• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Renal tubular dysfunction

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Adult Idiopathic Renal Fanconi Syndrome: A Case Report

  • Park, Dae Jin;Jang, Ki-Seok;Kim, Gheun-Ho
    • Electrolytes & blood pressure
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.19-22
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    • 2018
  • Renal Fanconi syndrome (RFS) is caused by generalized proximal tubular dysfunction and can be divided into hereditary and acquired form. Adult-onset RFS is usually associated with drug toxicity or systemic disorders, and modern molecular genetics may explain the etiology of previous idiopathic cases of RFS. Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old woman with RFS whose etiology could not be identified. She presented with features of phosphaturia, renal glucosuria, aminoaciduria, tubular proteinuria, and proximal renal tubular acidosis. Her family history was unremarkable, and previous medications were nonspecific. Her bone mineral density was compatible with osteoporosis, serum intact parathyroid hormone level was mildly elevated, and 25(OH) vitamin D level was insufficient. Her blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were 8.4 and 1.19 mg/dL, respectively (estimated glomerular filtration rate, $53mL/min/1.73m^2$). Percutaneous renal biopsy was performed but revealed no specific renal pathology, including mitochondrial morphology. No mutation was detected in EHHADH gene. We propose the possibility of involvement of other genes or molecules in this case of adult RFS.

Changes in Renal Brush-Border Sodium-Dependent Transport Systems in Gentamicin-Treated Rats

  • Suhl, Soong-Yong;Ahn, Do-Whan;Kim, Kyoung-Ryong;Kim, Jee-Yeun;Park, Yang-Saeng
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.403-411
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    • 1997
  • To elucidate the mechanism of gentamicin induced renal dysfunction, renal functions and activities of various proximal tubular transport systems were studied in gentamicin-treated rats (Fisher 344). Gentamicin nephrotoxicity was induced by injecting gentamicin sulfate subcutaneously at a dose of 100 $mg/kg{\cdot}day$ for 7 days. The gentamicin injection resulted in a marked polyuria, hyposthenuria, proteinuria, glycosuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia, natriuresis, and kaliuresis, characteristics of aminoglycoside nephropathy. Such renal functional changes occurred in the face of reduced GFR, thus tubular transport functions appeared to be impaired. The polyuria and hyposthenuria were partly associated with a mild osmotic diuresis, but mostly attributed to a reduction in free water reabsorption. In renal cortical brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from gentamicin-treated rats, the $Na^+$ gradient dependent transport of glucose, alanine, phosphate and succinate was significantly attenuated with no changes in $Na^+-independent$ transport and the membrane permeability to $Na^+$. These results indicate that gentamicin treatment induces a defect in free water reabsorption in the distal nephron and impairs various $Na^+-cotransport$ systems in the proximal tubular brush-border membranes, leading to polyuria, hyposthenuria, and increased urinary excretion of $Na^+$ and other solutes.

