• Title, Summary, Keyword: average spectral acceleration

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Average spectral acceleration: Ground motion duration evaluation

  • Osei, Jack Banahene;Adom-Asamoah, Mark
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.577-587
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    • 2018
  • The quantitative assessment of the seismic collapse risk of a structure requires the usage of an optimal intensity measure (IM) which can adequately characterise the severity of the ground motion. Research suggests that the average spectral acceleration ($Sa_{avg}$) may be an efficient and sufficient alternate IM as compared to the more traditional first mode spectral acceleration, $Sa(T_1)$, particularly during seismic collapse risk estimation. This study primarily presents a comparative evaluation of the sufficiency of the average spectral acceleration with respect to ground motion duration, and secondarily assesses the impact of ground motion duration on collapse risk estimation. By assembling a suite of 100 historical ground motions, incremental dynamic analysis of 60 different inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) oscillators with varying periods and ductility capacities were analysed, and collapse risk estimates obtained. Linear regression models are used to comparatively quantify the sufficiency of $Sa_{avg}$ and $Sa(T_1)$ using four significant duration metrics. Results suggests that an improved sufficiency may exist for $Sa_{avg}$ when the period of the SDF system increases, particularly beyond 0.5, as compare to $Sa(T_1)$. In reference to the ground motion duration measures, results indicated that the sufficiency of $Sa_{avg}$ is more sensitive to significant duration definitions that consider almost the full wave train of an accelerogram ($SD_{a5-95}$ and $SD_{v5-95}$). In order to obtain a reduced variability of the collapse risk estimate, the 5-95% significant duration metric defined using the Arias integral ($SD_{a5-95}$) should be used for seismic collapse risk estimation in conjunction with $Sa_{avg}$.

Determination of seismic hazard and soil response of a critical region in Turkey considering far-field and near-field earthquake effect

  • Sonmezer, Yetis Bulent;Celiker, Murat
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.131-146
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    • 2020
  • Evaluation of earthquake impacts in settlements with a high risk of earthquake occurrence is important for the determination of site-specific dynamic soil parameters and earthquake-resistant structural planning. In this study, dynamic soil properties of Karliova (Bingol) city center, located near to the intersection point of the North Anatolian Fault Zone and the East Anatolian Fault Zone and therefore having a high earthquake risk, were investigated by one-dimensional equivalent linear site response analysis. From ground response analyses, peak ground acceleration, predominant site period, 0.2-sec and 1-sec spectral accelerations and soil amplification maps of the study area were obtained for both near-field and far-field earthquake effects. The average acceleration spectrum obtained from analysis, for a near-field earthquake scenario, was found to exceed the design spectra of the Turkish Earthquake Code and Eurocode 8. Yet, the average acceleration spectrum was found to remain below the respective design spectra of the two codes for the far-field earthquake scenario. According to both near- and far-field earthquake scenarios in the study area, the low-rise buildings with low modal vibration durations are expected to be exposed to high spectral acceleration values and high-rise buildings with high modal vibration durations will be exposed to lower spectral accelerations. While high amplification ratios are observed in the north of the study area for the near-distance earthquake scenario, high amplification ratios are observed in the south of the study area for the long-distance earthquake scenario.

Fragility assessment for electric cabinet in nuclear power plant using response surface methodology

  • Tran, Thanh-Tuan;Cao, Anh-Tuan;Nguyen, Thi-Hong-Xuyen;Kim, Dookie
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.894-903
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    • 2019
  • An approach for collapse risk assessment is proposed to evaluate the vulnerability of electric cabinet in nuclear power plants. The lognormal approaches, namely maximum likelihood estimation and linear regression, are introduced to establish the fragility curves. These two fragility analyses are applied for the numerical models of cabinets considering various boundary conditions, which are expressed by representing restrained and anchored models at the base. The models have been built and verified using the system identification (SI) technique. The fundamental frequency of the electric cabinet is sensitive because of many attached devices. To bypass this complex problem, the average spectral acceleration $S_{\bar{a}}$ in the range of period that cover the first mode period is chosen as an intensity measure on the fragility function. The nonlinear time history analyses for cabinet are conducted using a suite of 40 ground motions. The obtained curves with different approaches are compared, and the variability of risk assessment is evaluated for restrained and anchored models. The fragility curves obtained for anchored model are found to be closer each other, compared to the fragility curves for restrained model. It is also found that the support boundary conditions played a significant role in acceleration response of cabinet.

