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The Definition of Outer Space and the Air/Outer Space Boundary Question (우주의 법적 지위와 경계획정 문제)

  • Lee, Young-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.427-468
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    • 2015
  • To date, we have considered the theoretical views, the standpoint of states and the discourse within the international community such as the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(COPUOS) regarding the Air/Outer Space Boundary Question which is one of the first issues of UN COPUOS established in line with marking the starting point of Outer Space Area. As above mentioned, discussions in the United Nations and among scholars of within each state regarding the delimitation issue often saw a division between those in favor of a functional approach (the functionalists) and those seeking the delineation of a boundary (the spatialists). The spatialists emphasize that the boundary between air and outer space should be delimited because the status of outer space is a type of public domain from which sovereign jurisdiction is excluded, as stated in Article 2 of Outer Space Treaty. On the contrary art. I of Chicago Convention is evidence of the acknowledgement of sovereignty over airspace existing as an international customary law, has the binding force of which exists independently of the Convention. The functionalists, backed initially by the major space powers, which viewed any boundary demarcation as possibly restricting their access to space, whether for peaceful or non-military purposes, considered it insufficient or inadequate to delimit a boundary of outer space without obvious scientific and technological evidences. Last more than 50 years there were large development in the exploration and use of outer space. But a large number states including those taking the view of a functionalist have taken on a negative attitude. As the element of location is a decisive factor for the choice of the legal regime to be applied, a purely functional approach to the regulation of activities in the space above the Earth does not offer a solution. It seems therefore to welcome the arrival of clear evidence of a growing recognition of and national practices concerning a spatial approach to the problem is gaining support both by a large number of States as well as by publicists. The search for a solution to the problem of demarcating the two different legal regimes governing the space above Earth has undoubtedly been facilitated and a number of countries including Russia have already advocated the acceptance of the lowest perigee boundary of outer space at a height of 100km. As a matter of fact the lowest perigee where space objects are still able to continue in their orbiting around the earth has already been imposed as a natural criterion for the delimitation of outer space. This delimitation of outer space has also been evidenced by the constant practice of a large number of States and their tacit consent to space activities accomplished so far at this distance and beyond it. Of course there are still numerous opposing views on the delineation of a outer space boundary by space powers like U.S.A., England, France and so on. Therefore, first of all to solve the legal issues faced by the international community in outer space activities like delimitation problem, there needs a positive and peaceful will of international cooperation. From this viewpoint, President John F. Kennedy once described the rationale behind the outer space activities in his famous "Moon speech" given at Rice University in 1962. He called upon Americans and all mankind to strive for peaceful cooperation and coexistence in our future outer space activities. And Kennedy explained, "There is no strife, ${\ldots}$ nor any international conflict in outer space as yet. But its hazards are hostile to us all: Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again." This speech seems to even present us in the contemporary era with ample suggestions for further peaceful cooperation in outer space activities including the delimitation of outer space.

Studies on a Factor Affecting Composts Maturity During Composting of SWine Manure (돈분 퇴비화 중 부숙도에 미치는 영향인자 구명)