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Clinical Characteristics of Arthrogryposis, Renal Tubular Dysfunction, Cholestasis(ARC) Syndrome in Korea (ARC(Arthrogryposis, Renal Tubular Dysfunction, Cholestasis) 증후군의 발병양상에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Soon Min;Kim Ji Hong;Lee Jae Seung;Han Suk Joo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.222-230
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : ARC syndrome refers to an association of arthrogryposis, renal tubular dysfunction, and cholestasis. The VPS33B gene was recently identified as the causative gene. So far, 41 cases of ARC syndrome have been reported worldwide, and it has rarely been reported in Korea. This study was conducted to report the clinical findings of seven ARC syndrome cases in Korean children, focusing especially on renal tubular dysfunction. Methods : The hospital records of 7 cases diagnosed as ARC syndrome at Severance Hospital between Mar. 1995 and Aug. 2005 were reviewed and analyzed. Results : Of the 7 cases, 4 were boys and 3 were girls. Six patients(85$\%$) were born with normal birth weight at term, and one was born at preterm. All cases presented with cholestasis and severe jaundice. According to the type of arthrogryposis described by Brown et al, type 3 and 4 were found in 2 patients and type,6, 7, and the undistributed type in one patient respectively. Other associated clinical findings were as follows : failure to thrive in 6(85$\%$), lax skin in 5(71$\%$), and gray platelet syndrome in 4(57$\%$). Urine analysis revealed 6 cases(85$\%$) with proteinuria, 3(43$\%$) with hematuria, 5(71$\%$) with glycosuria, 2(29$\%$) with phosphaturia and 2(29$\%$) with calciuria. Serum electrolytes showed 4 cases(57$\%$) with hyponatremia, 3(43$\%$) with hypokalemia, and 1(14$\%$) with creatinine elevation. Renal tubular dysfunctions were diagnosed as renal tubular acidosis in 6 cases(85$\%$), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2(29$\%$), and Fanconi syndrome in 2(29$\%$). During the follow-up period, 2(29$\%$) had no treatment, 5(85$\%$) had continuous supplementation to correct the electrolyte imbalance and acidosis, and 1(14$\%$) had dialysis. Only one patient had a family history of ARE syndrome in a sibling. Four cases(57$\%$) were diagnosed at the mean age of 8.2 months, and one case was lost during follow-up. Ages of the survived 2 cases were 13 and 25 months, respectively. Conclusion : The rare disease of ARC syndrome Is associated with severe renal dysfunction. However, this study revealed that the renal manifestation of ARC syndrome in Korean children is relatively mild and survival rate is higher than that of previous studies. Contrary to previous reports, this study showed that familial cases are rare and sporadic occurence is possible in Korea. Thus, the diagnosis of this syndrome requires a careful evaluation of the venal function in cases of congenital arthrogryposis, and a mandatory genetic counseling of affected family for prevention of familial occurance. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2005;9:222-230)

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Renal Glucosuria in a Dog (개에서 신성 당뇨 일례)

  • Kang Ji-houn;Cho Min-haeng;Kim Min-jun;Chang Dong-woo;Na Ki-jeong;Yang Mhan-Pyo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.420-423
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    • 2005
  • A 2-year-old 16-kg, intact female lindo was presented with weight loss and poor hair coat. Abnormal serum biochemical values included mild hypokalemia (3.9 mmol/L, reference range 4.37 to 5.35 mmol/L) and mild hyperglycemia (124 mg/dl, reference range 65 to 118 mg/dl). in the complete blood count and diagnostic imaging examination, abnormal changes wer not seen. The analysis of urine sample obtained from cystocentesis revealed glucosuria (> 100 mg/dl) and mild proteinuria. Repeated analysis after admission showed persistent glucosuria and hypokalemia. But blood glucose values did not exceed the renal threshold fur glucose reabsorption. To differentiate cause of the glucosuria, the glucose tolerance test and the low-dosage dexamethasone suppression test were indicated. Results of both tests were normal. In addition, the serum total thyroxine $(T_4)$ value was within normal range. The arterial blood gas analysis showed no remarkable changes. The fractional reabsorption rates of amino acids and phosphorus were calculated above $97\%$. Based on these findings, the dog was diagnosed as renal glucosuria due to proximal renal tubular dysfunction. But this persistent renal glucosuria with hypokalemia may be the initial sign of Fanconi's syndrome or proximal renal tubular acidosis.

Effect of Jesaeng-sinkihwan on Renal Dysfunction in Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Renal Failure Mouse (제생신기환이 허혈-재관류로 유발된 급성 신부전 마우스에 미치는 효과)

  • Han, Byung Hyuk;Lee, Hyeon Kyoung;Jang, Se Hoon;Tai, Ai Lin;Yoon, Jung Joo;Kim, Hye Yoom;Lee, Yun Jung;Lee, Ho Sub;Kang, Dae Gill
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2021
  • Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury(IRI), an important cause of acute renal failure (ARF), cause increased renal tubular injury. Jesaeng-sinkihwan (JSH) was recorded in a traditional Chines medical book named "Bangyakhappyeon (方藥合編)". JSH has been used for treatment of diabetes and glomerulonephritis with patients. Here we investigate the effects of Jesaeng-sinkihwan (JSH) in a mouse model of ischemic acute kidney injury. The animals model were divided into four groups at the age of 8 weeks; sham group: C57BL6 male mice (n=9), I/R group: C57BL6 male mice with I/R surgery (n=9), JSH Low group: C57BL6 male mice with surgery + JSH 100 mg/kg/day (n=9) and JSH High group: C57BL6 male mice with surgery + JSH 300 mg/kg/day (n=9). Ischemia was induced by clamping the both renal arteries during 25 min, and reperfusion was followed. Mouse were orally given with JSH (100 and 300 mg/kg/day during 3 days after surgery. Treatment with JSH significantly ameliorates creatinine clearance(Ccr), Creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in obtained plasma. . Treatment with JSH reduced kidney inflammation markers such as Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). JSH also reduced the periodic acid schiff (PAS) staining intensity and picro sirius red staining intensity in kidney of I/R group. These findings suggest that JSH ameliorates tubular injury including renal dysfunction in I/R induced ARF mouse.

