• Title, Summary, Keyword: Vascular stiffness

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Analysis of Arterial Stiffness Variation by Photoplethysmographic DC Component (광용적맥파 비맥동성분에 의한 혈관경직도 변화 분석)

  • Lee, Chung-Keun;Shin, Hang-Sik;Kong, In-Deok;Lee, Myoun-Ho
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2011
  • Assuming that photons absorbed by a vessel do not have acute variations, DC component reflect the basal blood volume (or diameter) before blood pulsation. Vascular stiffness and reflection is influenced by changes in basal blood volume (or diameter). This paper describes analysis of the characteristic variations of vascular stiffness, according to relative variations in DC components of the PPG signal (25-75%). For quantitative analysis, we have used parameters that were proposed previously, reflection and stiffness index, and the second derivative of PPG waveform, b/a and d/a. Significantly, the vascular stiffness and reflections were increased according to increase in DC component of the PPG signal for more than about 3% of baseline values. The systolic blood pressure were increased from $113.1{\times}13.18$ to $116.2{\times}13.319$ mmHg, about 2.76% (r = 0.991, P < 0.001) and the AC component of the PPG signal were decreased from $2.073{\times}2.287$ to $1.973{\times}2.2038$ arbitrary unit, about 5.09% (r = -0.993, P < 0.001). It is separated by DC median and correlation analysis was performed for analyzing vascular characteristics according to instantaneous DC variations. There are significant differences between two correlation coefficients in separated data.

Estimation of the Variation of Quantity in PWV in Accordance with the Changes of Position in Human (자세변화에 따른 PWV 변화량의 평가)

  • Jun, Suk-Hwan;Jeong, In-Cheol;Jung, Sang-O;Yoon, Hyung-Ro
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2009
  • The ideal method which measures a blood vessel of senility and degree of arteriosclerosis is to measure compliance of arterial and condition of blood circulation at the periphery. In these days vascular stiffness have been assessed by analyzing PTT (pulse transit time) from ECG and PPG. PTT is that between toe and finger each subject estimated through ECG and PPG signals. Two parameters, which are related to PWV, were tested with the time delay between the finger and toe. PWV is a variation of quantity which is associated with vascular stiffness. These researches which use PTT and PWV don't consider the blood vessel characteristic of an individual. In this current research, we have used with the blood vessel characteristic of an individual. That is an assessment of vascular stiffness using the variation of quantity in PWV with the changes of position in the subject. PWV variation increased as functions of the subject's age. The increase of the PWV variation parameters with age is attributed to the direct decrease of the blood vessel compliance with different position. The quantity of variation estimated by experimental results is that old age's (75.78${\pm}$7.75) case is 113.68% and young age's (26.47${\pm}$2.04) case is 85.69%. We proved and presented about estimation of vascular stiffness of possibility by this result.

EFFECTS OF UNIFORM SHEAR STRESS ON THE MIGRATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL (균일한 전단응력에 의한 혈관내피세포의 운동성 변화)

  • Shin, Jennifer H.;Song, Suk-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.1404-1408
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    • 2008
  • The migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VEC), which play an important role in vascular remodeling, are known to be regulated by hemodynamic forces in the blood vessels. When shear stresses of 2, 6, 15 dynes/$cm^2$ are applied on mouse micro-VEC in vitro, cells surprisingly migrate against the flow direction at all conditions. While higher flow rate imposes more resistance against the cells, reducing their migration speed, the horizontal component of the velocity parallel to the flow increases with the flow rate, indicating the higher alignment of cells in the direction parallel to the flow at a higher shear stress. In addition, cells exhibit substrate stiffness and calcium dependent migration behavior, which can be explained by polarized remodeling in the mechanosensitive pathway under shear stress.