  • Kim, T.I.;Song, J. I.;Yang, C.B.;Kim, M.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.261-272
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate indices affecting composts maturity for swine manure compost produced in a commercial composting facility with air-forced from the bottom. The composting was made of swine manure mixed with puffing rice hull(6: 4) and turned by escalating agitator twice a day. Composting samples were collected periodically during a 45-d composting cycle at that system, showing that indices of Ammonium-N to Nitrate-N ratio were sensitive indicators of composting quality. Pile temperature maintained more than 62$^{\circ}C$ and water contents decreased about 20% for 25days of composting. A great variety and high numbers of aerobic thermophilic heterotropic microbes playing critical roles in stability of composts have been examined in the final composts, sbowing that they were detected $10^8$ to $10^{10}$ $CFUg^{-1}$ in mesophilic bacteria, $10^3$ - $10^4$ in fungi and $10^6$ - $10^8$ in actinomycetes, respectively. The results of this study for detennining a factor affecting compost stability evaluations based on composting steps were as follows; 1. Ammonium-N concentrations were highest at the beginning of composting, reaching approximately 421mg/kg. However Ammonium-N concentrations were lower during curing, reaching approximately l04mg/kg just after 45 day. The ratio between $NH_4-N$ and $NO_3-N$ was above II at the beginning of composting and less than 2 at the final step(45 day). 2. Seed germination Index was dependent upon the compost phytotoxicity and its nutrition. The phytotocity caused the GI to low during the period of active composting(till 25 days of composting time) depending on the value of the undiluted. After 25 days of composting time, the GI was dependent upon compost nutrition. The Gennination index of the final step was calculated at over 80 without regard to treatments. 3. E4: E6 ratio in humic acid of composts was correlatively decreased from 8.86 to 6.76 during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, the E4: E6 was consistently decreased from 6.76 to 4.67($r^2$ of total composting period was 0.95). 4. Water soluble carbon had a tendency to increase from 0.54% to 0.78%during the period of active composting. After 25 days of composting time, it was consistently decreased from 0.78% to 0.42%. Water soluble nitrogen increased from 0.22% to 0.32% during the period of 15 days after initial composting while decreased from 0.32% to 0.21% after 15days of composting. In consequence, the correlation coefficient($r^2$) between water soluble carbon and water soluble nitrogen was 0.12 during the period of active composting mule was 0.50 after 25 days of composting time

Investigation of Poultry Farm for Productivity and Health in Korea (한국에 있어서 양계장의 실태와 닭의 생산성에 관한 조사(위생과 질병중심으로))

  • 박근식;김순재;오세정
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.54-76
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    • 1980
  • A survey was conducted to determine the status of health and productivity of poultry farms in Korea. Area included Was Kyunggido where exist nearly 50% of national poultry population. From this area, 41 layer and 34 broiler farms covering 21 Countries were selected randomly for the survey. When farms were divided in the operation size, 95.1% of layer and 82.3% of broiler farms were classified as business or industrial level while the rest were managed in a small scale as part time job. Generally layer farms had been established much earlier than broiler farms. Geographically 10.7% of layer farms were sited near the housing area such as field foreast and rice field. No farms were located near the seashore. The distance from one farm from the other was very close, being 80% of the farms within the distance of 1km and as many as 28% of the farms within loom. This concentrated poultry farming in a certain area created serious problems for the sanitation and preventive measures, especially in case of outbreak of infectious diseases. Average farm size was 5,016${\times}$3.3㎡ for layers and 1,037${\times}$3.3㎡ for broilers. 89.5% of layer ana 70.6% of broiler farms owned the land for farming while the rest were on lease. In 60% of layer farms welters were employed for farming while in the rest their own labour was used. Majority of farms were equipped poorly for taking necessary practice of hygiene and sanitation. The amount of disinfectant used by farms was considerably low. As many as 97.6% of lave. farms were practised with Newcastle(ND) and fowl pox(F$.$pox) vaccine, whereas only 43.6% and 5.1% of broiler farms were practised with ND and F$.$pox vaccine, respectively. In 17-32.7% of farms ND vaccine was used less than twice until 60 days of age and in only 14.6% of farms adult birds were vaccinated every 4months. Monthly expense for preventive measures was over 200,000W in 32% of farms. Only 4.9-2.7% of vaccine users were soaking advice from veterinarians before practising vaccination, 85% of the users trusted the efficacy of the vaccines. Selection of medicine was generally determined by the farm owner rather than by veterinarans on whom 33.3% of farms were dependant. When diseases outbroke, 49.3% of farms called for veterinary hospital and the rest were handled by their own veterinarians, salesmen or professionals. Approximately 70% of farms were satisfied with the diagnosis made by the veterinarians. Frequency of disease outbreaks varied according to the age and type of birds. The livabilities of layers during the period of brooding, rearing ana adultwere 90.5, 98.9 and 75.2%, respectively while the livalibility of broilers until marketing was 92.2%. In layers, average culling age, was 533.3 day and hen housed eggs were 232.7. Average feed conversion rates of layers and broilers were 3.30 and 2.48, respectively. Those figures were considerably higher than anticipated but still far lower than those in developed countries.

