Background/Objectives: Despite multiple approaches of treatments for salivary duct carcinoma, there has been a need for more successful treatment methods because of its poor prognosis. Treatment options like immunotherapy using new technologies have been attempted. Based on recent study results indicating that targeting programmed death receptors are effective in treating various cancers, this study aimed to identify the frequency of PD-L1 expression and its impact on survival rate in salivary duct carcinoma. Materials & Methods: We studied 33 patients with salivary gland cancer who were available for histologic specimens. We examined the expression of PD-L1 in the tissues and analyzed the association with the survival rate and the association with various clinical parameters. Results: According to this study and review of similar studies, we discovered that the expression of PD-L1 in salivary duct carcinoma was lower than other types of cancers. The impact of PD-L1 on survival rate also showed inconsistency in salivary duct carcinoma. Conclusion: Immunotherapy by PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade in salivary duct carcinoma needs further evaluation for clinical application.
Kim, Seung Min;Kim, Cheol Keun;Kim, Soon Heum;Lee, Myung Chul;Kim, Jee Nam;Choi, Hyun Gon;Shin, Dong Hyeok;Jo, Dong In
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Myxomas can be divided into two groups: those derived from the facial skeleton, and those derived from external skeletal soft tissue. Soft tissue myxomas of the head and neck are uncommon, with fewer than 50 cases reported. In any form and location, myxoma of parotid gland is rare. We report a case of myxoma arising from the left superficial lobe of the parotid gland with good long-term follow-up after superficial parotidectomy with tumor excision. A 49-year-old man was referred to our department of plastic and reconstructive surgery with a painless palpable mass that had persisted in the left mandible angle region for 2 years. Excision of the facial mass and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. The biopsy result was myxoma. Long-term follow-up for 22 months showed favorable results without evidence of recurrence but with temporary facial nerve weakness right after the surgery. Myxoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when benign tumor of the parotid gland is being considered.
Purpose : To elucidate the effects of pentoxifylline and diltiazem on the late response of the salivary glands of the rat after irradiation. Materials and Methods : Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups : (a) irradiation alone (b) irradiation with pentixifylline (PTX) (c) irradiation with diltiazem (DTZ) (d) irradiation with both PTX and DTZ. Irradiation was given in a single fraction of 16 Gy using 4 MV photon energy through an anterior port encompassing the left side of the salivary gland leaving the right side of salivary gland as a control. PTX, 20 mg/kg and/or DTZ, 50 mg/kg were infused intraperitoneally before irradiation, Two rats from each group were sacrificed on the 10th week and the rest was sacrificed on the 16th week after irradiation. Histopathologic examinations were undertaken for each section and the proportion of vacuolated cells out of the total number of cells under light microscopic fields was calculated. The statistical significance in the difference of the proportion of the vacuolated cells among the experimental groups was evaluated by a $x^2$-test. Results : Irradiated salivary glands of the 10th week group revealed markedly increased number of vacuolated cells compared to those of unirradiated control. The proportion of vacuolated cells was significantly reduced in both the PTX group (p value=0.001) and the combined PTX and DTX group compared to those of irradiation alone group. The DTZ alone group did not reveal the significant reduction of vacuolated cells compared to those of irradiation alone group (p value, >0.05). The 16th week groups revealed similar findings to those of the 10th week group, but the degree of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates and interstitial fibrosis was increased and the number of acinar cells was reduced compared to those of the 10th week group. Conclusions : PTX significantly reduced the late radiation response of salivary glands, but DTZ did not reduce the same degree as PTX did. Taking the positive results of this study into consideration, it seems reasonable to apply PTX into the clinical trial for the head and neck irradiation to reduce the late radiation sequelae of salivary glands in the near future. At the same time the further experiment to clarify the subcellar mechni는 involved in PTX should be preceded.