Prediction of Spectral Acceleration Response Based on the Statistical Analyses of Earthquake Records in Korea (국내 지진기록의 통계적 분석에 기반한 스펙트럴 가속도 응답 예측기법)

  • Shin, Dong-Hyeon;Hong, Suk-Jae;Kim, Hyung-Joon
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2016
  • This study suggests a prediction model of ground motion spectral shape considering characteristics of earthquake records in Korea. Based on the Graizer and Kalkan's prediction procedure, a spectral shape model is defined as a continuous function of period in order to improve the complex problems of the conventional models. The approximate spectral shape function is then developed with parameters such as moment magnitude, fault distance, and average shear velocity of independent variables. This paper finally determines estimator coefficients of subfunctions which explain the corelation among the independent variables using the nonlinear optimization. As a result of generating the prediction model of ground motion spectral shape, the ground motion spectral shape well estimates the response spectrum of earthquake recordings in Korea.

Spectral Characteristics of the June 2, 1999 Kyeongju Earthquake (1999년 6월 2일 경주 지진의 스펙트럼 특성)

  • 신진수
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1999
  • Spectral characteristic of Kyeongju earthquake occurred on the June 2, 1999 with magnitude 3,4 is analyzed. It is guessed that the stress energy release of source within relatively short period caused the ground near the epicenter to vibrate with large amplitude for the magnitude and predominantly high frequency. The cumulative absolute velocity and average spectrum acceleration are 0.034 gsec and 0.118g, respectively lower than threshold values of potential earthquake damage which is consistent with the investigation of damage in field. The analysis of the acceleration records of Kyeongju earthquake shows the need to develop the ration criterion for the determining the operating basis earthquake of nuclear power plant.

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A novel proficient and sufficient intensity measure for probabilistic analysis of skewed highway bridges

  • Bayat, M.;Daneshjoo, F.;Nistico, N.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.1177-1202
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, a new intensity measure of earthquakes for probabilistic seismic analysis is presented for skewed highway bridges. Three different cases of skewed bridges with different skew angles ($0^{\circ}$, $30^{\circ}$ and $45^{\circ}$) are considered. Well-known intensity measures (e.g., PGA, $S_a$) are evaluated and critically discussed based on sensitivity analysis: efficiency, practically, proficiency and sufficiency of intensity measures are considered in detail. The analyses demonstrated that the intensity measures have to take into account structural acceleration on a wide range of periods so that a new seismic intensity measure is proposed showing that it has less dispersion compared to others. Since the proposed intensity represents the average value of the $S_a$ (between a lower and upper structural period) it has been called Averaged Spectral Acceleration (ASA). Based on performed incremental dynamic analysis (IDA), the seismic analytical fragility curves of typical skewed highway bridges have been evaluated for different states of damage controlling the low dispersion of the ASA index as well as its proficiency and sufficiency.

Minimum loading requirements for areas of low seismicity

  • Lam, Nelson T.K.;Tsang, Hing-Ho;Lumantarna, Elisa;Wilson, John L.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.539-561
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    • 2016
  • The rate of occurrence of intraplate earthquake events has been surveyed around the globe to ascertain the average level of intraplate seismic activities on land. Elastic response spectra corresponding to various levels of averaged (uniform) seismicity for a return period of 2475 years have then been derived along with modifying factors that can be used to infer ground motion and spectral response parameters for other return period values. Estimates derived from the assumption of uniform seismicity are intended to identify the minimum level of design seismic hazard in intraplate regions. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment presented in the paper involved the use of ground motion models that have been developed for regions of different tectonic and crustal classifications. The proposed minimum earthquake loading model is illustrated by the case study of Peninsular Malaysia which has been identified with a minimum effective peak ground acceleration (EPGA) of 0.1 g for a return period of 2475 years, or 0.07 g for a notional return period of 475 years.

