• Title/Summary/Keyword: caecum

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Studies on the Fine Structure of Caeca in Domestic Geese

  • Chen, Yieng How;Hsu, Hoang Kao;Hsu, Jenn Chung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.1018-1021
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    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the villus distribution in the caeca of domestic geese based on the fine structure. The caeca of White Roman geese, 14-week old, were sampled and specimens were detected under photomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicated that the villi existed at the proximal caecum. The morphologies of these villi showed finger-like, peak-like or tongue-like shapes. The heights of the villi decreased far from the proximal caecum. No villi were found in the middle and distal caecum. It was obvious that the proximal segment was the main portion for absorbing food nutrients in the caeca. The caecal content particles were small and possessed a viscid character. The large particles filtered out at the proximal caecum just like a mesh. The surface of the middle caecum exhibited parallel ridges with no villi. There were band plicae circular shapes found in the middle caecum under scanning electron microsopy.

Effect of a New Fluoroquinolone LB20304a on Microflora of Caecum in Mice (새로운 플루오로퀴놀론계 항생제 LB20304a가 생쥐의 맹장내 세균총에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Mi-Jeong;Paek, Kyoung-Sook;Kim, Mu-Yong;Kim, In-Chull;Kwak, Jin-Hwan
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.343-346
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    • 1996
  • The influence of LB20304a, a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent, on microflora of caecum in mice was compared with those of ciprofloxacin and piperacillin after administration of drugs for 5 days. Selective medium (CCFMA) was used for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from the specimens of mouse caecum. The emergence of C. difficile in mouse caecum induced by LB20304a was lower than that by ciprofloxacin or piperacillin at day 1 and day 7 after completing administration of drugs.

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Morphological Studies on the Epithelium of the Midgut of the Nymph and the adult in the Grasshopper, Oxya sinuosa (우리벼메뚜기 유충과 성충의 중장 점막 상피에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeung-Sik;Lee, Jae-Hyun;Park, Sang-Ock
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.105-119
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    • 1990
  • In order to know the morphological characteristics and changes according to the developmental stage, the comparative observations have been studied by light and electron microscope on the midgut(gastric caecum, stomach) of the grasshopper(Oxya sinuosa Mistshenko). The results obtained are summarized as follow : In light microscopic level, the cuboidal shaped cells of the gastric caecum in the 5th instar nymph are differentiated the columnar epithelium in the adult. A number of pigment granules are appeared in the gastric caecum of the 5th instar nymph, however the pigment granules were absent in the adult. Indistinct or undifferentiated folds of the epithelial layer were appeared in the 5th instar nymph, whereas the well-developed folds were appeared the gastric caecum in the adult. The well-developed muscular layers are seen in the 5th instar numph, however in the adult the muscular layers are appeared thin or a few layers. In electron microscopic level, in the midgut epithelium, a number of well-developed rER, a few lipid droplets, multi vesicular bodies, small vesicles and glycogen granules were found. Two types of the pigment granules in the gastric caecum of the 5th instar nymph were appeared, whereas the whorl-membrane, a few secretory granules and one type of the gastro-entero-endocrine cell were found in the adult midgut. The light and dark cells could be distinguished in the stomach epithelim of the 5th instar nymph.

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Influence of Supplemental Enzymes, Yeast Culture and Effective Micro-organism Culture on Gut Micro-flora and Nutrient Digestion at Different Parts of the Rabbit Digestive Tract

  • Samarasinghe, K.;Shanmuganathan, T.;Silva, K.F.S.T.;Wenk, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.830-835
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    • 2004
  • An experiment of 10 weeks duration was carried out to study the influence of supplemental effective microorganism (EM) culture, yeast culture and enzymes on nutrient digestibility and gut microflora in rabbit gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Twenty four eight to nine weeks old, New Zealand White rabbits were allotted to four dietary treatments; a basal (control) feed, basal feed supplemented with either EM (1%), yeast culture or enzymes (400 ppm). Nutrient flow in digesta and their digestibility at ileum, caecum, colon and in the total tract as well as gut microflora distribution were studied. Feed dry matter was diluted from 92% to about 14% up to the ileum and about 95% of this water was reabsorbed by the colonic rectal segment followed by caecum (25%). EM and yeast improved protein digestibility at a lower rate than enzymes. Ileal, caecal, colonic and total tract digestibility of crude protein with enzymes were higher by 10.8, 9.4, 11.3 and 10.7%, respectively, as compared to the control. Yeast and enzymes increased crude fiber digestibility at ileum, caecum, colon and in the total tract by 8.5, 9.6, 9.0 and 8.3%, respectively, while EM improved them at a lower rate. Irrespective of treatments, total tract digestibility of crude protein (0.698-0.773) and fiber (0.169-0.183) were greater (p<0.05) than the ileal digestibility. Even though a post-caecal protein digestibility was observed, fiber digestion seemed to be completed in the caecum especially with yeast and enzymes. High precaecal digestibility of crude fiber (97%) and protein (95%) were observed even without additives probably due to caecotrophy. EM and yeast culture promoted the growth of lactic acid bacteria especially in the caecum but they did not influence gut yeast and mould. Present findings reveal that even though rabbits digest nutrients efficiently through hind gut fermentation, they can be further enhanced by EM, yeast and enzymes. Of the three additives tested, enzymes found to be the best.