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Comparison of Growth Charateristics, Forage Yield and Growth Analysis in Corn Hybrids for Silage Production (Silage용 옥수수의 생육특성, 수량 및 생육해석의 품종간 비교)

  • 김창호;박상철;이효원;강희경
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was conducted from May to August in 1997 to selected the wrn hybrids being suitable for silage at farm in the Kongju National University through the comparison of growth characteristics, forage yield and growth analysis about native and imported corn hybrids for silage production. In this experiment, trial design was a randomized block design with three replication, testing varieties were 4 hybrids (Suwon 19, Kwanganok, Whengsungok, Suwonok ) of native corn hybrids and 13 hybrids (P 3156, P 3352, P 3144w, DK 501, DK 689, DK 713, DK 729, H 643.99, H 545.64, H 645.12, HC 7466, H 644.18, H ALISEO) of imported corn hybrids. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The emergence rate of H643.99 was the highest with 97.0%. In rice black streaked dwarf virus(RBSOV), the hybrid of HC 7466 was lower infected with 1.6% than other hybrids. The plant hight of P 3144w was the highest with 339 cm and the stem length of P 3156 was the highest with 261 cm. In native com hybrids, the plant height and stem length of Kwanganok were recorded with 306 cm and 235 cm, respectively. 2. Leaf number and leaf area of Kwanganok were the greatest with 16 sheet per plant and $5,180\;{\textrm{m}^2}/l0a$, respectively. H 645.12 and H 545.64 had the greatest in ear to total dry matter ratio with 49.5% and 49.4%, respectively. 3. The fresh matter yield was significantly difference between growth stage, So Suwon 19 had the most level at 15 days before silking, P 3352 had the most level at silking date, Kwananok had the most level at 35 days a after silking. The fresh matter yield of native com hybrids such as Suwon 19 and Kwanganok was not apparent diffreences as compared with imported corn hybrids. 4. As the results of survey with dry weight, the quantity of dry matter accumulation were increase after silking. The varieties of P 3352, P 3156, Kwanganok, OK 713 were more quantity of dry matter production than DK 501, HC 7466. The Kwanganok of native com hybrid and Pioneer strain with high percentage of dry matter were higher dry weight than Limagrain strain. 5. HC 7466 had the largest LAR with $6.53\;{\textrm{cm}^2}/g$, H545.12 had the lowest LAR with $3.30\;{\textrm{cm}^2/g}$. P 3144 had the largest LAI, DeKalb strain including DK 713 were larger apparently than Limagrain strain including HC 7466 with 3.15. 6. The RGR of testing varieties was little difference of statistical significantly, but DK 501, and HC 7466 were lower than other corn hybrids. The CGR of native and American varieties was no apparent differences, but that of Limagrain strains were a large variation. According to the results obtained by this experiment, the eary growth such as emergence rate and RBSDV infection rate of Limagrain strains was more excellent than other strains. P 3156, P 3352, P 3144w, DK 713 and HC 7466 were suitable for silage condition such as dry matter yield, percentage of dry matter and % ear to total dry matter. The fresh and dry matter yield of native corn hybrids such as Suwon 19 and Kwanganok were not apparent differences as compared with imported corn hybrids, but percentage of dry matter was lower than other imported corn hybrids.