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Korean Red Ginseng Improves Vascular Stiffness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

  • Chung, Ick-Mo;Lim, Joo-Weon;Pyun, Wook-Bum;Kim, Hye-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 2010
  • Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been shown to enhance endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in experimental animals; however, little is known about its pharmacological effects on vascular stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was carried out to determine whether KRG has beneficial effects on arterial stiffness, cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP), and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) activity. Twenty patients (mean age, 62.5 years) with stable angina pectoris were given KRG (2.7 g/day) and a placebo alternatively for 10 weeks. Blood biochemical analysis and pulse wave velocity (PWV) recording were performed on day 0 and after the completion of each treatment. ROCK activity was assessed based on the level of phospho-$Thr^{853}$ in the myosin-binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, determined by Western blot analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. KRG significantly decreased the systolic BP, brachial ankle PWV, and heart femoral PWV in the patients (all p<0.05), but did not significantly alter the serum lipid profiles, including triglycerides and total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The ROCK activity tended to decrease (p=0.068) following KRG treatment. The placebo did not significantly alter any of the variables. In conclusion, KRG decreased systolic BP and arterial stiffness, probably via the inhibition of ROCK activity, in patients with CAD, but had a neutral effect on serum lipid profiles. Our data suggest that KRG has a therapeutic effect on CAD.

Increased Arterial Stiffness in Behçet's Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Upala, Sikarin;Yong, Wai Chung;Sanguankeo, Anawin
    • Korean Circulation Journal
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.477-482
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    • 2017
  • Background and Objectives: Behçet's disease (BD) is a systemic vasculitis that is characterized by genital, oral, or skin lesions, uveitis, and vascular complications. Studies have shown that increased arterial stiffness is common in systemic immune and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, current research has not yet determined whether patients with BD have increased arterial stiffness. This meta-analysis compares arterial stiffness parameters in subjects with a BD diagnosis to normal subjects. Subjects and Methods: A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed from the database beginning through May 2016. Observation studies were included in this analysis if they assessed the association between BD and arterial stiffness in adult subjects. BD patients met the International Study Group criteria for a diagnosis of Behçet's disease. Aortic stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements as an indicator. Pooled mean difference (MD) of PWV and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance meta-analysis. The between-study heterogeneity of effect-size was quantified using the Q statistic and $I^2$. Results: Data were extracted from four observational studies that included 303 subjects. PWV is significantly higher in patients with Behçet's disease compared with controls (MD=0.74;95%, CI: 0.28-1.20, p=0.002, $I^2=63%$). Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, we observed that PWV, an ideal indicator of arterial stiffness, is increased in patients with Behçet's disease compared with the controls. Prospective studies in a large population should be done to determine the pathophysiological and prognostic implications of increased arterial stiffness in BD.

A Vascular Characteristic Index of Blood Pressure Variation using the Pulse Wave Signal

  • Kim, Gi-Ryon;Jung, Dong-Keun;Ye, Soo-Young;Jeon, Gye-Rok
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2008
  • Pulse waves continuously change with respect to the characteristics and status of the cardiovascular system and in relation to the blood pressure (BP) and the pulse wave velocity (PWV). Monitoring the vascular condition by analyzing the variations in pulse waveforms has been used to diagnose vascular disorders and in drug treatment of arteriosclerosis and peripheral circulatory obstruction. In this paper, we investigated the vascular characteristic index with regard to the BP and classified by pulse wave signals. The pressure pulse wave and photoplethysmography (PPG) were measured simultaneously while subjects exercised, producing changes in the BP, to analyze the variation in the vascular characteristic index. We investigated the correlation between the BP and vascular characteristic index with regard to the classification methods of the pulse wave. The reflection index (RI) and vascular stiffness index were correlated with the diastolic BP, but no correlation was found between these parameters and the systolic BP. These results suggest the possibility of estimating BP through simple measurements of pulse waves.

