• Title/Summary/Keyword: Rectum

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Clinical Studies for the Development of Non-contact Thermometer to Take Easily the Body Temperature of Domestic Animals (가축에서 간이 체온측정 비접촉성 체온계 개발을 위한 임상적 연구)

  • 김용준;이대영;한경호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 2003
  • These studies were carried out to develop non-contact thermometer to take easily the body temperature of domestic animals instead of taking rectal temperature. For the studies, 86 cattle, 57 horses, 72 pigs, 43 goats, and 42 dogs were used and body parts as neck, flank, axilla, lateral abdomen, gluteus, inguinal region, or jugular groove were chosen for taking temperature according to different species. Two types of commercial non-contact thermometers were used to take the temperature of certain body part and at the same time the rectal temperature using digital thermo-meter was taken to compare the difference of temperature between rectum and certain body part. The difference of mean temperature in cattle between rectum and axilla and flank were 0.52 and $2.41^{\circ}C$, respectively, using non-contact thermometer I, whereas $3.02^{\circ}C$ between rectum and flank using thermometer II. The difference of mean temperature in horses between rectum and axilla, gluteus, and jugular groove were 0.52, 1.49, and $0.26^{\circ}C$, respectively, using thermometer I, whereas 2.28 ane $0.92^{\circ}C$ between rectum and gluteus or jugular groove using thermometer II. The difference of mean temperature in swine between rectum and flank, inguinal region, and neck were 1.23, 0.21, and $0.8^{\circ}C$, respectively, using thermometer I, whereas 1.42, 0.711, and $1.25^{\circ}C$ using thermometer II The difference of mean temperature in goats between rectum and lateral abdomen and inguinal region were 1.02 and $0.12^{\circ}C$, respectively, using thermometer I, whereas 1.96 and $1.01^{\circ}C$ using thermometer II. The difference of mean temperature in dogs between rectum and lateral abdomen, inguinal region, and neck were 3.26, 0.24, and $2.37^{\circ}C$, respectively, using thermometer I, whereas 3.45, 0.56, and $2.61^{\circ}C$ using thermometer II.

Quality Characteristics of Pork Rectum according to Storage Temperature (저장온도에 따른 돼지 막창의 품질)

  • Oh, Nam-Goong;Jeong, Jae-Hyun;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2013
  • This study is conducted to investigate the shelf life of pork rectum stored at refrigerated temperatures (1, 5 and $10^{\circ}C$). The pH of the boiled pork rectum ($7.1{\pm}0.1$) was slightly higher than that of the raw pork rectum ($6.7{\pm}0.1$). TBA value of the boiled pork rectum was higher than that of raw pork rectum. The TBA values of the raw and boiled pork rectum stored at $10^{\circ}C$ was rapidly increased at 4 days after beginning of preservation. The TBA values of raw and boiled pork rectum stored at $5^{\circ}C$ rapidly increased after 8 and 6 days after beginning of preservation, respectively. VBN values of both raw and boiled rectum preserved at $10^{\circ}C$ were maintained below 20 mg% for 8 days since the beginning of storage. Furthermore, it is preferred that the pork rectum was boiled for 20 minutes at $100^{\circ}C$ to restrain mesophiles, psychrophiles, and coliform bacteria effectively. Thus, the most desirable condition was when the pork rectum was consumed within 6 days and stored at $10^{\circ}C$.

Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Rectum by Addition of Maesil (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) (매실의 첨가가 돼지 막창의 저장특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Nam-Goong;Jeong, Jae-Hyun;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.453-458
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality change of pork rectum by addition of maesil. pH of the pork rectum was decreased by the addition of maesil in a dose dependent manner. The changes in the L and a color values of both raw pork rectum and cooked pork rectum by storage were negligable. The b color value of raw pork rectum was certainly increased in the early stage of storage. The b value of cooked pork rectum, which was slightly dropped by addition of maesil, was decreased as storage progressed. In both raw and cooked pork rectum, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner up to 5% addition of maesil. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content in the ground pork rectum was conspicuously decreased by the addition of maesil. Consequently, the storage time of both raw and cooked pork rectum was extended more than 4 days by the 5% addition of maesil.

