• Title, Summary, Keyword: Yellow-sand

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Characteristics of Heavy Metallic Elements of PM10 for Yellow sand and Non-Yellow sand during Springtime of 2002 at Busan (2002년 부산지역 봄철 황사/비황사시 PM10 중의 중금속 농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2003
  • We collected and analyzed PM10 samples to account for the characteristics of heavy metallic elements for yellow sand and non-yellow sand during springtime of 2002 at Busan, The mean PM10 mass concentration for springtime of 2002 was $219.82{\mu}g/m^3$ with the maximum $787.50{\mu}g/m^3$ and the minimum $19.44{\mu}g/m^3$. The mean concentration of metallic elements contained in PM10 are shown as follows : Si>Ca>Fe>Al>Na, respectively. The ratio of mean PM10 mass concentration for yellow sand($362.7{\mu}g/m^3$) to that for non-yellow sand($48.3{\mu}g/m^3$) was 7.5, the significant positive correlation (P<0.05) was found between yellow sand and non-yellow sand. The metallic elements concentration ratios of yellow sand to the non-yellow sand were over 10 times for Al, Ca, Mg, 4~8 times for Fe, Si, Mn. But the concentration of Na, Cu, Zn for non-yellow sand was higher than those of yellow sand. The crustal enrichment factor of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, K, Mn, Na, Ni for yellow sand was higher that of non-yellow sand over 10 times, and concentration rate of soil particles of yellow sand was increased 2.3 times that of nonyellow sand.

The Spatial Distribution and Change of Frequency of the Yellow Sand Days in Korea (한국의 황사 발생 빈도 분포와 변화 분석)

  • Kim, Sunyoung;Lee, Seungho
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatial distribution and change of the frequency of Yellow Sand days and to examine their relationship with atmospheric circular characteristics at the surroundings of the Korean peninsula. Yellow Sand days data are used by intensity, Siberian High Index and monthly mean temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Middle-western region, the occurrence frequency of Yellow Sand days was higher during the study period (1973-2004). Also, the occurrence frequency of Yellow Sand days increased to latter half 16 years compared with the first half 16 years, and be clearer in Middlewest regions. Yellow Sand days frequency increased, and the trend was distinct in the Jungbu region during the study period. Increasing trend of Yellow Sand days frequency was significant for the recent 22 years. Yellow Sand days had a negative relationship with Siberian High Index in February and March. Therefore, Siberian High Index became weaker in the spring, and possibility for the occurrence of Yellow Sand days was generating larger. Yellow Sand days had a positive relationship in monthly mean temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the case of the strong Yellow Sand days is significant. Recently, global warming might be affecting the occurrence of strong Yellow Sand days.

Synoptic analyses of the Yellow Sand Events observed over the Korean peninsula during 22-24 April, 1993 (1993년 4월 22-24일에 관측된 황사현상에 대한 종관분석)

  • 이재규
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.161-177
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    • 1993
  • The Yellow Sand Events observed over the Korean peninsula during 22-24 April, 1993 were examined using the synoptic data and GMS visible image to identify the transport path of the Yellow Sand and the main factor governing the duration of the Yellow Sand phenomenon. The 850 hPa convergence chart and the 700 hPa trajectory analyses of the air mass laden with Yellow Sand particles suggested that the Yellow Sand particles observed over Korea were probably transported from the Gobi Desert and the Loess Plateau. The duration of the Yellow Sand Events was about 35-40 hours rather shorter than normal as the high pressure system centered near the Mongolia region moved rapidly toward the Yellow Sea, which drove away the Yellow Sand particles over the Korean peninsula toward the Japan Islands, furthermore the low-level stratification of the air mass over the Korean penishula showed the unstable atmospheric condition leading to atmospheric diffusion of the particles. The trajectory analyses and the GMS visible image indicated that the long-range transport of the air mass laden with the Yellow Sand particles of this case was more dependent on the 700 hPa air flow than on the 850 hPa air flow.

