• Title, Summary, Keyword: degree elevation

### DEGREE ELEVATION OF B-SPLINE CURVES AND ITS MATRIX REPRESENTATION

• LEE, BYUNG-GOOK;PARK, YUNBEOM
• Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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• v.4 no.2
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• pp.1-9
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• 2000
• An algorithmic approach to degree elevation of B-spline curves is presented. The new algorithms are based on the blossoming process and its matrix representation. The elevation method is introduced that consists of the following steps: (a) decompose the B-spline curve into piecewise $B{\acute{e}}zier$ curves, (b) degree elevate each $B{\acute{e}}zier$ piece, and (c) compose the piecewise $B{\acute{e}}zier$ curves into B-spline curve.

### Prediction method of slope hazards using a decision tree model (의사결정나무모형을 이용한 급경사지재해 예측기법)

• Song, Young-Suk;Chae, Byung-Gon;Cho, Yong-Chan
• Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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• pp.1365-1371
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• 2008
• Based on the data obtained from field investigation and soil testing to slope hazards occurrence section and non-occurrence section in gneiss area, a prediction technique was developed by the use of a decision tree model. The slope hazards data of Seoul and Kyonggi Province were 104 sections in gneiss area. The number of data applied in developing prediction model was 61 sections except a vacant value. The statistical analyses using the decision tree model were applied to the entrophy index. As the results of analyses, a slope angle, a degree of saturation and an elevation were selected as the classification standard. The prediction model of decision tree using entrophy index is most likely accurate. The classification standard of the selected prediction model is composed of the slope angle, the degree of saturation and the elevation from the first choice stage. The classification standard values of the slope angle, the degree of saturation and elevation are $17.9^{\circ}$, 52.1% and 320m, respectively.

### Effect of Leg Elevation Height on Reduced Swelling of Patients of Postoperative Acute Ankle Fractures (급성 발목 골절 환자의 술 후 부종 감소에 대한 하지 거상의 효과)

• Seo, Dong-Kyo;Kang, Hyun Wook;Ahn, Deug Suk;Song, Jae-Seok
• Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
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• v.24 no.1
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• pp.31-36
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• 2020
• Purpose: Leg elevation is known as an effective method for reducing leg swelling, and it has been routinely used in medical practice. However, the effect of swelling reduction in relation to the degree of elevation height is not known. This study evaluated the swelling of the leg after acute ankle fracture operations at two different elevation heights and the elevated leg heights were compared. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 patients with postoperative acute ankle fractures were classified into two groups depending on the presence of different leg elevation heights: high-elevated (HE, case) and low-elevated groups (LE, control). We checked leg swelling, pain, subjective satisfaction for the elevation device, and the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and we retrospectively compared them between both the groups. Results: Leg swelling and pain were reduced in both groups. However, they did not show any significant differences between both the groups (p>0.05). Nineteen patients in the HE group replied with uncomfortable, while no patients in LE group did so. The AOFAS score at 1 year postoperatively did not show any significant differences between both the groups (p=0.46). Conclusion: High elevation of the leg after ankle fractures did not show a significant difference from low elevation in regard to leg swelling, pain, and function. Furthermore, high leg elevation resulted in discomfort during the postoperative period. Thus, low elevation with a pillow is enough for acute ankle fracture patients with little discomfort and satisfactory swelling reduction.

### Effect of Varied Elevations of Kangwon Province on Growth and Flowering of Hibiscus syriacus (강원도 지역의 고도에 따른 무궁화의 생장 및 개화에 미치는 영향)

• 이호선;이종석;광병화
• Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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• v.25 no.3
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• pp.177-185
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• 1997
• Hibiscus syriacus were surveyed to study the growing temperature, relative humidity and growing responses shown at different elevations of Kangwon Province, and results of the assessment are summarized as follows 1. Growing responses as represented by leaf length, leaf width, shoot length, number of flowers and flowering duration, were decreased as the elevation increased, while the degree of defoliation was increased. 2. The important factor determining the growing responses to the elevation was the maximum and minimum temperatures, particularly those of July, August, and September. 3. The aphid occurrence on Hibiscus syriacus decreased as the elevation increased. Leading factor determining the population was relative humidity which increased as the elevation increased.

