• Title/Summary/Keyword: germinated brown rice

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Comparison of GABA and Vitamin Contents of Germinated Brown Rice Soaked in Different Soaking Solution (침지액을 달리한 발아현미의 GABA와 비타민 함량의 비교)

  • Moon, Seung-Hee;Lee, Keun-Bo;Han, Myung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.511-515
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    • 2010
  • It was conducted to assess GABA(${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid) producing capacity and vitamin contents of germinated brown rice soaked in different soaking solutions. For germination, samples were soaked in 5% glutamic acid solution and 5% lactic acid solution as test group to investigate GABA producing capacity, and samples soaked in the solution without glutamic acid and lactic acid were set as control groups(rice and non-germinated brown rice). The GABA contents of the samples were $44.80\;{\mu}g/g$ for rice, $59.90\;{\mu}g/g$ for non-germinated brown rice, $146.70\;{\mu}g/g$ for germinated brown rice, $203.20\;{\mu}g/g$ for germinated brown rice soaked in glutamic acid solution and $222.5\;{\mu}g/g$ for germinated brown rice soaked in lactic acid solution, resulting in a significant difference(p<0.05). GABA producing capacity was enhanced by the addition of glutamic acid and lactic acid in the soaking solution for brown rice germination. The GABA contents of the germinated brown rice soaked in lactic acid solution greatly increased, along with increases in niacin and vitamin E contents without losing vitamin $B_1$. In conclusion, the addition of lactic acid in soaking solution is most suitable for germination of brown rice.

Stimulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Synthesis Activity in Brown Rice by a Chitosan/Glutamic Acid Germination Solution and Calcium/Calmodulin

  • Oh, Suk-Heung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.319-325
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    • 2003
  • Changes in the concentrations of $\gamma$-aminobutyric acid (GABA), soluble calcium ions, glutamic acid, and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were investigated in non-germinated vs. germinated brown rice. Brown rice was germinated for 72 h by applying each of the following solutions: (1) distilled water, (2) 5 mM lactic acid, (3) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM lactic acid, (4) 5 mM glutamic acid, and (5) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid. GABA concentrations were enhanced in all of the germinated brown rice when compared to the non-germinated brown rice. The GABA concentration was highest in the chitosan/glutamic acid that germinated brown rice at 2,011 nmol/g fresh weight, which was 13 times higher than the GABA concentration in the non-germinated brown rice at 154 nmol/g fresh weight. The concentrations of glutamic acid were significantly decreased in all of the germinated rice, regardless of the germination solution. Soluble calcium and GAD were higher in the germinated brown rice with the chitosan/glutamic acid solution when compared to the rice that was germinated in the other solutions. GAD that was partially purified from germinated brown rice was stimulated about 3.6-fold by the addition of calmodulin in the presence of calcium. These data show that the germination of brown rice in a chitosan/glutamic acid solution can significantly increase GABA synthesis activity and the concentration of GABA.

Quality Characteristics and Changes in GABA Content and Antioxidant Activity of Noodle Prepared with Germinated Brown Rice (발아현미 첨가에 따른 국수의 제조 특성과 GABA 함량 및 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Kong, Su-Hyun;Lee, Jun-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.274-280
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    • 2010
  • This study was to investigate the quality characteristics of noodles prepared with germinated brown rice and rice bran, and to determine the changes in GABA content and antioxidant activity of the noodles. These noodles were evaluated for cooking properties (cooking loss, swelling index, water holding capacity), total polyphenols, antioxidant activities (radical scavenging of ABTS and DPPH), and GABA contents. The addition of germinated rice bran in the range of 5, 10, and 15% showed a significant influence on cooking loss, although no effect on swelling index was observed. The raw and cooked noodles containing germinated brown rice and rice bran contained more GABA contents (2751.6~4176.7 and 5522.0~9617.8 nmol/20 g of fresh noodle, respectively) than those of non-germinated brown rice and rice bran. Noodles made with germinated brown rice and rice bran had similar total polyphenolics contents and antioxidant activities compared to noodles made with non-germinated brown rice and rice bran. Overall, the germinated brown rice could be used as a good ingredient to increase the nutritional value and antioxidant properties of wheat flour noodle without affecting the cooking properties.