Alterations in Membrane Transport Function and Cell Viability Induced by ATP Depletion in Primary Cultured Rabbit Renal Proximal Tubular Cells

  • Lee, Sung-Ju;Kwon, Chae-Hwa;Kim, Yong-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2009
  • This study was undertaken to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ATP depletion-induced membrane transport dysfunction and cell death in renal proximal tubular cells. ATP depletion was induced by incubating cells with 2.5 mM potassium cyanide(KCN)/0.1 mM iodoacetic acid(IAA), and membrane transport function and cell viability were evaluated by measuring $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and trypan blue exclusion, respectively. ATP depletion resulted in a decrease in $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and cell viability in a time-dependent manner. ATP depletion inhibited $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake in cells, when treated with 2 mM ouabain, a $Na^+$ pump-specific inhibitor, suggesting that ATP depletion impairs membrane transport functional integrity. Alterations in $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and cell viability induced by ATP depletion were prevented by the hydrogen peroxide scavenger such as catalase and the hydroxyl radical scavengers(dimethylthiourea and thiourea), and amino acids(glycine and alanine). ATP depletion caused arachidonic acid release and increased mRNA levels of cytosolic phospholipase $A_2(cPLA_2)$. The ATP depletion-dependent arachidonic acid release was inhibited by $cPLA_2$ specific inhibitor $AACOCF_3$. ATP depletion-induced alterations in $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake and cell viability were prevented by $AACOCF_3$. Inhibition of $Na^+$-dependent phosphate uptake by ATP depletion was prevented by antipain and leupetin, serine/cysteine protease inhibitors, whereas ATP depletion-induced cell death was not altered by these agents. These results indicate that ATP depletion-induced alterations in membrane transport function and cell viability are due to reactive oxygen species generation and $cPLA_2$ activation in renal proximal tubular cells. In addition, the present data suggest that serine/cysteine proteases play an important role in membrane transport dysfunction, but not cell death, induced by ATP depletion.

Effect of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Extraction (SbGE) on H2O2-induced Inhibition of Phosphate Transport in Renal Epithelial Cells (황금약침액(黃芩藥鍼液)이 신장상피세포(腎臟上皮細胞)에서의 H2O2에 의한 인산염(燐酸鹽) 운반(運搬)의 억제(抑制)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Cho, Eun-jin;Youn, Hyoun-min;Jang, Kyung-jeon;Song, Choon-bo;Ahn, Chang-beobm
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.190-199
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    • 2002
  • Objective : This study was performed to determine if Scutellaria balicalensis Georgi extract (SbGE) prevents oxidant-induced membrane transport dysfunction in renal tubular cells. Methods : Membrane transport function was estimated by measuring $Na^+$-dependent inorganic phosphate transport in opossum kidney (OK) cells. $H_2O_2$ inhibited phosphate transport in a dose-dependent manner. Results : The inhibitory effect of $H_2O_2$ was significantly prevented SbGE over concentration range of 0.005-0.05%. $H_2O_2$ caused ATP depletion, which was prevented by SbGE. $H_2O_2$ induced the loss of mitochondrial function as evidenced by decreased MTT reduction and its effect was prevented by SbGE. The $H_2O_2$-induced inhibition of phosphate transport was not affected by a potent antioxidant DPPD, but the inhibition was prevented by an iron chelator deferoxamine, suggesting that $H_2O_2$ inhibits $Na^+$-dependent phosphate transport via an iron-dependent nonperoxidative mechanism in renal tubular cells. Conclusion : These data suggest that SbGE may exert the protective effect against oxidant-induced membrane transport dysfunction by a mechanism similar to iron chelators in renal epithelial cells. However, furher studies should be carried out to find the active ingredient(s) of SbGE that exerts the protective effect.