### A Study on Elevation Map Application for Offering Quantitative Analytic Frame of Streetscape - Focused on use GIS - (가로경관의 정량적 분석틀 제공을 위한 입면지도 적용에 관한 연구 - GIS 활용을 중심으로 -)

• Jeong, Choon-kuk;Kim, Ki-hwan
• KIEAE Journal
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• v.8 no.5
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• pp.43-48
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• 2008
• This study is about offering quantitatively analytic frame of streetscape, and also about making a way to be standardized and adapt changing landscape. This allows us to manage a form of elevation map after the application to GIS. The form of elevation map is a visible and vertical arrangement method of data recognizable while walking or driving. Applying measurable traits enables us to make a quantitative control over each element of which streetscape consists. After all, it would play a great roll in organizing and maintaining fine streetscape of each city. As the basic ways to make the elevation map, this study proposes the methods of providing quantitative analytic frame of streetscape after applying elevation data, Raster Data and Vector Data, which were investigated on the basis of GIS. In addition, as a simulation for increasing reality, certain streets, where the streetscape is very important, were chosen so that they enable us to utilize quantitatively analytic data of streetscape with analyzing the +degree of opening ratio in the boundary of D/H=2, comparing between wall area and windowpane area, comparing between facade area and sign board area, and calculating both area and ratio which are applied to ecospace.

### Landform and Drainage Analysis in Geoje-Do Using GIS (GIS를 이용한 거제도 지형 및 하계 분석)

• Kim, Woo-Kwan;Lim, Yong-Ho
• Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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• v.3 no.2
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• pp.19-35
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• 1997
• The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of landform in Geoje-Do using GIS and DTED data. The characteristics of landform in Geoje-Do are as follows; First, the height-range of Geoje-Do is $0{\sim}580m$, and the average elevation of it is 124m. Volcanic and granite region is mainly appeared at high elevation-region. But, we can't find out outstanding difference of elevation, according to its geology. The second. the slope-range of Geoje-Do is $0{\sim}52$ degree, and the average slope of it is 17.6 degree. The slope of volcanic and granite area is more steeper than any other region. But the results of analysis of the geology in Geojo-Do, don't show outstanding difference of the slope. The third, the area-rate of the aspect of Geoje-Do is almost same in all direction. And the area-rate of south-west direction is the highest. According to the geology of Geoje-Do, granite is distributed the most widely, and the area of volcanic and granite occupy 60% of entire island's area. According to analysis of influence of geology with elevation, geology has little relationship with elevation. According to analysis of geology and drainage network, streams are inclined to be developed well in Alluvium area. Drainage network is well developed throughout the entire island, except southeast area. The highest order of stream is 4 in 1:25,000 topographic map. The density of stream in Geoje-Do is very high, such as 1.6. The bifurcation-ratio of stream is also higher than 4 in all order. The length-ratio of stream is ranged from 1.24 to 3.25. According to the relationship between order and elevation. order is the greater, elevation is the lower. According to the relationship between order and slope, order is the greater, slope is the gentler. In this study, we use DTED Data, and compare it with topographic map data. According to the comparison, there is a little difference between DTED data and topographic map data. Therefore, to use DTED data in landform analysis, it is required coordinate matching process. This process is very important, and take very long time. Thus, if you use DTED in landform analysis, some processes are required. DTED data can be taken very easily, but its using is not simple. Because coordinate adjust is very hard work.