Park, Hee-Kyung;Chun, Yang-Hyun;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Auh, Q-Schick
Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
The belief that stress leads to illness has a long history. A number of the orofacial disease are also closely associated with stress. Despite research in the relationship of stress and the orofacial diseases leading to statistically significant correlations, the pathology remains vague. In the present study, the expression of clusterin, a stress protein responsible for antiapoptosis and cytoprotection, under restraint stress condition was observed in the submandibular gland, one of the major salivary glands. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: normal group and restraint stress group. The rats of restraint stress group were placed in the stress cages and then sacrificed at day 0, 3 and 5 day of the experiment. After that, the submandibular glands of all the rats were excised immediately. The levels of clusterin proteins and mRNA in the tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analyses, respectively. The results were as follows: 1. In the immunohistochemistry, clusterin protein was detected only immediately after the application of restraint stress. 2. In the restraint stress group, at day 3 and 5, histologically apoptosis was induced with karyorrhectic and pyknotic changes. 3. By the restraint stress, acinic cells were destructed earlier than ductal cells. 4. In the Northern blot, mRNA of clusterin was expressed only immediately after the application of restraint stress. The overall results suggest that as an early response to stress, clusterin is expressed in the glands to protect the glandular cells from the stress. But if stress is so strong and prolonged that it can exceed the stress adaptability of the cells, then the cells may undergo apoptosis instead of producing clusterin. An Epidemiologic Study of Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Korean College Students.
Purpose : Xerostomia is a complication met by almost all patients who have radiotherapy for cancers of head and neck. Many studies for prevention of xerostomia will be necessary. Radiation-induced acute response of salivary glands has been defined as interphase death or apoptosis. Increased intracellular calcium level have an important role in radiation-induced apoptosis. Calcium channel blocker may prevent radiation-induced apoptosis of salivary glands. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of diltiazem known as calcium channel blocker and pentoxifylline with inhibition of inflammatory response on the apoptosis as an acute response of radiation in rat salivary glands. Materials and Methods : Sprague-Dawley rats with about body weight 200-250 g were divided into 5 study groups : control, radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation. The diltiazen and pentoxifylline were injected intraperitoneally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, 30 and 20 mimute before irradiation. respectively. Irradiation was given with a 4 MV linear accelerator. The 1600 cGy of radiation was delivered in a single fraction through a single anterior portal encompassing the entire neck. After 24 h of irradiation, rats were sacrificed and parotid and submandibular glands were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The quantification of apoptosis was performed by microscopic examination of stained tissue sections at a magnification of 200X and the percentage of apoptotic cell was calculated. Results : On parotid glands, the percentage of apoptosis by radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation were 1.72$\%$ (8.35/486), 0.64$\%$ (2.9/453), 0.23$\%$ (1.2/516), and 0.28$\%$ (1.1/399), respectively. The apoptosis was markedly reduced in the groups receiving drugs compared with groups receivinge, radiation alone (p<0.05). In serous cell of submandibular glands, the percentages of apoptosis of radiation alone, diltiazem with radiation, pentoxifylline with radiation, and diltiazem and pentoxifylline with radiation were 1.94$\%$ (l1/567), 0.34$\%$ (1.9/554), 0.28$\%$ (1.8/637), and 0.22$\%$ (1.3/601), respectively. In the mucus cell of submandibular glands, the percentages of apoptosis were 0.92$\%$ (5.1/552), 0.41$\%$ (2.5/612), 0.29$\%$ (1.3/455), and 0.18$\%$ (1.0/562), respectively. The apoptosis was markedly reduced in the serous glands (p<0.05), but there was no difference in development of apoptosis in each group of mucus gland. Conclusion : These results suggest that radiation-induced apoptosis of serous cells of salivary glands may be decreased by diltiazem and pentoxifylline administration.
