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Change Detection for High-resolution Satellite Images Using Transfer Learning and Deep Learning Network (전이학습과 딥러닝 네트워크를 활용한 고해상도 위성영상의 변화탐지)

  • Song, Ah Ram;Choi, Jae Wan;Kim, Yong Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.199-208
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    • 2019
  • As the number of available satellites increases and technology advances, image information outputs are becoming increasingly diverse and a large amount of data is accumulating. In this study, we propose a change detection method for high-resolution satellite images that uses transfer learning and a deep learning network to overcome the limit caused by insufficient training data via the use of pre-trained information. The deep learning network used in this study comprises convolutional layers to extract the spatial and spectral information and convolutional long-short term memory layers to analyze the time series information. To use the learned information, the two initial convolutional layers of the change detection network are designed to use learned values from 40,000 patches of the ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammertry and Remote Sensing) dataset as initial values. In addition, 2D (2-Dimensional) and 3D (3-dimensional) kernels were used to find the optimized structure for the high-resolution satellite images. The experimental results for the KOMPSAT-3A (KOrean Multi-Purpose SATllite-3A) satellite images show that this change detection method can effectively extract changed/unchanged pixels but is less sensitive to changes due to shadow and relief displacements. In addition, the change detection accuracy of two sites was improved by using 3D kernels. This is because a 3D kernel can consider not only the spatial information but also the spectral information. This study indicates that we can effectively detect changes in high-resolution satellite images using the constructed image information and deep learning network. In future work, a pre-trained change detection network will be applied to newly obtained images to extend the scope of the application.

A Study on e-Healthcare Business Model: Focusing on Business Ecosystem Approach (e헬스케어 비즈니스모델에 관한 연구: 비즈니스생태계 접근 중심으로)

  • Kim, Youngsoo;Jung, Jai-Jin
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.167-185
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    • 2019
  • As most G-20 countries expect medical spending to grow rapidly over the next few decades, the burden of healthcare costs continues to grow globally due to an increase in the elderly population and chronic illnesses, and the ongoing quality improvement of health care services. However, under the rapidly changing technological environment of healthcare and IT convergence, the problem may become even bigger if not properly recognized and not properly prepared. In the context of the paradigm shift and the increasing problem of the medical field, complex responses in technical, institutional and business aspects are urgently needed. The key is to derive a business model that is appropriate for businesses that integrate IT in the medical field. With the arrival of the era of the 4th industrial revolution, new technologies such as Internet of Things have been applied to eHealthcare, and the need for new business models has emerged.In the e-healthcare of the Internet era, it became a traditional firm-based business model. However, due to the characteristics of dynamics and complexity of things Internet in the Internet of things, A business ecosystem-based approach is needed. In this paper, we present and analyze the major success factors of the ecosystem based on the 3 - layer structure of the e - healthcare business ecosystem as a result of research on e - healthcare business ecosystem based on emerging technology such as Internet of things. The three-layer business ecosystem was defined as (1) Infrastructure Layer, (2) Character Layer, and (3) Stakeholder Layer. As the key success factors for the eHealthCare business ecosystem, the following four factors are suggested: (1) introduction of the iHealthcare concept, (2) expansion of the business ecosystem, (3) business ecosystem change process innovation, and (4) business ecosystem leadership innovation.

Anti-osteoporotic Activity of Gojineumja Aqueous Extracts on the Ovariectomized Mice (난소적출 마우스에서 고진음자(固眞飮子) 물 추출물의 골다공증 개선 효과)

  • Cho, Su-Yun;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.16-38
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The objective of this in vivo study is to observe the anti-osteoporotic activities of Gojineumja aqueous extracts (GJEJ) on the ovariectomized (OVX) mice as compared to those of risedronate sodium (RES). Methods: Thirty five days after bilateral OVX, GJEJ was orally administered, for 35 days once a day and then the changes on the body weight and gain during experimental periods, femur weights, bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength (failure load), mineral contents - calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (IP), histological profiles and histomorphometrical analyses at sacrifice were conducted with serum biochemistry - osteocalcin contents and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activities. And the results of GJEJ were compared with RES orally administered OVX mice. Results: As a result of OVX, noticeable increase of body weight and gains and serum osteocalcin levels, decrease of serum BALP activities, femur weights, femur Ca and IP contents, BMD and strength were observed as compared to those of sham control mice, respectively. Also, the decrease of all histomorphometrical indices indicating the bone mass and structure, and the increase of indices about resorption were also detected in the femur of OVX control. However, these estrogen-deficient osteoporotic signs were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by 35 days of continuous oral treatment of GJEJ, at dose levels of 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. Especially, GJEJ 500 mg/kg showed favorable inhibitory activities against estrogen-deficient osteoporosis symptoms induced by OVX as comparable to those of RES 2.5 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that oral administrations of GJEJ have clear dose-dependent favorable anti-osteoporotic activities in OVX mice.