Affect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Quality Properties of Germinated Brown Rice Flour (전자선 조사가 발아현미 분말의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Myoung-Soon
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects on reduction of harmful microorganisms contaminated and changes of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ${\beta}$-sitosterol in germinated brown rice flour by electron beam (EB) irradiation. Germinated brown rice sprouts with 2 mm length were separated, dried and ground for manufacturing flour. The flour was divided to 6 portions and EB-irradiated within the absorbed dose of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 kGy. Non-irradiated one was used as control. EB irradiation could reduce the numbers of Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Data from $D_{10}$ values of microflora also indicated that EB irradiation of 5 kGy could reduce the number of the harmful microorganisms. GABA was not affected by EB irradiation, but ${\beta}$-sitosterol was affected and the content decreased. The results appeared that EB irradiation can apply to eliminate the harmful microorganisms contaminated in germinated brown rice sprout for use to processed foods as raw material.

The Clinical Effect of Phellinus linteus Grown on Germinated Brown Rice in the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis (소아 아토피 피부염에서 발아현미 상황버섯의 임상적 치료효과)

  • Hong, Won-Kyu;Shin, Jeong-Hyun;Lee, Yeon-Hee;Park, Dong-Ki;Choi, Gwang-Seong
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2008
  • Objective: Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood. Phellinus linteus, an orange color mushroom, has been used as a traditional herb medicine for years. Recent preliminary animal experiments suggest that Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice is effective in chronic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice in the treatment of atopic dermatitis(AD). Methods: 35 patients, 2 to 14 years of age, with mild to moderate AD were treated with Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice powder per oral, $6{\sim}12g$/day adjusted by the body weight, divided three for up to 12 weeks without other treatment. The mean age of patients was 7.3 years. The disease activity has been monitored by objective SCORAD index. The symptom score of the pruritus was measured by using a traditional visual analogue scale (VAS). In addition, the global assessments of clinical response were also monitored by patients or their parents. Results: After 12 weeks of the study, significant reductions in mean severity scores and mean symptom scores were observed. The mean objective SCORAD indices of 35 patients decreased from 25.31${\pm}$8.96 to 18.73${\pm}$13.89(p<0.05). And the mean symptom score of pruritus assessment decreased from 7.37${\pm}$1.33 to 4.6${\pm}$2.3(p<0.05). The patient's global assessment of clinical response were also improved through the period of treatment(p<0.05). Conclusions: Phellinus linteusgrown on germinated brown rice may play a role in the treatment of mild and moderate AD in Children.

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Quality Characteristics of Germinated Brown Rice Flour Added Noodles (발아현미분을 첨가한 국수의 제조특성)

  • Lee, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Won-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.981-985
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    • 2011
  • The effects of germinated brown rice flour on the quality characteristics of white wheat flour noodles were investigated. The insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber content of germinated brown rice flour were 5.1% and 4.2%, respectively. Water absorption, development time, and stability of farinogram decreased when germinated brown rice flour was added to white wheat flour. Brightness ($L^*$) decreased, but redness ($a^*$) increased in noodles made from germinated brown rice. Volume of cooked noodles did not change upon addition of germinated brown rice flour, but weight of cooked noodles decreased and the turbidity of cooked water increased. The cutting force of cooked noodles did not change upon addition of germinated rice flour. Addition of 10% germinated brown rice flour to white wheat flour did not have any effects on flavor, color, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability in sensory evaluation.

Changes in Quality Properties of Brown Rice after Germination (발아에 따른 현미의 품질 변화)

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Choi, Im-Soo;Lee, Dong-Hyen;Kim, Yeon-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.300-305
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate quality properties, including amylose, alkali digestion value (ADV), and amylogram, of brown rice and germinated brown rice of some cultivars in Korea for rice processing products. The protein content of brown rice was significantly higher than those of germinated brown rice. The amylose content of the samples ranged from 17.09 to 18.85%. Alkali digestion value (ADV) of brown rice and germinated brown rice were described as a grade of 2-5 and 4-7, respectively. In a rapid visco analyzer (RVA) examination, pasting temperature of brown rice and germinated brown rice was $67.93-68.05^{\circ}C$. In addition, the pasting characteristics of brown rice were significantly higher than those of germinated brown rice. A texture analysis test showed that germinated brown rice Haiami had the lowest hardness and germinated brown rice Samkwang had the highest adhesiveness.