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Current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding in Korea (이유기 보충식 현황과 어머니 인식 조사)

  • Yom, Hye Won;Seo, Jeong Wan;Park, Hyesook;Choi, Kwang Hae;Chang, Ju Young;Ryoo, Eell;Yang, Hye Ran;Kim, Jae Young;Seo, Ji Hyun;Kim, Yong Joo;Moon, Kyung Rye;Kang, Ki Soo;Park, Kie Young;Lee, Seong Soo;Shim, Jeong Ok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.1090-1102
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:To evaluate current feeding practices and maternal nutritional knowledge on complementary feeding. Methods:Mothers of babies aged 9-15 months who visited pediatric clinics of 14 general hospitals between September and December 2008 were asked to fill questionnaires. Data from 1,078 questionnaires were analyzed. Results:Complementary food was introduced at 4-7 months in 89% of babies. Home-made rice gruel was the first complementary food in 93% cases. Spoons were used for initial feeding in 97% cases. At 6-7 months, <50% of babies were fed meat (beef, 43%). Less than 12-month-old babies were fed salty foods such as salted laver (35%) or bean-paste soup (51%) and cow's milk (11%). The following were the maternal sources of information on complementary feeding: books/magazines (58%), friends (30%), internet web sites (29%), relatives (14%), and hospitals (4%). Compared to the 1993 survey, the incidence of complementary food introduction before 4 months (0.4% vs. 21%) and initial use of commercial food (7% vs. 39%) had decreased. Moreover, spoons were increasingly used for initial feeding (97% vs. 57%). The average maternal nutritional knowledge score was 7.5/10. Less percentage of mothers agreed with the following suggestions: bottle formula weaning before 15-18 months (68%), no commercial baby drinks as complementary food (67%), considering formula (or cow's milk) better than soy milk (65%), and feeding minced meat from 6-7 months (57%). Conclusion:Complementary feeding practices have considerably improved since the last decade. Pediatricians should advise timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods and monitor diverse information sources on complementary feeding.

Study on The Distribution of Applied 32P into Different Forms of P Compounds in the Soils During Incubation (논·밭 토양(土壤)에 시용(柴用)된 32P의 토양중(土壤中) 상이(相異)한 인산화합물(燐酸化合物)로의 분배(分配)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jung-Kook;Hong, Chong-Woon;Park, Sang-Ji;Steenberg, Kjell
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1979
  • The present work was carried out to study the fate of applied phosphorus labelled with $^{32}P$ and its availability to plants in soils subjected to different management practices. The results can be summarized as follows (Table 3): 1. The applied phosphorus was transformed into different phosphorus compounds in the soils depending upon the management practices and soil characteristics. 2. In the flooded paddy soil (pH 5.8) added P after one week of incubation was transformed into various fractions, the order of abundance being: Al-P> Ca-P$${\sim_\sim}$$Fe-P> Org.-P. After two weeks the order changed to: Fe-P> Al-P> Ca-P> Org.-P. The amounts of the Fe-P and Al-P fractions were found to increase from the second week of incubation whereas a decrease in Ca-P was noticed with the organic-P remaining constant. The amount of available P decreased from the first to the third week of incubation, but increased thereafter. 3. In the volcanic ash soil a major proportion of the applied phosphorus was found in the Fe-P fraction during the whole experimental period. The interconversions of the $^{32}P$ among the different phosphate fractions was not as evident as in the case of flooded rice soil. The recovery of applied P was low and remained constant throughout the incubation period. 4. In the upland soils relatively more of the applied phosphorus was found in the Ca-P fraction as compared with those of the other soils. As in the flooded paddy soil $^{32}P$ in the Ca-P fraction decreased with increasing incubation time, whereas in the Fe-P fraction it increased with time. The recovery of added phosphate as available P followed different patterns for the cultivated and the uncultivated soils. In the cultivated soils lit was relatively high and remained nearly constant during the whole incubation period. In the uncultivated soil on the other hand, it was high at the earlier time of incubation, but decreased with incubation time.

