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A Study on the School Milk Program among Elementary, Middle and High School Students in Korea (전국 초.중.고등학생의 학교우유급식 실태조사)

  • 정인경;권성욱
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out in order to facilitate the consumption of milk which tend to decrease in recent years and to improve the school milk program. The survey by means of prepared questionnaire was conducted to investigate a perception and satisfaction of school milk program, and milk intake at home and school with elementary, middle, and high school students. Most of the subjects thought drinking milk is important for their health but only 50.2% of them were actually drinking milk everyday. In particular, the frequency of consuming milk at home was significantly lower in students being provided with school milk program than the students without school milk program. Most of the students commonly drunk plain milk rather than flavored milk, however actually they preferred flavored milk to plain milk. The frequency of consuming milk and the degree of satisfaction for milk being served in the school milk program was lowered. The major reason of disliking milk being served in school milk program was ‘poor taste’. And to promote milk consumption in school milk program, the subjects anticipated the serving of various milk and dairy products, flavored milk and yogurt etc. Thus, it was suggested that to improve the school milk program and promote milk consumption among the students, serving various products that can satisfy their preferences and demands and the proper food guide and education on nutrition are called for.

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Milk and Dairy Intake and Acceptability in Fifth- and Sixth-graders in Hwaseong, Korea (초등학생의 우유와 유제품 섭취와 기호도 -경기도 화성시 일부 초등학생 5~6학년 대상으로)

  • Rhie, Seung Gyo;Lee, Eun Kyoung
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.499-509
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    • 2015
  • Efforts to have children consume milk continue across the world for the sufficient supply of calcium and protein. This study examines the frequency and amount of dairy milk and the recognition, acceptability, and knowledge of milk and dairy products by considering fifth- and sixth-graders in Hwaseong, Korea. The acceptability of milk and dairy products measured based on a five-point Likert-type scale was assessed to determine its correlations with breakfast frequency, the frequency of milk intake, and milk knowledge. According to descriptive statistics, 47% and 53% of the subjects were fifth- and sixth-graders, respectively, 53% and 47% were male and female, respectively, 45.3% and 51.2% had mothers in their thirties and forties, respectively, and 57% had working mothers. Breakfast frequency was 5.2 and 5.3 times per week, and milk and dairy intake was 4.6 times. The milk knowledge score was 5.3 out of 10 points. The average daily intake of milk was a cup (55.1%), and a vast majority preferred white milk (68.6%). Ice cream bar type (4.49 points) and cone type (4.48 points) showed the highest acceptability, and breakfast frequency was positively correlated with white milk and cheddar cheese (p<0.01). Daily milk intake frequency was positively correlated with white milk and fortified milk. Milk knowledge was positively correlation with white milk, fortified milk, functional yogurt (p <0.05), fermented milk, and cheese (p<0.01). The higher the breakfast frequency, the more likely the intake of white milk (p<0.01). An increase in milk intake increased milk knowledge (p<0.05). The higher the level of knowledge, the more likely the intake of fortified milk and the frequency of milk intake. These results suggest that school lunch milk may increase awareness and milk intake through continuing education in milk knowledge. High acceptability scores for white milk, fortified milk, and fermented milk indicate their suitability for school milk consumption.

A Study on Knowledges and Attitudes about Breast Milk Feeding and Needs for Breast Milk Feeding Education among High School Students (고교생의 모유영양 지식과 태도 및 모유수유 영양교육 요구)

  • Choi Kyung-Suk;Lee Hee-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.191-204
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the experiences of breast milk feeding information and education, breast milk feeding knowledge and attitude and needs for breast milk feeding nutrition education of high school students to encourage breast milk feeding. The subjects were 565 (male: 250, female: 315) high school students from first to third grade. The results obtained were as follows: In this survey, only 30.0% of subjects experienced breast milk feeding information and only 6.1% of subjects had breast milk feeding education. And the subjects showed the average scores of knowledge of breast milk feeding were 0.29 points of 1 point. Subjects knew well about ingredients of breast milk but they didn't know well about the physiology and method of breast milk feeding and benefits of breast milk feeding for mothers. The average scores of attitude of breast milk feeding were 3.03 points of 4 points, showed slight positive attitudes of breast milk feeding, but they had negative attitudes of emotional and practical aspects. The future plan of feeding practices was breast milk feeding 35.9% and 60.0% of formula milk feeding. A concern was that the students showed high ratio of formula milk feeding plan and they decided by incorrect knowledge of breast milk feeding. The 33.5% of students answered high school students will need breast milk feeding nutrition education, and they thought hospital faculties were the proper educators of breast milk feeding education, but dietitians were recomended as educators because of easy access at school and good knowledge of life-cycle nutrition. Therefore, to encourage breast milk feeding by mothers and supporters of breast milk feeding, breast milk feeding nutrition education is needed urgently among high school male and female students. And nutrition education programs will have to contain benefits of breast milk for babies and mothers and physiology and practical methods of breast milk feeding to improve emotional and practical attitudes for breast milk feeding. Nationwide campaign to promote breast milk feeding at public areas will be needed.