Activities of acid phosphatase and non-specific esterase are present in the tribocytic organ and the caecum of Fibricola seoulensis (서울주걱흡충 조직융해구와 맹장에 acid phosphatase, non-specific esterase의 활성도가 나타난다)

  • Sun Huh
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.165-168
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    • 1993
  • In order to know the enzyme activities of Filbricola seouzenis, an intestinal trematode of human and rodent in Korea. the enzyme histochemical method is applicated. Activities of acid phosphatase (E.C.3.1.3.2) and non-specific esterase (E.C.3.1.1) were present in microvilli and glandular cells of trlbocytic organ and the epithelium of the caecum.

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Effect of Caecectomy on Body Weight Gain, Intestinal Characteristics and Enteric Gas Production in Goslings

  • Chen, Yieng-How;Wang, Shu-Yin;Hsu, Jenn-Chung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1030-1034
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    • 2003
  • Two experiments of four-week duration were conducted to investigate the effect of caecectomy on the intestinal characteristics, body weight gain and gas production in the caeca of White Roman goslings. In experiment I, forty eight 2-wk-old female goslings with similar body weight were randomly divided into four treatments: sham (SHAM), left side caecum removed (LSCR), right side caecum removed (RSCR) and both caeca removed (CAECECTOMY). Smimilarly, experiment II was conducted with twelve 5-wkold male goslings in two treatments: SHAM and CAECECTOMY. Free choice water with ad libitum feed was provided during experiment. At the end of experiment I, goslings were sacrificed and gut length and weight were determined. At 7 and 9 wks of age, birds in experiment II were subjected to respiration calorimetry studies. In both experiments, final body weights were not affected by caecectomy. Results of experiment I indicated that caecectomy did not significantly affect the relative weight (g/100 g BW) of gizzard, small intestine, rectum and colon (p>0.05); however, the relative length of colon and rectum did increase (p<0.05). The remaining caecum did not show compensatory growth in both LSCR and RSCR treatments. In experiment II, results indicated that the average enteric methane production from the caecetomised goslings was significantly lower than that from the bird in SHAM goslings (p<0.05). In comparison with SHAM goslings, calorific loss from entric methane in caecetomised birds was lower (p<0.05). There was no effect of age on methane production. The enteric nitrous oxide production in caeca of goslings was very low with no significantly different between two treatments.

Comparative Effects of Sodium Gluconate, Mannan Oligosaccharide and Potassium Diformate on Growth Performances and Small Intestinal Morphology of Nursery Pigs

  • Poeikhampha, T.;Bunchasak, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.844-850
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of Sodium Gluconate (SG), Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS) and Potassium Diformate (PDF) on growth performance and small intestinal morphology in nursery piglets. One hundred forty four female piglets ($11.69{\pm}0.71\;kg$) were divided into 4 treatments with six replicates of six pigs each. The pigs received a control diet or diets supplemented with SG, MOS and PDF at 2,500, 3,000 and 8,000 ppm; respectively, for 6 weeks. Supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF increased final body weight, average daily gain and tended to improve feed to gain ratio (p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.16; respectively), other than average daily feed intake, intestinal pH and the bacterial populations were not influenced by the dietary treatments. SG significantly decreased the ammonia concentration in the caecum (p<0.05) and supplementation of SG, MOS or PDF tended to increase lactic acid and total short chain fatty acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.08, 0.09; respectively), in addition SG, MOS or PDF slightly increased butyric acid concentration in the caecum (p = 0.14). SG highly significant increased the villous height in jejunum (p<0.01) and supplementing SG, MOS or PDF significantly increased crypt depth in jejunum (p<0.05), moreover, PDF significantly increased villous height and crypt depth ratio in jejunum (p<0.05) compared with control. The dietary treatments did not influence villous height and crypt depth in duodenum and villous height in jejunum (p>0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing SG, MOS or PDF as a feed additive has the potential to improve the growth performance, the intestinal lactic acid bacteria population, intestinal short-chain fatty acid concentration and the intestinal morphology of pigs.