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Fly Ash Application Effects on CH4 and CO2 Emission in an Incubation Experiment with a Paddy Soil (항온 배양 논토양 조건에서 비산재 처리에 따른 CH4와 CO2 방출 특성)

  • Lim, Sang-Sun;Choi, Woo-Jung;Kim, Han-Yong;Jung, Jae-Woon;Yoon, Kwang-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.853-860
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    • 2012
  • To estimate potential use of fly ash in reducing $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ emission from soil, $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ fluxes from a paddy soil mixed with fly ash at different rate (w/w; 0, 5, and 10%) in the presence and absence of fertilizer N ($(NH_4)_2SO_4$) addition were investigated in a laboratory incubation for 60 days under changing water regime from wetting to drying via transition. The mean $CH_4$ flux during the entire incubation period ranged from 0.59 to $1.68mg\;CH_4\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$ with a lower rate in the soil treated with N fertilizer due to suppression of $CH_4$ production by $SO_4^{2-}$ that acts as an electron acceptor, leading to decreases in electron availability for methanogen. Fly ash application reduced $CH_4$ flux by 37.5 and 33.0% in soils without and with N addition, respectively, probably due to retardation of $CH_4$ diffusion through soil pores by addition of fine-textured fly ash. In addition, as fly ash has a potential for $CO_2$ removal via carbonation (formation of carbonate precipitates) that decreases $CO_2$ availability that is a substrate for $CO_2$ reduction reaction (one of $CH_4$ generation pathways) is likely to be another mechanisms of $CH_4$ flux reduction by fly ash. Meanwhile, the mean $CO_2$ flux during the entire incubation period was between 0.64 and $0.90g\;CO_2\;m^{-2}day^{-1}$, and that of N treated soil was lower than that without N addition. Because N addition is likely to increase soil respiration, it is not straightforward to explain the results. However, it may be possible that our experiment did not account for the substantial amount of $CO_2$ produced by heterotrophs that were activated by N addition in earlier period than the measurement was initiated. Fly ash application also lowered $CO_2$ flux by up to 20% in the soil mixed with fly ash at 10% through $CO_2$ removal by the carbonation. At the whole picture, fly ash application at 10% decreased global warming potential of emitted $CH_4$ and $CO_2$ by about 20%. Therefore, our results suggest that fly ash application can be a soil management practice to reduce green house gas emission from paddy soils. Further studies under field conditions with rice cultivation are necessary to verify our findings.

INTENSIVE MONITORING SURVEY OF NEARBY GALAXIES (IMSNG)

  • Im, Myungshin;Choi, Changsu;Hwang, Sungyong;Lim, Gu;Kim, Joonho;Kim, Sophia;Paek, Gregory S.H.;Lee, Sang-Yun;Yoon, Sung-Chul;Jung, Hyunjin;Sung, Hyun-Il;Jeon, Yeong-beom;Ehgamberdiev, Shuhrat;Burhonov, Otabek;Milzaqulov, Davron;Parmonov, Omon;Lee, Sang Gak;Kang, Wonseok;Kim, Taewoo;Kwon, Sun-gill;Pak, Soojong;Ji, Tae-Geun;Lee, Hye-In;Park, Woojin;Ahn, Hojae;Byeon, Seoyeon;Han, Jimin;Gibson, Coyne;Wheeler, J. Craig;Kuehne, John;Johns-Krull, Chris;Marshall, Jennifer;Hyun, Minhee;Lee, Seong-Kook J.;Kim, Yongjung;Yoon, Yongmin;Paek, Insu;Shin, Suhyun;Taak, Yoon Chan;Kang, Juhyung;Choi, Seoyeon;Jeong, Mankeun;Jung, Moo-Keon;Kim, Hwara;Kim, Jisu;Lee, Dayae;Park, Bomi;Park, Keunwoo;O, Seong A
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2019
  • Intensive Monitoring Survey of Nearby Galaxies (IMSNG) is a high cadence observation program monitoring nearby galaxies with high probabilities of hosting supernovae (SNe). IMSNG aims to constrain the SN explosion mechanism by inferring sizes of SN progenitor systems through the detection of the shock-heated emission that lasts less than a few days after the SN explosion. To catch the signal, IMSNG utilizes a network of 0.5-m to 1-m class telescopes around the world and monitors the images of 60 nearby galaxies at distances D < 50 Mpc to a cadence as short as a few hours. The target galaxies are bright in near-ultraviolet (NUV) with $M_{NUV}$ < -18.4 AB mag and have high probabilities of hosting SNe ($0.06SN\;yr^{-1}$ per galaxy). With this strategy, we expect to detect the early light curves of 3.4 SNe per year to a depth of R ~ 19.5 mag, enabling us to detect the shock-heated emission from a progenitor star with a radius as small as $0.1R_{\odot}$. The accumulated data will be also useful for studying faint features around the target galaxies and other science projects. So far, 18 SNe have occurred in our target fields (16 in IMSNG galaxies) over 5 years, confirming our SN rate estimate of $0.06SN\;yr^{-1}$ per galaxy.