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A Study on the Concentration Distribution Characteristics of Air Pollutants by Yellow Sand Phenomenon (황사현상에 의한 대기오염물질의 농도분포 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이용기;김종찬;최승석;임홍빈;최양희;이수문
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration distribution characteristics of air pollutants by the yellow sand from China. The concentrations and chemical properties of FPM contained in the yellow sand were compared with those of air pollutants when having no yellow sand in order to estimate the variation characteristics and the originated source of air pollutants moved by yellow sand. The concentrations of PM-2.5 and PM-10 contained in the yellow sand showed an increase of 2.3 to 2.7 times than usual, and the concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the gaseous pollutants showed an increase of about 1.6 times by yellow sand, and thus the air contamination was much influenced by yellow sand phenomenon. The concentrations of inorganic elements contained in FPM from the yellow sand showed a higher concentration variation in the order of Al>Mg>Zn>Pb than usual. The concentration coefficient of air aerosol during the yellow sand period showed that Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe were originated from natural source, and Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu and Zn were originated from artificial source for inorganic elements. The correlation analysis between FPM and inorganic elements showed in the descending order of Al>K>Pb>Mg, and thus the deposited amount of Pb was influenced by that of yellow sand. The average concentrations of PM-10 measured during the yellow sand period exceeded the Korea Air Environmental Standard and showed a excess rate of 3.4 times in the maximum but the average concentrations of PM-2.5 showed within the United States Air Environmental Standard.

Aerosol Optical Thickness of the Yellow Sand from Direct Solar Radiation at Anmyon Island during the Spring of 1998 (안면도에서1998년 봄철에 관측된 황사의 광학적 특징)

  • Shin, Do-Shick;Kim, San;Kim, Jeong-Sik;Cha, Ju-Wan
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.739-746
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    • 1999
  • The spectral aerosol optical thickness of vertical air columns were measured by a ground-based multi-channel sunphotometer at the BAPMoN station(36$^{\circ}$31'N, 126$^{\circ}$19'E) in Anmyon Island, Korea, from 1 March 1998 to 31 May 1998. We used the data of three yellow sand and two clear sky days in order to analyze the temporal variations in aerosol optical thickness at the station. The basic aerosol optical thickness generally represented smaller than 0.3 in a clear sky and the range 0.5 to 1.1 in yellow sand. Especially the aerosol optical thickness represented larger than 0.9 in a heavy yellow sand. It was found that the aerosol optical thickness of yellow sand was highly increased in comparison with the case of a clear sky andparticles larger than 0.5$mu extrm{m}$ were also increased in the spectral distribution of aerosol volume during yellow sand. Consequently the spectral variations in tropospheric aerosol caused by yellow sand were determined by the number concentration of particles larger than 0.5${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and the magnitude of yellow sand.

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The Features Associated with the Yellow Sand Phenomenon Observed in Korea in Wintertime (겨울철 황상 현상의 특징)

  • 전영신;김지영;부경온;김남욱
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.487-497
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    • 2000
  • Spring time is a favorable season to be easily observed the Yellow Sand phenomenon in East Asia. In particular most of the phenomenon tend to occur in April. However, Yellow Sand phenomenon was observed from almost the whole country of Korea in winter of 1966, 1977 and 1999. The features of the synoptic weather pattern in the source regions, air stream flow between the source region and Korea, the measurement of TSP concentration, aerosol size distribution, and chemical composition of snow samples associated with Yellow Sand phenomenon were investigated. The result showed the characteristic evolutionary feature of the synoptic system associated with Yellow Sand phenomena, that is, a strong low level wind mobilized the dust within 2 or 3 days before Yellow Sand phenomenon being observed in Seoul. The wind was remarkably intensified in the source region on January 24, 1999 under the strong pressure gradient, A trajectory analysis showed that the Yellow Sand particle could be reached to Korea within 2 days from the source region, Gobi desert, through Loess plateau and Loess deposition region. The TSP concentration at the top of Kwanak mountain during the Yellow Sand phenomenon is abruptly increasing than the monthly mean concentration. The size resolved number concentration of aerosols ranging from 0.3 to 25${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ was analyzed during Yellow Sand episode. It was evident that aerosols were distinguished by particles in the range of 2-3 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ to result in the abrupt increase in January 1999, After Yellow Sand phenomenon, there was heavy snow in Seoul. By the analysis of snow collected during that time, it was observed that both the Ca(sup)2+ concentration and pH were increased abnormally compared to those in the other winter season.

