• Title, Summary, Keyword: Underground facilities

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A Study on the Detecting Method for Underground Pipes Using Magnetic Field (자기장을 이용한 매설배관의 위치탐지에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Bong-Kook;Yang, Yean-Soon;Song, Chun-Ho;Seok, Chang-Sung
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.32-37
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    • 2001
  • As increasing underground facilities, more effective management is needed nowadays. It is important to get an accurate information of underground facilities to manage that, so some methods of detecting location - electromagnetic induction method, ground penetration radar method, sonic method - are used to obtain the information of underground facilities. In this study, a magnetic method to detect underground facilities was developed. In the magnetic method, underground facilities are detected by a detector and the magnetic marker which is a permanent magnet and used to marking the location by attaching underground facilities. A proper characteristic of the magnetic marker was optimized by maxwell 20 magnetic field analysis tool, a test field was constructed with the magnetic marker, PVC pipe, and steel pipe under ground 1.5m, and the detector was made by modifying a common ferromagnetic detector. Magnetic strengths of the magnetic marker were measured by the detector at each location in the test field, and analyzed by magnetic field analysis tool in the same condition. In the result, the underground pipes were detectable within the deviation ${\pm}20cm$ at PVC pipe and ${\pm}10cm$ at steel pipe respectively. The steel pipe was more detectable by ferromagnetism. The developed magnetic method can be applied to maintain and manage underground facilities.

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A Study on Status and Accuracy of Underground Facilities Maps (지하시설물도 현황 및 정확도 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yong-Wook;Heo, Min;Lee, Jae-One;Bae, Kyoung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2007
  • As the centralization of city, underground facilities is increasing and being more important. Although the importance of underground facilities map has been emphasized, there were many accidents related underground facilities. The inaccuracy of existing data and the carelessness of management caused many accidents. It is very important to update and to have high quality accuracy of underground facilities maps. But the underground facilities maps are mapped and updated by each institutes. So it is difficult to verify the accuracy of the data. In this study, Field Test is performed to analyze the horizontal accuracy of existing maps using Electromegnetic Induction Method, Total Station and GPS. Surveying of underground facilities in Seoul was performed for 6 institutes of underground facilities during 3 years. The aim of this study is to verify the horizontal accuracy of data and to improve the accuracy of underground facility maps. As the result of analysis, the horizontal accuracy of 6 underground facilities management institutes is 73 cm(2004), 78 cm(2005) and 75 cm(2006).

Status and Accuracy Analysis of Underground Facility Maps (지하시설물도 현황 및 정확도 분석)

  • Bae, Kyoung-Ho;Heo, Min;Lee, Yong-Wook;Jeong, Eui-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry, and Cartography Conference
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    • pp.231-235
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    • 2007
  • As the centralization of city, underground facilities is increasing and being more important. And there were many underground facilities accidents in korea. It is very important to update and to have high quality accuracy of underground facilities maps. But the underground facilities maps are mapped and updated by each institutes. So it is difficult to verify the accuracy of the data. In this study, To analyze the accuracy of maps, Surveying of undergroud facilities for 18 GUs in Seoul is performed during 3 years using Electromegnetic Induction Method, Total Station and GPS. In conclusion, Horizontal accuracy of 6 underground facilities management institutes is 73cm(2004), 78cm(2005) and 75cm(2006).

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A Study on the Detecting Underground Pipes Using Magnetic Mathod (자기장을 이용한 매설배관의 위치탐지에 관한 연구)

  • 석창성;배봉국;김정표
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2003
  • As increasing underground facilities, more effective management is needed nowadays. It is important to get an accurate information of underground facilities to manage that, so some methods of detecting location - electromagnetic induction method, ground penetration radar method, sound wave method - are used to obtain the information of underground facilities. In this study, a magnetic method to detect underground facilities was developed. In the magnetic method, underground facilities are detected by a detector and the magnetic marker which is a permanent magnet and used to marking the location by attaching underground facilities. A test field was constructed for experiment with the magnetic marker, PVC pipe, and steel pipe under ground 1.5m, and a ferromagnetic detector was used for measurement. Magnetic strengths of the magnetic marker were measured by the detector at each location in the test field, and analyzed by magnetic field analysis tool in the same condition. In the result, the underground pipes of 1.5m below were detectable within the deviation $\pm$0.2m. When For applying this method, it should be considered that ferromagnetic materials around the detector could affect a measured value.

Research on Managing Underground Facilities for an Intelligent City

  • Kim, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Jae-Yong
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.421-439
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this project is to construct the intelligent underground facility management system based on UFSN (Underground Facility Sensor Network). Total project duration is 6-year. And first two years' project has been finished. First two years' project focused on water supply and sewage facilities among 7 underground facilities and investigated the fundamental construction technology for the underground facilities management system. To contribute the development of systematic and scientific management of underground facilities, KRIHS implemented 3 researches for 'Underground facilities management system for an intelligent city' like followings: (1) to investigate an integration plan for current water supply and sewage management systems, (2) to derivate of water supply and sewage monitoring items for the monitoring technology development, and (3) to implement a basic research for sensor installation plans on different types of current and new underground facility systems. This research paper contains the first two years' outcome of researches from KRIHS (Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements).