The Abolition Type and The Regional Characteristics of The Elementary Schools in Chungbuk Province (忠淸北道의 國民學校 廢校類型과 그 地域的 特性)

  • ;Chae, Son-Ha
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.84-104
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    • 1994
  • The migration of population into the city has been on the increase according as Korea has been industrialized repidly since the 1960's. And there is a steady decrease in rural population. Thus lack of the number of the students forced many elementary Schools to be abolished. The aim of this study is to grasp the abolition types and the regional characteristics with the subject region of Chungbuk province. From the viewpoint of the increasing abolition of the elementary schools, I think it is very important to understand how the elementary schools have been abolished so far and predict how the subject region will have been changed in geography. Data for this study are based on Annual Establishment-Abolition Situation of the Schools published by Chungbuk office of Education in 1992, and many Kinds of the statistical reports, and the interview with the related. The results are as follows: 1. By examining the change of the number of the elementary schools and students in Chnugbuk, the numder of the students had also decreased since 1969 and was less than the half in 1990. As the number of the schools began to decrease ten years later than the students began to, the abolition of the elementary schools has started in reality from 1980's. 2. The 72 elementary schools were aboilshed between 1980 and 1992: the principal school is 9.7%, the branch school is 90.3%. The most fifteen schools are abolished in Yongdong-county and Chechon-county, and the least one school is abolished in Chechon-city and Okchon-county, and there is no abolition in Chongju-city and Chungju-city: According to the type of the abolition process, the least seven principal schools are abolished, and the principal school is reorganized as a branch school and twenty eight branch schools are abolished, and the most thirty seven branch schools are abolished. 3. When special change of the abolition is classified into the first perio (1980-1986) and the second period (1987-1992), in the first period the principal and branch schools were abolished and they are 13.9% of total abolition. The abolition out of them by building a dam is 60%. The principal schools in the submerged area though they have many students, were abolished. In the second period sixty two branch schools are abolished and they are 86.1% of total abolition. The most fifteen schools are abolished in Yongdong-county, thirteen in Chechon-county, seven in Tanyang-county, six in Chongwon-county, five in Chungwon-county and Koesan-county. Unlike the first period, the schools were abolished in this period because the number of students was so small. In this period sixty branch schools were abolished. All the students in the abolished schools except six schools transfered to the principal schools. The 58 school authorities help the students attend school by bus or support the expenses for attending school after that. 4. The abolition types of city, county and myon are classified into five types by the number of the abolished schools. The most forty nine abolished schools in type II are 68.1 of the total abolition. The least three abolished ones in type I are 12.5%. Considering the relation between the abolition type ane the number of schools and students, the number of the schools, increased in type I, II, III, V except IV from 1980 and then have decreased by abolition since 1980, while the more students decreased than they did in 1970 and the more the abolished school increases, the less the students decreases. The average students per school decreased in every abolition type and the most students decreased in type IV. 5. Considering the relation between the abolition type and the regional characteristics, most abolished schools were located between 100m and 300m above the sea level and it is 71% of the total abolition. The region without the abolition is high in the ratio of the cultivate land, ratio of rice field, and the part-time farmer, but the region with many abolition is low in the ratio of cultivated land. As for the manufacturing there are the most city, county and myon in the abolition type in Youngdong-county and Chechon-county where the manufacturing ratio of employing is low but Chongju-city without the abolition is a region where the manufacturing ratio is high. Consequently the development of the manufacturing causes the population to emigation out and the decrease of the population leads the transport is difficult of access, the facilities sold after being abolished are not being used in many ways. 7. Take an example of Youndong-county where the most schools were abolished, I have examined the school district and the population characteristics of the abolition. Though there were more villages, households, populations in the region that is higher than low above the sea level, the schools were abolished. Therefore we know that above the sea level had a great effect on the abolition. As a result of the regional analysis of the abolition, many schools were abolished by the artificial buildings such as a dam in the early 1980's but the schools in the late 1980's were abolished ten years later after the students decreased. More schools were abolished in the region where the manufacturing industry didn't develop. And the higher the school position was above the sea level, the sooner the school was abolished. It is also proved that both the beautiful natural scenery and accessibility are the important factor in using the abolished facilities practically.

