• Title/Summary/Keyword: Rumen Microbial N

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Effect of Levels of Supplementation of Concentrate Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology, Microbial N Supply and Digestibility of Nutrients in Beef Cattle

  • Wanapat, M.;Khampa, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2007
  • The object of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial protein and digestibility of nutrients. Four, rumen fistulated crossbred beef steers with initial body weight of 400${\pm}$10 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4${\times}$4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were concentrate cassava chip based offering at 0, 1, 2 and 3% BW with urea-treated rice straw fed ad libitum. It was found that ruminal pH was significantly decreased with increase of concentrate. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration in the rumen was significantly different among treatments. In addition, a molar proportion of propionate was higher in supplemented groups at 2 and 3% BW (p<0.05), leading to significantly decreased acetate:propionate ratio. Furthermore, microbial N supply was significantly improved and was highest at 2% BW supplementation. The efficiency of rumen microbial-N synthesis based on organic matter (OM) truly digested in the rumen was highest in level of concentrate supplementation at 2% BW (80% of cassava chip in diets). Moreover, bacterial populations such as amylolytic bacteria was linearly increased, while cellulolytic bacteria was linearly decreased (p<0.01) when cattle received concentrate supplementation in all levels. The total protozoal counts were significantly increased, while fungal zoospores were dramatically decreased in cattle receiving increased levels of concentrate. In conclusion, cassava chip can be use as energy source at 80% in concentrate and supplementation of concentrate at 2% BW with urea-treated rice straw as roughage could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in beef cattle.

Effects of Grass Lipid and Its Fatty Acids on Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Growth In Vitro

  • Yang, U.M.;Fujita, H.;Chung, T.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 2000
  • In order to clarify the inhibitory effects of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) lipids on ruminal fermentation and digestion, two experiments were carried out in vitro. Experiment 1 was carried out using residues of grass hay from which the lipid fraction was removed by ether extraction. To ground grass samples were added 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipids and incubated anaerobically at $39^{\circ}C$ for 24 h, with the mixtures of artificial saliva and rumen fluid. Increasing grass lipid levels remarkably reduced DM and NDF disappearances. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly reduced at 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% lipid levels. Microbial nitrogen proportion to total nitrogen tended to decrease by the addition of the lipids. These results indicated that grass lipids have a marked inhibitory effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion, especially when to the substrate was added 3% or more grass lipids as ether extracts. Experiment 2 was conducted to study the relationship between changes in the free fatty acids and changes in the fermentation traits. Samples were incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 h as a sole substrate. The polyunsaturated fatty acids steadily decreased during incubation, whereas the saturated fatty acid ($C_{18:0}$) increased. It was suggested that the hydrogenation was extended during the initial stage of incubation. The unsaturated fatty acids ($C_{18:2}$, $C_{18:3}$) produced at the initial stage of incubation were negatively correlated with the amount of microbial N and DM disappearance, indicating that polyunsaturated fatty acids had the possibility to show an inhibiting effect on ruminal fermentation and digestion.

Effect of Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP) in Straw Based Ration on Purine Derivatives Excretion and Microbial Nitrogen Supply in Cattle

  • Khandaker, Z.H.;Tareque, A.M.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.364-370
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    • 1997
  • Four local cattle were ($145{\pm}9.7kg$) used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to study the effect of different levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP) in straw based ration on purine derivatives excretion and microbial N supply in cattle. The four rations were formulated at the same amount of energy but varying RDP approximately 50 (U0), 75 (U1), 100 (U2) and 150 (U3) percent levels of RDP requirement for maintenance. They were fed ranged from 101 to 304 g RDP/d. Apparent digestibility of all nutrients increased significantly (p < 0.01) in cattle fed ration U2 than other rations. Rumen $NH_3-N$ concentration increased from 43 to 130 mg/l in response of RDP intake. Purine derivatives excretion increased significantly (p < 0.01) with incremental level of 203 g RDP/d (U2) intake and positively correlated (r=0.69, p < 0.01, n=16) with amount of RDP intake. The rates of rumen microbial N supply were 16.8, 27.2, 39.1 and 32.9 g/d for rations U0, U1, U2 and U3 respectively. Efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) per kg of DOMR were 19.0, 25.3, 33.0, and 28.6 g and per MJ of ME. Intake were 0.62, 1.00, 1.44 and 1.21 g for U0, U1, U2 and U3 respectively and highest results were obtained in cattle fed U2 ration. Results of this study suggest that PD excretion and EMNS were increased as incremental level of RDP intake (U2) in local cattle.