Park, Seung-Gu;Han, Se-Jin;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Kim, Kyung-Wook
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Epidermal growth factor is a single-chain polypeptide consisting of 53 amino acids and has a potent mitogenic activity that stimulates proliferation of various normal and neoplastic cells through the interaction with its specific receptor(epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common salivary benign tumor and histologically, it contains the epithelial cell, the myo-epithelial cell and mesenchymal ingredient, which is various aspect. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is an infiltrative malignant salivary gland tumor with three different histological patterns: cribriform, tubular or solid. The tumor cell structure composed of modified myoepithelial cell, and basaloid cell. In this study, we used an immunohistochemical technique to investigate the expression of EGF in 6 specimens of adenoid cystic carcinoma and 10 specimens of pleomorphic adenoma taken from patients treated at Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dankook University. The results were as follows. 1. In pleomorphic adenoma, ductal structure and scattered spindle cells in hyalinized stroma, disclosing myxoid stroma and hyalin, cartilage formation were observed. Immunohistologically, weak EGF expression in ductal structure and negative in stromal area were observed. 2. Cribriform type of adenoid cystic carcinoma showed numerous pseudocyst surrounded by dark small neoplastic cells in the back-ground of fibrous connective tissue and moderate EGF expression of dark cells adjacent to pseudo lumen in cribriform pattern, while weak expression in other most cells. 3. Tubular type of adenoid cystic carcinoma showed numerous ductal pattern surrounded by two layered neoplastic cells in the back-ground of fibrous connective tissue and strong EGF expression in luminal cells of ductal structure, while weak expression in outer cells. From the results obtained, we suggest that EGF is mainly biosynthesized in cells forming duct like structures of tubulo-ductal type or cribriform adenoid cystic carcinoma and it may play a role, as a cell mitogen in adenoid cystic carcinoma growth.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Introduction: The objective of this research was to determine the incidence of oral cancer in Korea. Materials and Methods: The classifications of oral and maxillofacial cancer (OMFC) that we used are based on possible locations of OMFC: lip, tongue, mouth, salivary glands, tonsil, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, pharynx unspecified, and nose, sinuses. Results: 1) There were 2,848 OMFC cases, accounting for 1.6% of all cancers. The male to female ratio was 2.72:1. 2) The estimated crude rates (CRs) were 5.7 overall, 8.4 for males, and 3.1 for females. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were 4.6 overall, 7.3 for males and 2.3 for females. 3) The incidence of mouth cancer was highest. The mouth and salivary glands were the most frequent sites for cancer among males and females, respectively. 4) Patients who were 40 years or older accounted for 91% of OMFC cases, with the highest proportion of cases in the 60-69 year-old age group for both sexes. 5) Tongue cancer was the most prevalent OMFC overall. Nasopharyngeal cancer was highest among males, and salivary gland cancer was highest among females. 6) From 2004 to 2008, the relative 5-year survival rate of OMFC patients was 57.5%. There was a trend of increasing survival among OMFC patients during the study period. The survival rate for females (69.3%) was much higher than that for males (53.1%). Conclusion: Social and personal efforts should be required to increase the survival rates of OMFC patients and Korean national cancer management policy should establish new measures for economic and social management and support.
Kim, Jong-Ryoul;Park, Bong-Wook;Byun, June-Ho;Kim, Yong-Deok;Shin, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Uk-Kyu;Chung, In-Kyo
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