Changes of Physicochemical Properties According to the Shoot Length in Germinated Brown Rice (발아현미의 싹 길이에 따른 품질변화)

  • Oh, Sea-Kwan;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Won, Yong-Jae;Lee, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate quality properties including amylose, alkali digestion value (ADV), texture and GABA (Gamma Amino-Butyric Acid) of brown rice and 1~5 mm germinated brown rice of Keunnun and Samkwang culitvars. The protein content of germinated brown rice showed increasing tendency according to shoot length, however, the difference was not statistically significant. The amylose content of all samples ranged from 15.0% to 16.0% in Keunnun and 17.0% to 18.0% in Samkwang, without significant differences. Compared to regular brown rice, germinated brown rice from both cultivars demonstrated reduced gel consistency, which contributed to the improved cooked rice texture. Especially, germinated brown rice had significantly lower setback values, which is correlated with high palatability of cooked rice. However, there was no significant difference in gel consistency between 1 mm and 2~5 mm germinated brown rice. GABA content in Keunnun increased by 3~5 times after germination process. In Samkwang, GABA content increased by 50 times (from $0.005{\mu}g/g$ to $0.243{\sim}0.247{\mu}g/g$) after germination. The hardness of germinated brown rice was significantly lower than that of brown rice. However, there was no significant difference in hardness according to shoot length. Consequently, when processing germinate brown rice, it is recommended to maximize functional ingredients by germination while maintaining shoot length less than 2 mm.

Hypotensive Effect of Germinated Brown Rice on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (발아현미의 본태성 고혈압쥐에 대한 혈압강하 효과)

  • Choi, Hee-Don;Kim, Yun-Sook;Choi, In-Wook;Park, Yong-Kon;Park, Young-Do
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.448-451
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    • 2006
  • To investigate the hypotensive effect of germinated brown rice, spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with experimental diets for 6 weeks; control group fed with standard diet, rice group fed with diet containing 50% rice, brown rice group fed with diet containing 50% brown rice and germinated brown rice group fed with diet containing 50% germinated brown rice. Body weight gain and FER (food efficiency ratio) of germinated brown rice group, $86.3\;{\pm}\;11.1\;g$ and $10.4\;{\pm}\;1.4%$, were significantly lower than those of other groups. Systolic blood pressure of germinated brown rice group after feeding for 6 weeks was $169.2\;{\pm}\;6.2\;mmHg$, which was significantly lower than those of other groups and decreased largely compared to that of beginning stage. And blood triglyceride of germinated brown rice group, $138.4\;{\pm}\;29.5\;mg/dL$, was significantly lower than those of other groups, but all groups didn't s show significantly difference in total and HDL-cholesterol of blood. These results suggested that germ mated brown rice had hypotensive effect on spontaneously hypotensive rats.

Effects of Molecular Weight and Chitosan Concentration on GABA (${\gamma}$-Aminobutyric Acid) Contents of Germinated Brown Rice (키토산의 분자량과 농도에 따른 발아현미내 GABA함량증진 효과)

  • Ko, Jung-A;Kim, Kyoung-Ok;Park, Hyun-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.688-692
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of molecular weight and concentrations of chitosan on the germination of brown rice. Brown rice was germinated at $30^{\circ}C$ for three days in various chitosan solutions. The germination rate of the brown rice increased with increasing concentrations of chitosan solution, and was higher in the chitosan solution than in water. GABA content increased with increasing germination time and chitosan solution concentration. As the molecular weight of the chitosan decreased, germination rate and GABA content increased in the brown rice. The GABA content of germinated brown rice using low molecular weight chitosan A in a 100 ppm solution was 5145.5 nmole/g. This is approximately a five times higher value than that of the water-germinated brown rice. Texture properties were enhanced in all the germinated brown rice samples in chitosan solution compared to the brown rice germinated in water. These results indicate that chitosan solution treatment can increase germination rate and GABA synthesis activity in brown rice during germination, and can also improve the texture properties of brown rice.