Analyzing Studies on Teacher Professional Vision: A Literature Review ('수업을 보는 눈'으로서 교사의 전문적 시각에 대한 기존 연구의 특징과 쟁점 분석)

  • Yoon, Hye-Gyoung;Park, Jisun;Song, Youngjin;Kim, Mijung;Joung, Yong Jae
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.765-780
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to synthesize the theoretical perspectives, research methods, and research results of teachers' professional vision by reviewing and analyzing previous research papers and to suggest implications for science teacher education and research. Three databases were used to search peer reviewed journal articles published between 1997-2017, which include 'teachers' and 'professional vision' explicitly in abstracts and empirical studies only. 21 articles in total were analyzed and review results are as follows. First, researchers regarded professional vision as a new concept of teacher professionalism. Previous research viewed professional vision as integrated structure of teachers' knowledge or ability activated at specific moment. Second, the analytical framework of professional vision included two aspects; 'selective attention' and 'reasoning'. Several aspects of lessons or the desirable teaching and learning factors are suggested as the subcategories of selective attention. Hierarchical levels or independent reasoning ability factors are suggested as the subcategories of reasoning process. Third, research on teachers' professional vision focused more on middle school teachers than elementary teachers and on various subject areas. Most studies used video clips and more cases of using videos of non-participants were found. In case of measurement of professional vision, most quantitative scoring methods were whether the responses of experts and teachers on video clips were consistent. Last, most studies examined or assessed teachers' professional vision. It is reported that in-service teachers' professional vision was evaluated higher than novice teachers' and using video clips were effective to examine and improve teachers' professional vision.

Hydrothermal Evolution for the Inseong Au-Ag Deposit in the Hwanggangri Metallogenic Region, Korea (황강리 광화대 인성 금-은 광상의 광화 유체 진화)

  • Cho, Hye Jeong;Seo, Jung Hun;Lee, Tong Ha;Yoo, Bong Chul;Lee, Hyeonwoo;Lee, Kangeun;Lim, Subin;Hwang, Jangwon
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.307-323
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    • 2018
  • The Inseong Au-Ag and base metal deposit, located in Chungchengbuk-do, Korea, consists of series of quartz veins filling fissures. The deposit occurs in Hwanggangri meta-sediment formation, a lime pebble-bearing phyllite, in the Okcheon Supergroup. Abundant ore minerals in the deposit are pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. The gangue minerals are quartz, calcite and chlorite. Hydrothermal alteration such as chlorization, silicitication, sericitization and carbonitization can be observed around the quartz veins. 4 vein stages can be distinguished based on its paragenetic sequence, vein structure, alteration features and ore minerals. Microthermometry of the fluid inclusion assemblages occur in the veins are conducted to reconstruct a hydrothermal P-T evolution. Fluid inclusions in clean and barren quartz vein in stage 1 have Th of $270{\sim}342^{\circ}C$ and salinity of 1.7~6.4 (NaCl eqiv.) wt%. Euhedral quartz crystal in stage 2 have Th of $108{\sim}350^{\circ}C$ and salinity of 0.5~7.5 wt%. Barren milky quartz vein in stage 3 have Th of $174{\sim}380^{\circ}C$ and salinity of 0.8~7.5 wt%. Calcite vein in stage 4 have Th of $103{\sim}265^{\circ}C$ and salinity of 0.7~6.4 wt%. Calculated paleodepth about 0.5~1.5 km (hydrostatic pressure) indicate epithermal ore-forming condition. Shallow depth but relatively high-T hydrothermal fluids possibly create a steep geothermal gradient, sufficient for base metal precipitation in the Inseong deposit.