A Comparative Study on the Composition of Preterm and Fullterm Human Milk in colostrum -I. Comparison of the Lactpse, Protein and Mineral Contents in Contents in Closterum from Mothers of Premature and Fullterm Infants (조산모와 정상모의 초유성분에 관한 비교연구 -제1보 : 조산모와 정상모 초유의 당질, 단백질 및 무기질 성분에 관한 비교)

  • 이윤욱
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 1995
  • In this study, the nutritional composition of colostrum milk obtained from 22 mothers delivering perterm infants and 17 mothers delivering term infants was analyzed. The energy content of colostrum was yielded based on nitrogen, lactose, and lipid data. Preterm milk is more close the nutritional needs of the preterm infant than dose other breast milk. The results are as follows : 1) Protein concentration was significantly higher, but carbohydrate and lipid concentration were lower in preterm milk than fullterm milk. Energy content yielded from total nitrogen, lactose and lipid concentration was higher in the fullterm milk than preterm milk. 2) Calcium was higher in the preterm milk than fullterm colostrum. Phosphate was lower in fullterm milk than pretem milk. Calcium/Phosphate ratio were 2.61/1 in the preterm and 2.06/1 in the fullterm milk. Magnesium was higher in the preterm milk than fullterm milk. Zinc, Copper and Manganese concentrations were tended to lower in the preterm milk than fullterm milk.

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Quantitative Detection of Cow Milk in Goat Milk Mixtures by Real-Time PCR

  • Jung, Yu-Kyung;Jhon, Deok-Young;Kim, Kang-Hwa;Hong, Youn-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to develop a fluorogenic real-time PCR-based assay for detecting and quantifying amounts of cow milk in cow/goat milk mixtures or goat milk products. In order to quantify the exact amount of cow milk in cow/goat raw milk mixtures and commercial goat milk products, it was necessary to achieve quantitative extraction of total genomic DNA from the raw milk matrix. Both mammalian-specific PCR and cow-specific PCR were performed. A cow-specific 252 bp band obtained from the raw cow milk and raw goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified, along with the relationship between the cow milk amount and band intensity of the electrophoresis image. The detection threshold was found to be 0.1%. The expression of cow's 12S rRNA in the cow/goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified. The expression quantity of the milk 12S rRNA increased with increasing ratios of the cow/goat milk mixtures. Using these calibrated relative expression levels as a standard curve in the cow/goat raw milk mixtures, the contents of cow milk were 1.8% in the commercial goat milk, 9.6% in goat milk powder A, and 11.6% in goat milk powder C. However, cow milk was not detected in goat milk powder B.

Study on Nutrition Knowledge, Perception, and Intake Frequency of Milk and Milk Products among Middle School Students in Chuncheon Area (춘천지역 중학교 학생들의 우유와 유제품에 관한 영양지식·인식 및 섭취빈도 조사)

  • Han, Ji Min;Min, Sung Hee;Lee, Min June
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition knowledge, perception, and intake frequency of milk and milk products among middle school students as well as provide the basic data needed for increasing milk and milk product consumption. To achieve the purpose of this study, a survey with 385 students of four middle schools located in Chuncheon was conducted. The level of nutrition knowledge of milk and milk products in females was slightly higher than that in males (p<0.01). Flavored milk and ice cream were preferred the most in each category, and 'taste' influenced the selection of milk and milk products the most. The intake frequency of whole milk was the highest, and that of flavored milk was lowest among various milks. Ice cream showed the highest intake frequency while cheese showed the lowest among milk products. Male students showed higher intake frequency of milk and milk products. Groups having high level of nutrition knowledge showed the highest intake of whole milk, whereas groups having a low level of nutrition knowledge preferred processed milk, low fat or non-fat milk, and cheese the lowest.

Effects of Commercial Soy Milk and Cow Milk on Iron Status and Work Capacity of Rats (시판 두유 및 우유가 흰쥐의 체내 철분 영양상태와 운동능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 이윤복
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.904-910
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    • 1997
  • Evaluation of soy milk as an iron-rich milk substitute was conducted by feeding commercial soy milk , cow milk and mixed formula(soy and cow milk) to Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Body weight gains were significantly lower in the soy milk and mixed formula groups. Hematocrit, serum iron concentration and TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were measured to determine the iron status of the rats. In these respects, the iron status of the soy milk group was normal. Both serum iron concentration and TIBC as well as hematocrit were abnormal in the cow milk group , which is indictive of severe iron deficiency . Although hematocrit was normal in the mixed formula group, serum iron concentration was lightly low. The work capacities of each group were correlated with serum iron concentration and tIBC rather than hematocrit. The running distance of the soy milk group was about 10 -fold longer than that of the cow milk group. Soy milk may be considered an iron- rich substitute for cow milk due to its higher iron content and bioavailability.