A Vascular Characteristic Index of Blood Pressure Variation using the Pulse Wave Signal

  • Jung, Dong-Keun;Ha, Jeong-Seo;Kang, Gu-Tae;Ye, Soo- Young;Kim, Gi-Ryon;Jeon, Gye-Rok
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2008
  • Pulse waves continuously change with respect to the characteristics and status of the cardiovascular system and in relation to the blood pressure (BP) and the pulse wave velocity (PWV). Monitoring the vascular condition by analyzing the variations in pulse waveforms has been used to diagnose vascular disorders and in drug treatment of arteriosclerosis and peripheral circulatory obstruction. In this paper, we investigated the vascular characteristic index with regard to the BP and classified by pulse wave signals. The pressure pulse wave and photoplethysmography (PPG) were measured simultaneously while subjects exercised, producing changes in the BP, to analyze the variation in the vascular characteristic index. We investigated the correlation between the BP and vascular characteristic index with regard to the classification methods of the pulse wave. The reflection index (RI) and vascular stiffness index were correlated with the diastolic BP, but no correlation was found between these parameters and the systolic BP. These results suggest the possibility of estimating BP through simple measurements of pulse waves.

The fruit of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms improves arterial stiffness and blood pressure: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

  • Oh, Eunkyoung;Kim, Youjin;Park, Soo-yeon;Lim, Yeni;Shin, Ji-yoon;Kim, Ji Yeon;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Rhee, Moo-Yong;Kwon, Oran
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.322-333
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction are 2 of the independent predictors for cardiovascular disease, while Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (ASH) is a traditional medicinal plant that can improve cardiovascular health. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the fruit of ASH on vascular function in apparently healthy subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, consisting of healthy adults with at least 2 of the following 3 conditions: borderline high blood pressure (BP; 120 mmHg ≤ systolic BP ≤ 160 mmHg or 80 mmHg ≤ diastolic BP ≤ 100 mmHg), smoking (≥10 cigarettes/day), and borderline blood lipid levels (220 ≤ total cholesterol ≤ 240, 130 ≤ low density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤ 165, or 150 ≤ triglyceride ≤ 220 mg/dL). Randomly assigned 76 subjects who received a placebo or 2 doses of ASH fruit (low, 500 mg/day; high, 1,000 mg/day) completed the intervention. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness, and BP were measured both at baseline and following the 12-week intervention. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation was assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with the placebo group, the low-dose group showed more significant changes after the 12-week intervention period in terms of systolic BP (0.1 vs. -7.7 mmHg; P = 0.044), baPWV (31.3 vs. -98.7 cm/s; P = 0.007), and the ratio of phospho-eNOS/eNOS (0.8 vs. 1.22; P = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ASH fruit extract at 500 mg/day has the potential to improve BP and arterial stiffness via endothelial eNOS activation in healthy adults with smoking and the tendency of having elevated BP or blood lipid parameters.

Relationship between Arterial Stiffness as Measured by the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index with Body Mass Index in Healthy Elderly Subjects (건강한 노인에서 심장-발목 혈관지수로 측정한 동맥 경직도와 체질량 지수간의 상관관계)

  • Shin, Kyung A
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 2019
  • An inverse correlation between obesity and arterial stiffness has been reported, but there are no consistent results in elderly subjects. This study examined the relationship between the arterial stiffness measured by the CAVI (cardio-ankle vascular index) and BMI (body mass index) in healthy elderly people. This study included 629 healthy elderly people aged 65 and over who underwent health examinations at a general hospital in Gyeonggi from July 2018 to June 2019. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III of the US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Among the criteria of NCEP-ATP III, the waist circumference and obesity criteria were based on the WHO criteria. All subjects underwent a biochemical blood test and an assessment of the CAVI. In both men and women, the CAVI was lower in the obese group than in the normal weight group. Gender (P=0.047), age (P<0.001), BMI (P<0.001), and waist circumference (P=0.008) were factors affecting the CAVI. Gender, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia were independent positive predictors of the CAVI levels, while obesity was a negative predictor. Therefore, the CAVI and BMI showed an inverse correlation. In conclusion, there was an inverse correlation between the CAVI and BMI in the elderly, and obesity was a negative predictor of the CAVI.