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A Korean patient with Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome Presenting with Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Galactosemia : Identification of a Novel Mutation in the GLUT2 Gene

  • Yoo, Han-Wook;Seo, Eul-Ju;Kim, Gu-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2001
  • Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome (FBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of carbohydrate metabolism recently demonstrated to be caused by mutations in the GLUT 2 gene for the glucose transporter protein 2 expressed in liver, pancreas, intestine, and kidney. This disease is characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation, both fasting hypoglycemia as well as postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperglactosemia, and generalized proximal renal tubular dysfunctions. We report the first Korean patient with FBS diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and identification of a novel mutation in the GLUT 2 gene. She was initially diagnosed having a neonatal diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia and glycosuria at 3 days after birth. In addition, newborn screening for galactosemia revealed hypergalactosemia. Thereafter, she has been managed with lactose free milk, insulin therapy. However, she failed to grow and her liver has been progressively enlarging. Her liver functions were progressively deteriorated with increased prothrombin time. Liver biopsy done at age 9 months indicated micronodular cirrhosis with marked fatty changes. She succubmed to hepatic failiure with pneumonia at 10 months of age. Laboratory tests indicated she had generalized proximal renal tubular dysfuctions; renal tubular acidosis, hypophosphatemic rickets, and generalized aminoaciduria. Given aforementioned findings, the diagnosis of FBS was appreciated at age of 2 months. The DNA sequencing analysis of the GLUT 2 gene using her genomic DNA showed a novel mutation at 5th codon; Lysine5 Stop (K5X).

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An Anesthetic Management in a Pedodontic Patient with Lowe Syndrome - A case report - (Lowe 증후군을 동반한 소아치과 환자의 전신 마취 경험 -증례 보고-)

  • Choi, Young-Kyoo;Oh, Jae-Yeol;Kim, Dong-Ok;Shin, Ok-Young;Lee, Keung-Bo
    • Journal of The Korean Dental Society of Anesthesiology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.33-37
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    • 2002
  • The oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome of Lowe (Lowe syndrome) is an X-linked recessive disorder involving the eyes, nervous systems, and kidneys. The clinical manifestation of this syndrome is characterized by congenital cataracts, glaucoma, seizure disorder, psychomotor growth retardation, hypotonia, renal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria, rickets, and osteoporosis. We report a 5-year old boy underwent general anesthesia for the treatment of multiple dental carries. During intraoperative period, marked metabolic acidosis was noted and such acidosis was partially corrected by hyperventilation. We suggest that patients with Lowe's syndrome should be attention and treated to possible anesthetic hazards such as metabolic acidosis due to renal tubular dysfunction, rise of intraocular pressure in patient with glaucoma, the fragility of the bone structures due to rickets and osteoporosis.

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Beneficial Effects of Cynaroside on Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury In Vitro and In Vivo

  • Nho, Jong-Hyun;Jung, Ho-Kyung;Lee, Mu-Jin;Jang, Ji-Hun;Sim, Mi-Ok;Jeong, Da-Eun;Cho, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Jong-Choon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2018
  • Anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are effectively used more than radiotherapy. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug, used for treatment of various forms of cancer. However, it has side effects such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity increases tubular damage and renal dysfunction. Consequently, we investigated the beneficial effect of cynaroside on cisplatin-induced kidney injury using HK-2 cell (human proximal tubule cell line) and an animal model. Results indicated that $10{\mu}M$ cynaroside diminished cisplatin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-3 activation, cisplatin-induced upregulation of caspase-3/MST-1 pathway decreased by treatment of cynaroside in HK-2 cells. To confirm the effect of cynaroside on cisplatin-induced kidney injury in vivo, we used cisplatin exposure animal model (20 mg/kg, balb/c mice, i.p., once a day for 3 days). Renal dysfunction, tubular damage and neutrophilia induced by cisplatin injection were decreased by cynaroside (10 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 3 days). Results indicated that cynaroside decreased cisplatin-induced kidney injury in vitro and in vivo, and it could be used for improving cisplatin-induced side effects. However, further experiments are required regarding toxicity by high dose cynaroside and caspase-3/MST-1-linked signal transduction in the animal model.