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Investigation of Goats' Milk Adulteration with Cows' Milk by PCR

  • Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang;Chen, Su-Der;Weng, Ching-Feng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1503-1507
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    • 2006
  • Goats' milk adulteration with cows' milk is becoming a big problem. In the past, the urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay with different motility of ${\alpha}S1$-casein has been applied for the identification of cows' milk adulteration. The detection sensitivity is 1.0%. The aim of this study was to develop a faster and more sensitive method to detect cows' milk which may be present in adulterated goats' milk and goats' milk powder. The published primer was targeted at highly conserved regions in bovine mitochondrial DNA (a 271 bp amplicon). This amplicon was cloned and sequenced to further confirm bovine specific sequence. The chelex-100 was used to separate bovine somatic cells from goats' milk or goats' milk powder samples. Random sampling of different brands of goats' milk powder and tablets from various regions of Taiwan showed the adulterated rate was 20 out of 80 (25%) in goats' milk powders and 12 out of 24 (50%) in goats' milk tablets. With this system, as low as 0.1% cows' milk or cows' milk powder in goat milk or goat milk powder could be identified. This chelex DNA isolation approach provides a fast, highly reproducible and sensitive method for detecting the adulteration of goats' milk products.

Lysozyme Activity in Buffalo Milk: Effect of Lactation Period, Parity, Mastitis, Season in India, pH and Milk Processing Heat Treatment

  • Priyadarshini, Subhadra;Kansal, Vinod K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.895-899
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    • 2002
  • Lysozyme activity in buffalo milk in relation to the period of lactation, parity of animal, weather conditions and udder infections was studied. Effect of storage and heat processing of milk on lysozyme activity was determined. Lysozyme activity was higher in buffalo milk than in cow milk. Buffalo colostrum showed lysozyme activity 5 times of that in mature milk. Lysozyme activity in buffalo milk was not influenced by the parity of animal and the stage of lactation, however, it increased during extreme whether conditions (winter and summer). Lysozyme in both cow and buffalo milk exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.4. Buffalo milk lysozyme was fully stable while the cow milk lysozyme was partly inactivated by pasteurization (low temperature-long time as well as high temperature-short time treatments). Lysozyme in buffalo milk was more stable than in cow milk during storage and heat treatment. A 10 to 50-fold increase in milk lysozyme activity was observed in mastitic cows. An assay of lysozyme activity in milk can be used to diagnose mastitis in cattle but not in buffaloes. Some buffaloes exhibited 1000 fold greater lysozyme activity and moderately raised somatic cell count in milk, but there was no sign of mastitis in these animals. A possible role of milk lysozyme in prevention of mastitis in buffaloes is discussed.

Preference and Consumption Pattern of Middle and High School Students on Milk and Milk Products, in Geochang Area (거창지역 중.고등학생의 우유와 유제품에 대한 기호도 및 섭취실태 조사)

  • Yun, Hyeon-Suk;Lee, Geum-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.449-461
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate the preference and consumption pattern on milk and milk products of middle and high school students. The subjects were 1,195 students(590 middle school and 605 high school students) living in Geochang area. The survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire in November, 2004. The results were as follows. Sixty-three point four percent of the subjects liked milk, and the main reason was 'accelerate growth and development'(55.4%). Preferred tastes of milk were 'savory taste'(35.4%) and 'sweet taste' (29.9%). Banana milk, chocolate milk, strawberry milk, ice cream, yoplait and yogurt were highly preferred. General preference for different kinds of milk was significantly higher in high school students and male students than in middle school students and female ones. With regard to preference for dairy products, cream (p<0.01) and butter(p<0.05) was preferred more by male students than by female ones, ice cream(p<0.05), yoplait (p<0.05) more by female students than male ones. The score of milk intake frequency was 3.84(3-4 times a week) out of 5 points(7 times a week) for white milk, and that of chocolate milk was 1.98, banana milk 1.96, strawberry milk 1.72, coffee milk 1.65, showing that these products were drank less then once a week. In addition, the white milk intake frequency was significantly higher in middle school students and male students than in high school students and female students(p<0.001). Preference for milk showed a positive correlation with preference for dairy products (r=0.543, P<0.001) and frequency of milk intake(r=0.429, P<0.001). This suggests that those who prefer milk high tend to prefer dairy products and to show high milk intake frequency. In addition, milk intake frequency was in a high positive correlation with dairy product intake frequency(r=0.648, P<0.001).

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