: The most common type of ocular lymphoma is non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), categorized into two groups: indolent (slow growing) and aggressive (rapid growing). Differentiating benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) from malignant ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) is challenging. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry have been used as diagnostic tools in such cases. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case series, from 2002 to 2013 at Farabi Eye Center, 110 patients with ocular lymphoproliferative disease were enrolled. Prevalence, anatomical locations, mean age at diagnosis and the final diagnosis of the disease with IHC were assessed. Comparison between previous pathologic diagnoses and results of IHC was made. Immunoglobulin light chains and B-cell and T-cell markers and other immuno-phenotyping markers including CD20, CD3, CD5, CD23, CD10, CYCLIND1 and BCL2 were evaluated to determine the most accurate diagnosis. The lymphomas were categorized based on revised European-American lymphoma (REAL) classification. Results: Mean age ${\pm}$ SD (years) of the patients was $55.6{\pm}19.3$ and 61% were male. Patients with follicular lymphoma, large B-cell lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small cell lymphoma (CLL/SLL) tended to be older. Nine patients with previous diagnoses of low grade B-cell lymphoma were re-evaluated by IHC and the new diagnoses were as follows: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma(EMZL) (n=1), SLL(n=1), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (n=3), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia RLH (n=2). Two cases were excluded due to poor blocks. Flow cytometry reports in these seven patients revealed SLL with positive CD5 and CD23, MCLwith positive CD5 and CyclinD1 and negative CD23, EMZL with negative CD5,CD23 and CD10. One RLH patient was negative for Kappa/Lambda and positive for CD3 and CD20 and the other was positive for all of the light chains, CD3 and CD20. Orbit (49.1%), conjunctiva (16.1%) and lacrimal glands (16.1%) were the most common sites of involvement. Conclusions: Accurate pathological classification of lesions is crucial to determine proper therapeutic approaches. This can be achieved through precise histologic and IHC analyses by expert pathologists.