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Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design of Underground Parking in Commercial Facilities - Field survey of Underground Parking Spaces in Department stores, Large Discount Mart and Mixed Used Commercial Facilities - (상업시설 지하주차장의 CPTED계획요소에 관한 연구 - 대형마트와 백화점, 복합상업시설 지하주차장 현장조사 -)

  • Min, Young Hee;Kwon, Ju-Young;Ha, Mi-Kyoung
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 2016
  • Dark and desolate underground parking spaces in commercial facilities are optimal spaces for crime. First, this study reviewed 15 precedent CPTED guidelines and related literatures, and as a result extracted 45 CPTED planning criteria for underground parking facilities. Secondly by field survey, we investigated six parking spaces in commercial facilities whether they were planned properly based on 45 checklist items, in six categories of CPTED principles. In result, target facilities showed average 46.8% relevance ratio, which means less than a half of 45 items of CPTED planning factors were not applied. Guidelines suggest desirable illuminance level of more than 100 lux, however the measurement of illuminance levels in some parking spaces showed below 50 lux. Relatively department stores were keeping CPTED guidelines better than large discount mart and mixed used facilities. Definition of territory of loading dock and customer area should be clarified, clear signage and color scheme in different zones should be represented with higher level of territorial responsibilities and surveillance in mixed used facilities for further improvement.

Evaluation of Radon Levels in Various Public-acess Buildings or Underground Facilities, and Their Temporal Variation in Underground Facilities (다중 이용 건물 또는 지하 실내 공간의 용도에 따른 라돈 오염도 비교와 지하 공간의 시간대별 라돈 농도 변화)

  • Choi, Im-Cho;Shin, Seung-Ho;Jo, Wan-Kuen
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 2009
  • A lesser degree of research is available with respect to indoor radon characteristics associated with occupants' exposure. The present study evaluated the radon levels in several public-access buildings or underground facilities, and their temporal variation in underground facilities. Radon measurements were conducted in 2005 and 2006, utilizing a continuous radon detector. A solid alpha detector (RAD7) was utilized to measure indoor radon levels. The mean radon concentrations obtained from the building or facilities were in a descending order: platforms of Daegu subway line 2, 2005 (32 $Bq/m^3$), hot-air bathroom (14 $Bq/m^3$), basement of office building (14 $Bq/m^3$), underground parking garage (14 $Bq/m^3$), underground shop (12 $Bq/m^3$), nursery (10 $Bq/m^3$), platforms of Daegu subway line 2, 2006 (9.0 $Bq/m^3$), platforms of Daegu subway line 1, 2006 (8.9 $Bq/m^3$), supermarket (7.9 $Bq/m^3$), hospital (7.3 $Bq/m^3$), and second-floor of office building (5.7 $Bq/m^3$). In general, underground-level facilities exhibited higher radon levels as compared with ground-level facilities. It was suggested that ventilation is an important parameter regarding the indoor levels of a subway. There was a decreasing or increasing trend in hourly-radon levels in a subway, whereas no trend were observed in a basement of office building. In addition, the radon levels in the subway lines 1 and 2 varied according to the platforms. The radon levels in the present study were much lower than those of previous studies. The average annual effective dose (AED) of radiation from indoor radon exposure was estimated to be between 0.043 and 0.242 mSv/yr, depending on facility types. These AEDs were substantially lower than the worldwide average AED (2.4 mSv/yr).

Underground Storage of Food (농수산물 및 식품의 지하 저장)

  • 신희순;권광수
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 1994
  • Underground offers many advantages for storing agricultural and marine products. Since it is confined by thick walls of rock it is easy to control temperature and humidity and to achieve air and water tightness. Also, damages by rodents and insects could be avoided. Flexibility in choosing the location is another advantage that underground could offer. Consequently the goods could be stored near the big city to meet the demand change. Because of these advantages, many underground food storage facilities were built and operated successfully in U.S. and many Euroupean countries. On the other hand, there is no underground food storage facilities in Korea despite the need is growing rapidly. This paper describes the case studies of foreigh food storage and technologies related to food storage were analyzed and evaluated. Also performed is analysis of domestic technologies for construction and operation of underground food storage facilities to deduce the fields of studies that have to be conducted.

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Development of Underground Facilities Management System on Subway Construction (지하철공사를 위한 지하매설물관리시스템 개발)

  • 강인준;장용구;정영미
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.75-80
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    • 1997
  • In other to construct a subway, we have to consider the position of the subway and acquisition of a topography, profile-map, cross-map, underground facilities map. All information of underground is demanded accurate location in other to prevent of accident of underground in subway construction. We must think about water lines, sewer lines, electronic lines, telephone lines, all urban gas-line because these are needed construction the subway. And attributes of underground facilities recorded on topography are characteristics. length, width. number, position, and depth of the lines. We have to record these attributes because these are very important to design map on subway construction. If we develop GIS (Geographic Information System) to use the exact in-formation of the underground facilities, we can be management safely and prevent very dangerous accident as fast as possible. In this study, attribute informations are linked geographic informations about underground facilities and we can develop Underground Facilities Management System(UFMS) to analysis dangerous region through dangerous degreed and predict accident range with these informations.

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Empirical Investigation and Comparative Analysis of Underground Public Pedestrian Facilities in Daegu Metropolitan City

  • Lee, Gahng-Ju;Jung, Seong-Hwan
    • Architectural research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2013
  • The study establishes the analytical frame composed of 22 items according to the category of passageway, shop, entrance and amenity for the purpose of executing the empirical investigation of the Underground Public Pedestrian Facilities in Daegu Metropolitan City of Korea. As a result of the research work, the study finds out some problems about the facilities as follows: (1) Passageway elements - the skylight was constructed only in one place. In contrast, the standards of passageway and plaza were well-fulfilled except for one or two cases. (2) Shop elements - the cases of installing shops where they should not be located were found the most, and a case of over-establishing the shop area was found as well. (3) Entrance elements - the cases not matching roof or canopy standard over entrance facilities were found the most. Overall, the entrances and their connection to the adjacent buildings are appraised as not well-established. (4) Amenity elements - these were appraised as insufficient in all except two cases. Regarding this, not only necessary are the establishment of facilities and the effort of facility managers, but also urgent is the institutional improvement.