A Study on the Evaluation and Maintenance for Alternative Habitats of the Narrow-mouth Frog (Kaloula borealis) - A Case Study on the Alternative Habitats of Kaloula borealis at the University of Seoul - (맹꽁이 대체서식지 조성 평가 및 유지관리 방안 연구 - 서울시립대학교 맹꽁이 대체서식지를 사례로 -)

  • Park, Seok-Cheol;Han, Bong-Ho;Park, Min-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.76-87
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of and to derive future maintenance-management measures of the constructed alternative habitat for the Kaloula borealis at the University of Seoul, examining the period between 2015-2017. The research was constructed in 2014 and in a $191m^2$ area. The performance evaluation was divided into maintaining the habitat of the target species, maintaining the population and reproduction rates of the target species, maintaining the habitat of the wild species, the resilience of natural ecosystems, and the harmony with the surrounding environment. In terms of maintaining the habitat of the target species, soil collected from the existing habitat of the Kaloula borealis and was the depth was increased to 30cm in the alternative habitat. An artificial water supply was required every year during the supporting the spawning and hatching of other amphibians along with the Kaloula borealis. The sources of water of the alternative habitat were both rain and tap water, as it cannot be maintained naturally. Additionally, the Kaloula borealis thrived because it inhabited the research site and the average temperature was $26.2^{\circ}C$ from April-June, which is when the Kaloula borealis spawns. In terms of maintaining the population and reproduction rates of the Kaloula borealis, they were evaluated to have stable rates of reproduction. In terms of maintaining the habitat of the wild species, studies on vegetation and the structure of the characteristics of prey or predators will be needed. Also, alien species, such as Humulus japonicus and Bidens frondosa needed to be removed to maintain the wetland ecosystem of the wild species. In the assessment of the resilience of the natural ecosystems, the mud was monitored, noting the changes in the depth of water, with steps taken to reduce the leakage of water. The mud collected from the Haneul Pond wetland, which is located around the research site was piled up. Also, partial mowing management and the inducement of a natural vegetation colony was required for vegetation management. It was also necessary to create porous spaces, such as old trees and tree branches to create a habitat with hiding places and feeding and spawning places for small organisms. In terms of the harmony with the surrounding environment, the following threat factors needed to be managed: amphibian roadkill by vehicles and pedestrians and artificial draining due to nearby user access. Based on the monitoring results, alternative habitat management measures presented the promoting various waterside structures, in which amphibians can spawn and hide in, managing the water environment consistently, managing the vegetation, focused on the habitat of the wild species, and managing the surrounding environment for the habitat. The creation of an alternative habitat should be managed through monitoring, reflecting the characteristics of the changes in the site. Also continuing efforts are also needed to improve the habitat of the target species.

Mediation analysis of dietary habits, nutrient intakes, daily life in the relationship between working hours of Korean shift workers and metabolic syndrome : the sixth (2013 ~ 2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (교대근무자의 근무시간과 대사증후군의 관계에서 식습관, 영양섭취상태, 일상생활의 매개효과 분석 : 6기 국민건강영양조사 (2013 ~ 2015) 데이터 이용)

  • Kim, Yoona;Kim, Hyeon Hee;Lim, Dong Hoon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.567-579
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study examined the mediation effects of dietary habits, nutrient intake, daily life in the relationship between the working hours of Korean shift workers and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Data were collected from the sixth (2013-2015) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The stochastic regression imputation was used to fill missing data. Statistical analysis was performed in Korean shift workers with metabolic syndrome using the SPSS 24 program for Windows and a structural equation model (SEM) using an analysis of moment structure (AMOS) 21.0 package. Results: The model fitted the data well in terms of the goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.025, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.917, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.984, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.987, and adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.915. Specific mediation effect of dietary habits (p = 0.023) was statistically significant in the impact of the working hours of shift workers on nutrient intake, and specific mediation effect of daily life (p = 0.019) was statistically significant in the impact of the working hours of shift workers on metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, the dietary habits, nutrient intake and daily life had no significant multiple mediator effects on the working hours of shift workers with metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The appropriate model suggests that working hours have direct effect on the daily life, which has the mediation effect on the risk of metabolic syndrome in shift workers.

Stress distribution of molars restored with minimal invasive and conventional technique: a 3-D finite element analysis (최소 침습적 충진 및 통상적 인레이 법으로 수복한 대구치의 응력 분포: 3-D 유한 요소 해석)