Shape Characteristics of Exhaust Plume of Dual-Stage Plasma Thruster using Direct-Current Micro-Hollow Cathode Discharge (직류 마이크로 할로우 음극 방전을 이용한 이단 마이크로 플라즈마 추력기의 배기 플룸의 형상 특성)

  • Ho, Thi Thanh Trang;Shin, Jichul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2016
  • Micro plasma thruster (${\mu}PT$) was studied experimentally with a dual-stage micro-hollow cathode discharge (MHCD) plasma. Electrostatic-like acceleration exhibiting more directional and elongated exhaust plume was achieved by a dual layer MHCD at the total input power less than 10 W with argon flow rate of 40 sccm. V-I characteristic indicated that there was an optimal regime for dual-stage operation where the acceleration voltage across the second stage remained constant. Estimated exhaust plume length showed a similar trend to the analytic estimate of exhaust velocity which scales with an acceleration voltage. ${\mu}PT$ with multiple holes exhibited similar performance with single-hole thruster indicating that higher power loading is possible owing to decreased power through each hole. Boltzmann plot of atomic argon spectral lines showed average electron excitation temperature of about 2.6 eV (~30,170 K) in the exhaust plume.

Full-scale measurements of wind effects and modal parameter identification of Yingxian wooden tower

  • Chen, Bo;Yang, Qingshan;Wang, Ke;Wang, Linan
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.609-627
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    • 2013
  • The Yingxian wooden tower in China is currently the tallest wooden tower in the world. It was built in 1056 AD and is 65.86 m high. Field measurements of wind speed and wind-induced response of this tower are conducted. The wind characteristics, including the average wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity, gust factor, turbulence integral length scale and velocity spectrum are investigated. The power spectral density and the root-mean-square wind-induced acceleration are analyzed. The structural modal parameters of this tower are identified with two different methods, including the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) combined with the Random Decrement Technique (RDT) and Hilbert transform technique, and the stochastic subspace identification (SSI) method. Results show that strong wind is coming predominantly from the West-South of the tower which is in the same direction as the inclination of the structure. The Von Karman spectrum can describe the spectrum of wind speed well. Wind-induced torsional vibration obviously occurs in this tower. The natural frequencies identified by EMD, RDT and Hilbert Transform are close to those identified by SSI method, but there is obvious difference between the identified damping ratios for the first two modes.

Evaluation of scalar structure-specific ground motion intensity measures for seismic response prediction of earthquake resistant 3D buildings

  • Kostinakis, Konstantinos G.;Athanatopoulou, Asimina M.
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.1091-1114
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    • 2015
  • The adequacy of a number of advanced earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs) to predict the structural damage of earthquake resistant 3D R/C buildings is investigated in the present paper. To achieve this purpose three symmetric in plan and three asymmetric 5-storey R/C buildings are analyzed by nonlinear time history analysis using 74 bidirectional earthquake records. The two horizontal accelerograms of each ground motion are applied along the structural axes of the buildings and the structural damage is expressed in terms of the maximum and average interstorey drift as well as the overall structural damage index. For each individual pair of accelerograms the values of the aforementioned seismic damage measures are determined. Then, they are correlated with several strong motion scalar IMs that take into account both earthquake and structural characteristics. The research identified certain IMs which exhibit strong correlation with the seismic damage measures of the studied buildings. However, the degree of correlation between IMs and the seismic damage depends on the damage measure adopted. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the widely used spectral acceleration at the fundamental period of the structure is a relatively good IM for medium rise R/C buildings that possess small structural eccentricity.