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Protein Fractionation of Whole Crop Silages, and Effect of Borate-phosphate Buffer Extraction on In vitro Fermentation Characteristics, Gas Production and Degradation (사료작물 사일리지의 단백질 분획 및 Borate-phosphate Buffer 추출이 In vitro 발효성상, Gas 발생 그리고 분해율에 미치는 효과)

  • Shinekhuu, Judder;Jin, Guang-Lin;Ji, Byung-Ju;Li, Xiangzi;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Hong, Seong-Ku;Song, Man-Kang
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2009
  • Protein fractionation was evaluated from whole crop silages of rye (RS), wheat (WS), triticale (TS), oat (OS), barley (BS), and rice straw silage (RSS), and in vitro trial was carried out to examine the effect of silage and extraction of soluble protein on fermentation characteristics, total gas production and degradation. Soluble protein of silages was extracted with borate-phosphate buffer, and fermentation characteristics, gas production and degradation of silages were estimated by incubating anaerobically the mixed solution of strained rumen fluid and artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) containing dried and ground silages placed in nylon bag at $39^{\circ}C$ up to 48h. Soluble protein (SP) content was lowest for RSS as 2.11% in total CP compared to those for other silages. Highest A fraction (NPN) was observed from RS (74.33% of total CP) while those from TS and RSS were relatively low (48%). B2 fraction was relatively higher for RS, RSS and WS than for TS and BS. $B_3$ fraction was lowest in WS among silages. C fraction (27.07) in RSS was higher than in other silages (1.40~9.93%). pH in incubation solution was increased (P<0.01~P<0.001) for extracted silages up to 12h but decreased (P<0.01) at 48h for non-extracted ones. Contents of ammonia-N (P<0.001) and total VFA (P<0.01~P<0.001) were higher for non-extracted silages than for extracted ones. Acetate proportion was increased (P<0.001) in buffer extracted silages while those of propionate and butyrate were decreased (P<0.001) up to 24h incubation. Increased (P<0.001) total gas production was obtained from non-extracted silages up to 12h while gas production was increased (P<0.01) in extracted ones thereafter. In vitro degradation of dry matter and CP was increased (P<0.001) in non-extracted silages but that of neutral detergent fiber was increased (P<0.001) in extracted ones without difference among silages. Difference in mean values of degradability for each silage prior to- and post extraction with borate buffer, however, was not found among silages. It may be concluded that high NPN content of silages may reduce the protein availability in silages and borate buffer soluble components in silages can stimulate the early stage of fermentation.