  • Yang, Sunmi;Kim, Seon-mi;Choi, Namki;Kim, Jae-hwan;Yang, Sung-Pyo;Yang, Hongso
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.297-305
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to analyze stress distribution and maximum von Mises stress generated in intracoronal restorations and in tooth structures of mandibular molars with various types of cavity designs and materials. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional solid models of mandible molar such as O inlay cavity with composite and gold (OR-C, OG-C), MO inlay cavity with composite and gold (MR-C, MG-C), and minimal invasive cavity on occlusal and proximal surfaces (OR-M, MR-M) were designed. To simulate masticatory force, static axial load with total force of 200 N was applied on the tooth at 10 occlusal contact points. A finite element analysis was performed to predict stress distribution generated by occlusal loading. Results: Restorations with minimal cavity design generated significantly lower values of von Mises stress (OR-M model: 26.8 MPa; MR-M model: 72.7 MPa) compared to those with conventional cavity design (341.9 MPa to 397.2 MPa). In tooth structure, magnitudes of maximum von Mises stresses were similar among models with conventional design (372.8 - 412.9 MPa) and models with minimal cavity design (361.1 - 384.4 MPa). Conclusion: Minimal invasive models generated smaller maximum von Mises stresses within restorations. Within the enamel, similar maximum von Mises stresses were observed for models with minimal cavity design and those with conventional design.

Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Clathrin-Associated Adaptor Protein 3-δ Subunit 2 (AP3S2) in Chicken

  • Oh, Jae-Don;Bigirwa, Godfrey;Lee, Seokhyun;Song, Ki-Duk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2019
  • A chicken clathrin-associated adaptor protein $3-{\delta}$ subunit 2 (AP3S2) is a subunit of AP3, which is involved in cargo protein trafficking to target membrane with clathrin-coated vesicles. AP3S2 may play a role in virus entry into host cells through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. AP3S2 is also known to participate in metabolic disease developments of progressions, such as liver fibrosis with hepatitis C virus infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chicken AP3S2 (chAP3S2) gene was originally identified as one of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in chicken kidney which was fed with different calcium doses. This study aims to characterize the molecular characteristics, gene expression patterns, and transcriptional regulation of chAP3S2 in response to the stimulation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to understand the involvement of chAP3S2 in metabolic disease in chicken. As a result, the structure prediction of chAP3S2 gene revealed that the gene is highly conserved among AP3S2 orthologs from other species. Evolutionarily, it was suggested that chAP3S2 is relatively closely related to zebrafish, and fairly far from mammal AP3S2. The transcriptional profile revealed that chAP3S2 gene was highly expressed in chicken lung and spleen tissues, and under the stimulation of poly (I:C), the chAP3S2 expression was down-regulated in DF-1 cells (P<0.05). However, the presence of the transcriptional inhibitors, BAY 11-7085 (Bay) as an inhibitor for nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ ($NF{\kappa}B$) or Tanshinone IIA (Tan-II) as an inhibitor for activated protein 1 (AP-1), did not affect the expressional level of chAP3S2, suggesting that these transcription factors might be dispensable for TLR3 mediated repression. These results suggest that chAP3S2 gene may play a significant role against viral infection and be involved in TLR3 signaling pathway. Further study about the transcriptional regulation of chAP3S2 in TLR3 pathways and the mechanism of chAP3S2 upon virus entry shall be needed.

Prediction of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity in Greenhouse via a Multilayer Perceptron Using Environmental Factors (환경요인을 이용한 다층 퍼셉트론 기반 온실 내 기온 및 상대습도 예측)

  • Choi, Hayoung;Moon, Taewon;Jung, Dae Ho;Son, Jung Eek
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2019
  • Temperature and relative humidity are important factors in crop cultivation and should be properly controlled for improving crop yield and quality. In order to control the environment accurately, we need to predict how the environment will change in the future. The objective of this study was to predict air temperature and relative humidity at a future time by using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). The data required to train MLP was collected every 10 min from Oct. 1, 2016 to Feb. 28, 2018 in an eight-span greenhouse ($1,032m^2$) cultivating mango (Mangifera indica cv. Irwin). The inputs for the MLP were greenhouse inside and outside environment data, and set-up and operating values of environment control devices. By using these data, the MLP was trained to predict the air temperature and relative humidity at a future time of 10 to 120 min. Considering typical four seasons in Korea, three-day data of the each season were compared as test data. The MLP was optimized with four hidden layers and 128 nodes for air temperature ($R^2=0.988$) and with four hidden layers and 64 nodes for relative humidity ($R^2=0.990$). Due to the characteristics of MLP, the accuracy decreased as the prediction time became longer. However, air temperature and relative humidity were properly predicted regardless of the environmental changes varied from season to season. For specific data such as spray irrigation, however, the numbers of trained data were too small, resulting in poor predictive accuracy. In this study, air temperature and relative humidity were appropriately predicted through optimization of MLP, but were limited to the experimental greenhouse. Therefore, it is necessary to collect more data from greenhouses at various places and modify the structure of neural network for generalization.