Localization and isozyme patterns of phosphatase in Fibricola seoulensis (Fibricola seoulensis에서 phosphatase의 분포와 동위효소유형)

  • 김홍자;김창환
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.353-362
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    • 1993
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the localization and isozyme patterns of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in metacercariae and in adults of F. seoulensis by enzyme-histochemistry method and electrophoresis. Acidphosphatase showed a strong activity at pH 5 in the intestinal caecum of adults, but showed no reactions in the nonsubstrate control and in the inhibitor-treated control. Alkaline phosphatase showed a strong activity at pH 8 in the intestinal caecum and the tribocytic organ of adults, and in the intestinal caecum and in the genital anlagen of metacercariae. In non-denature PAGE, ten bands of protein fraction from the extracts of metacercariae and twenty-two bands from adults were detected. In denature PAGE, two protein bands having molecular weights of 192 kDa and 123 kDa were detected in the metacercariae, but absent from adult stage. In adults, protein fractions of 27.5 kDa, 24.5 kDa, 21.4 kDa, 18 kDa, 16 kDa and 15 kDa were detected. In non-denature PAGE, isozymes of acid phosphatase showed the most strong activity at pH 5, whereas no activity was shown at pH 2 and pH 7. One isozyme 85 kDa, 73 kDa and 62 kDa) in adults.

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EFFECTS OF AMMONIATED RICE STRAW FEEDING ON MICROBES AND THEIR FERMENTATION END-PRODUCTS IN THE RUMEN AND CAECUM OF SHEEP

  • Cann, I.K.O.;Kobayashi, Y.;Wakita, M.;Hoshino, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 1993
  • Three sheep fitted with cannulas in the rumen and the caecum were used in a $3{\times}3$ Latin square design to study the changes in ruminal and caecal microbial populations and their metabolite composition with ammoniated rice straw feeding. The 3 diets contained either 80% untreated rice straw (UTS) or ammoniated rice straw (ATS) and 20% formula feed. These were a control diet (C), a urea supplemented diet (U) containing urea at 1.1% and an ammoniated rice straw diet (AT). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and means separated by the Student Neumann Kuel's multiple comparison. AT feeding increased ruminal bacterial counts, in particular cellulolytic bacterial counts (p < 0.05) which were 1.8, 2.4 and 7.0 (${\times}10^6/ml$ ruminal fluid) for C, U and AT, respectively. There was an increasing tendency (p < 0.10) in ruminal fungal population with U; values were 2.0, 5.2, 3.1 (${\times}10^3/ml$ ruminal fluid) for C, U and AT, respectively. Ruminal protozoa counts were not significantly (p > 0.05) altered with diets. Caecal total viable bacterial count with AT was about thrice the value with C. Total VFA concentration in the rumen was significantly increased (p < 0.025) (7.7 mmol/dl for C and 8.2 mmol/dl for AT) and correspondingly, pH lowered when AT was fed. Sheep on AT tended to produce less acetate and more butyrate in the rumen without significance (p > 0.05). Similar to the rumen, total VFA concentrations of 4.4, 3.8 and 5.2 mmol/dl were detected, respectively, for C, U and AT. Caecal ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were about six-fold of that in the rumen, though there were no differences (p > 0.05) among treatments.

Comparison of Digestive Function Among Rabbits, Guinea-Pigs, Rats and Hamsters. I. Performance, Digestibility and Rate of Digesta Passage

  • Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Yu, Bi;Kuo, Chung-Yi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1499-1507
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    • 2000
  • This trial was to compare the digestive function of laboratory animals, which included omnivores (rats) and herbivores (rabbits, guinea pigs and hamsters). Ten weanling rats, rabbits, guinea pigs and hamster were randomly allocated in individual metabolic cages for a performance and a digestibility trial. Results showed that guinea pigs were significantly best in digestion of dietary crude protein and fiber. Rabbits, however, had the poorest nutrient digestion among the herbivores. Crude fiber digested significantly less by rats than by the herbivores (p<0.05). The digesta retention in the GI tract was longest in rabbits followed by guinea pigs, rats and hamsters. The relative length of the large intestine was significantly shorter in rats as compared to guinea pigs or hamsters. Both the weight and length ratio of the caecum or colon-rectum to the large intestine reflected the major site for fermentation that was the caecum in rabbits and the colon-rectum in guinea pigs. 10% of crude fiber diet did not result in damaged mucosa in any of the experimental animals in this trial.