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Concentration Characteristics of Elemental and Organic Carbons During Asian Dust Episode and Non-Episode (황사시와 비황사시 대기 입자상 탄소성분의 농도 특성)

  • Hwang, Kyung-Chul;Cho, Ki-Chul;Shin, Eun-Sang
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.102-111
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    • 2009
  • In this study, Particulate carbon were determined from 1990 to 1995. The annual variation were investigated. The sampling was carried out using high volume air sampler. Average concentrations of EC and OC during the yellow sand event were $25.70{\mu}g/m^3$ and $13.91{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, $22.10{\mu}g/m^3$ and $10.33{\mu}g/m^3$ during the non-yellow sand event. TC concentration of TSP were 10.7% during the yellow sand event and 20.6% during the non-yellow sand event. Average concentration rate of EC and OC of TC were 64.9% and 35.1%, respectively during the yellow sand event, 67.6% and 32.4% during the non-yellow sand event.

Behaviors of Inorganic Components in Atmospheric Aerosols on the Yellow Sand Phenomena (황사현상시 대기에어로졸 중 무기물질의 동태)

  • 이민희;한의정;신찬기;한진석;김상균
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.230-235
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    • 1993
  • The atmospheric aerosol samples during the Yellow Sand Phenomena in April 1993 were analyzed, and they were compared with those during the normal time. The conclusions are as follows: 1) TSP concentrations in the case of Yellow Sand Phenomena appeared to be 2.2times higher than those of normal conditions. 2) The concentration of aerosols; Inorganic components of soil-originated elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, K) during the Yellow Sand Phenomena were measured to be 1.9-2.1times higher than those during normal time. 3) During the Yellow Sand Phenomena the EF values of soil-originated metal contents except for elements Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn in the atmospheric aerosol were close to unity. 4) The concentrations of $Ca^{2+}, SO_4^{2-}, F^-$ in water soluble ionic components were higher than those during the normal time. 5) Washout factor by rain fall during the Yellow Sand Phenomena were estimated to 1268. 6) During the Yellow Sand Phenomina average deposition was 37.8ton/$km^2$.

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Dynamics of Air Pollutants during the Yellow Sand Phenomena (黃砂現象의 大氣汚染物質 動態에 關한 硏究)

  • 李敏熙;黃奎浩;金恩植;平井英二;丁子哲治;宮崎元一
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 1990
  • To check the possible transportation of gaseous air pollutants with the particles of yellow sand in the movement of air masses during the Yellow Sand Phenomenon, the concentrations of such air pollutants as TSP, $SO_2, CO, NO_x, O_3 and N-CH_4$, and wind wpeed were measured during the Yellow Sand Phenomenon (April 8 $\sim 10, 1990) and they were compared with those during the normal times in Korea. Meanwhile dust color of the samples during the Yellow Sand Phenomenon was the color of sand, that during the normal times was dark-brown. The concentrations of dusts; water soluble components, and metallic components of soil-originated elements during the Yellow Sand Phenomenon were higher than those during the normal times. While the metallic components in the dusts during the Yellow Sand Phenomenon were from soil-originated elements, those during the normal times were of both soiloriginated and sea-originated elements. The change of hourly concentrations of air pollutants showed bi-modal distribution during the two periods. Generally, the concentration levels of air pollutants during the Yellow Sand Period were higher than those during the normal times. Although similarity was observed in the primary sources, differences were observed in the dynamics of the secondary sources due to chemical reactions of the air pollutants during the two periods.

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On the Yellow Sand Detection using KOMPSAT OSMI Data (KOMPSAT OSMI 자료를 이용한 황사탐지)

  • 김영섭;박경원;서애숙
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2002
  • Radiative transfer model was used to detect the yellow sand using KOMPSAT-1/0SMI data. With OSMI and SeaWiFS data, spectrum analysis for spatial and channel were carried out to investigate the characteristics of sensor for the detection of yellow sand. It was compared and analyzed the optical depth of OSMI and SeaWiFS data. Spectral characteristics of x-axis is similar in 765 and 865nm according to spectral analysis for OSMI and SeaWiFS data. It is considered that band 7 and 8(765 and 865nm) of OSMI is suitable for detecting the yellow sand. Compared the yellow sand images by OSMI and MODIS, the data of OSMI are applicable to monitor the yellow sand phenomena. The optical depth of yellow sand event was about 0.8 with 1.0 maximum.