The pleomorphic adenoma is well recognized as the most common salivary neoplasm. We examined 49 patients who had received surgical excision of the pleomorphic adenoma from 1989 to 1998 with over 5 years follow-up period. We retrospectively evaluated the patients' age, sex, chief complaints, surgical methods, and recurrence or complication rates after analysis of one's clinical and surgical records. The results are as follows : 1. There were 15 cases in parotid gland, 23 cases in palate, 8 cases in submandibular gland, and 3 cases in cheek. The ratio of male to female was 1 : 1.13. The mean age was 44. The tumor of submandibular gland occurred in more younger age than that of other salivary gland. 2. In 15 patients of parotid pleomorphic adenoma, there was 1 case(6.7%, 1/15) of recurrence. That was transformed into the malignant pleomorphic adenoma after 4 years of first surgery. We performed superficial parotidectomy of 9 cases(56.2%, 9/16), total parotidectomy of 6 cases(37.5%, 6/16), and radical parotidectomy of 1 case(6.3%, 1/16). 3. We used the rotational Sternocleidomastoid muscular flap to cover the exposed facial nerve in 12 cases(75%) after parotidectomy(7 cases of superficial parotidectomy and 5 cases of total parotidectomy). We could see 3 cases(18.7%) of facial nerve palsy and 1 case(6.3%) of Frey's syndrome after parotidectomy. We examined Frey's syndrome in only 1 case which was not used SCM muscular flap after parotidectomy. 4. In 23 patients of palatal pleomorphic adenoma, there were 2 cases(8.7%) of recurrence. In recurrence cases, We performed re-excision after 4 and 5 years of first surgery, respectively. We preserved partial thin overlying palatal mucosa during tumor excision in 5 cases(20%), which were proved as benign mixed tumor in preoperative biopsy. That mucosa-preserved cases had thick palatal mucosa, did not show mucosa ulceration and revealed well encapsulated lesions in preoperative CT. 5. In palatal tumors, we could see the 13 cases(52%) of bony invasion in preoperative CT views and the 4 cases(16%) of oro-nasal fistula after tumor excision. In two cases of recurrence, one(20%, 1/5) was in palatal mucosa-preserved group and the other(5.5%, 1/18) was in palatal mucosa-excised group. 6. We excised tumors with submandibular glands in the all cases of submandibular pleomorphic adenoma. There was no specific complication or recurrence in these cases. 7. After excision of the cheek pleomorphic adenomas, we could not see any complication or recurrence.
Kim, Bang-Sin;Hur, Daniel;Kim, Kyung-Rak;Yang, Ji-Woong;Jeoung, Youn-Wook;Kook, Min-Suk;Oh, Hee-Kyun;Ryu, Sun-Youl;Park, Hong-Ju
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Introduction: This study examined the effect of a conservative neck dissection in patients with head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients, who underwent a conservative neck dissection for the treatment of oral cancer from January 2002 to December 2007, were included. All procedures were performed by one oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The mean age was 58.2 years (range, 19 to 79 years). The medical recordings, pathologic findings, and radiographic findings were evaluated. The mean follow up period was 41.1 months (range, 4 to 88 months). Results: 1. Oral cancer was more common in men than women with a 3:1 ratio. 2. Histopathologically, squamous cell carcinoma(83%) was the most prevalent oral cancer in this study. 3. The most common primary site was the tongue(6 cases, 25%) followed by the mouth floor (5 cases, 21%), buccal mucosa (3 cases, 13%), lower lip, mandible, palate (2 cases, respectively) and salivary gland, retromolar area, oropharynx, alveolus (1 case, each). 4. Three out of the 24 (13%) subjects had a recurrence at the primary sites. 5. Two out of 24 (8%) subjects had a distant metastasis. 6. All 24 patients survived and there were eleven patients who passed 5 years postoperatively. Conclusion: A conservative neck dissection is a reliable and effective method for controlling neck node metastases in patients with oral cancer of the N0 or N1 neck node without serious complications.
This study was undertaken to observe the histopathologic changes in submandibular glands of the white rats when exposed to megavoltage fractionated dose of CLINAC 2100 C-D 6 MV X-RAY irradiation and 42 female white rats, weighing approximately 100gm, were divided into control and 2 experimental groups. At sacrifice, submandibular glands were excised and examined microscopically and electromicroscopically. The results were as follows : 1. The acinar cells of submandibular gland showed damage varied with dose, 12 Gy resulted in very mild injury while 24 Gy caused extensive injury. 2. The acinar cells of sumandibular gland showed similar ultrastructual alterations, appeared as pleomorphic nucleus, decreased numbers and pleomorpgism of secretory granules, distention of rough endoplasmic reticulum, expansion and pallor appearance of mitochondria, and hypertrophy of Golgi complex. 3. A serous cells were the most sensitive components, displaying morphological alterations of radiation damage as early as 3 hours, followed by submandibular seromucinous cells and secretory tubular cells. 4. The mucous cells, as well as the whole ductal lining cells, displayed no significant alterations. 5. No evidence of microvascular injury through whole experimental groups indicated that microvascular impairment dose not contribute to early. salivary gland injury.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.