### Analysis of Effects on Topography for P-V System (태양광입지선정을 위한 지형분석방법 소개 및 영향분석)

• Kim, Young-Deug;Ahn, In-Soo;Kim, Min-Su;Chang, Jeong-Ho;Chang, Moon-Soung
• New & Renewable Energy
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• v.4 no.4
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• pp.3-9
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• 2008
• In design PV (photovoltaic) system, there are many important factors to consider for best site selection. It is essential to understand to know the amount of sunlight available and how to minimize the shadings. This study presents basic concepts for understanding sun's position and insolation. also it gives easy tools for topography analysis. Finally, this study shows some theoretical calculations of power generation losses by topographic obstacle's elevations and disadvantages in economic feasibility, that is about 7million won loss per year for case of 10 degree topography elevation with assuming average Korea's topography elevation as 5 degree.

### A study on the Clinical Characteristics of Injured Patient Using Tongdo-san -Focused on Traffic Accidents Cases- (통도산을 투약한 외상에 의한 상해 환자의 임상 특성 연구 -교통사고 환자를 중심으로-)

• Kim, Ji Hee;Ahn, Hun Mo
• 대한의료기공학회지
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• v.16 no.1
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• pp.101-115
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• 2016
• Objective : This study investigated the clinical characteristics with Tongdo-san on injured patients focused on traffic accidents cases. Methods : 108 injured patients diagnosed with stagnation of Qi and stagnated blood(氣滯瘀血) were treated with Tongdo-san, acupuncture, cupping, physical therapy, Su-Gi therapy. The degree of Martins AN was checked to observe the change after using Tongdo-san. Results : Evaluation grades of of patients treated with Tongdo-san were all improved. The shorter the period of morbidity and the lower the age, the better the elevation. The degree of elevation is more significant in women traffic accidents patients. Conclusions: According to the study, Tongdo-san might especially effective for women traffic accidents patients with short period of morbidity and lower age.

### Leaf Chlorophyll Contents of Three Populus (Salicaceae) Species Occurring on Elevational Gradient (표고 구배상에 분포하는 Populus 속 ( 버드나무과 ) 3 종 식물 잎의 엽록소 함량)

• Cha, Young-Il
• The Korean Journal of Ecology
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• v.10 no.3
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• pp.119-127
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• 1987
• On the east slope of the front ranges of the Colorado Rockies, USA, three species of Populus are distributed at different elevations from the Great Plains to the timberline. At elevations 1, 720m (P. sargentii), 2, 335m (P.angustifolia) and 3, 190m (P.tremuloides) chlorophyll cotents of leaves of thses dioecious trees were determined. Total chlorophyll content was in the range of 0.86-1.56mg/g leaf, increasing with elevation as a second-degree polynomial, and the peak content was estimated to be reached at about 2, 800m. Total chlorophyll content was greater in female than in male trees in the two higher elevation species, but not in P. sargentii, the low elevation species. Chlorophyll b content was greater than chlorophyll a content in the same two higher elevation species. The increase of chlorophyll b than to increase of chlorophyll a content. These phenomena appear to be the result of adaptation of these species to different environmental conditional at different elevation. Sequential distribution of plant populations on environmental gradients in such a way that variation in given plant characters paralell the environmental gradient must occur not only in ecotypes of a species, but also in different but closely related species.

### A Study on the Generation of Digital Elevation Model from IRS-1C Satellite Image Data (IRS-1C 위성데이타를 이용한 수치표고모델 생성에 관한 연구)

• 안기원;이효성;서두천;신석효
• Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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• v.17 no.3
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• pp.293-300
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• 1999
• The study aims to develope techniques for generating digital elevation model(DEM) from IRS-1C PAN stereo image data. The bundle adjustment technique was used to determine the satellite exterior orientation parameters as a function of along-track lines. The first degree of polynomial was selected as a function of satellite attitude and position for each scan line. To evaluate the DEM and orthoimage generated, the resulted three dimensional coordinates of the 16 elevation points were computed with the map coordinates. The elevation test showed that root mean square errors of the DEM elevation was about $\pm{16.66m}$ meters.