A Study on the Absorption-Enhancing Effect of Sodium-5-methoxysalicylate (Sodium-5-Methoxy Salicylate의 흡수촉진 효과에 관한 연구)

  • 김기헌
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.111-116
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    • 1985
  • Effect of sodium-5-methoxysalicyclate (5MSA-Na) on the absorption of cefmetazol (CMZ) was studied in rectum and duodenum of rats via in situ loop method. Effect of 5MSA-Na on the absorption of CMZ showed markedly different results in rectum and duodenu. Penetration of 5MSA-Na was greater in rectum than in duodenum and water-transfer was markedly increased in duodenum.

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CT Based 3-Dimensional Treatment Planning of Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cancer of the Cervix : Comparison between Dose-Volume Histograms and ICRU Point Doses to the Rectum and Bladder

  • Hashim, Natasha;Jamalludin, Zulaikha;Ung, Ngie Min;Ho, Gwo Fuang;Malik, Rozita Abdul;Ee Phua, Vincent Chee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5259-5264
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    • 2014
  • Background: CT based brachytherapy allows 3-dimensional (3D) assessment of organs at risk (OAR) doses with dose volume histograms (DVHs). The purpose of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) based volumetric calculations and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) reference-point estimates of radiation doses to the bladder and rectum in patients with carcinoma of the cervix treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Materials and Methods: Between March 2011 and May 2012, 20 patients were treated with 55 fractions of brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids and underwent post-implant CT scans. The external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose was 48.6Gy in 27 fractions. HDR brachytherapy was delivered to a dose of 21 Gy in three fractions. The ICRU bladder and rectum point doses along with 4 additional rectal points were recorded. The maximum dose ($D_{Max}$) to rectum was the highest recorded dose at one of these five points. Using the HDRplus 2.6 brachyhtherapy treatment planning system, the bladder and rectum were retrospectively contoured on the 55 CT datasets. The DVHs for rectum and bladder were calculated and the minimum doses to the highest irradiated 2cc area of rectum and bladder were recorded ($D_{2cc}$) for all individual fractions. The mean $D_{2cc}$ of rectum was compared to the means of ICRU rectal point and rectal $D_{Max}$ using the Student's t-test. The mean $D_{2cc}$ of bladder was compared with the mean ICRU bladder point using the same statistical test. The total dose, combining EBRT and HDR brachytherapy, were biologically normalized to the conventional 2 Gy/fraction using the linear-quadratic model. (${\alpha}/{\beta}$ value of 10 Gy for target, 3 Gy for organs at risk). Results: The total prescribed dose was $77.5Gy{\alpha}/{\beta}10$. The mean dose to the rectum was $4.58{\pm}1.22Gy$ for $D_{2cc}$, $3.76{\pm}0.65Gy$ at $D_{ICRU}$ and $4.75{\pm}1.01Gy$ at $D_{Max}$. The mean rectal $D_{2cc}$ dose differed significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p<0.005); the mean difference was 0.82 Gy (0.48-1.19Gy). The mean EQD2 was $68.52{\pm}7.24Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ for $D_{2cc}$, $61.71{\pm}2.77Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ at $D_{ICRU}$ and $69.24{\pm}6.02Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ at $D_{Max}$. The mean ratio of $D_{2cc}$ rectum to $D_{ICRU}$ rectum was 1.25 and the mean ratio of $D_{2cc}$ rectum to $D_{Max}$ rectum was 0.98 for all individual fractions. The mean dose to the bladder was $6.00{\pm}1.90Gy$ for $D_{2cc}$ and $5.10{\pm}2.03Gy$ at $D_{ICRU}$. However, the mean $D_{2cc}$ dose did not differ significantly from the mean dose calculated at the ICRU reference point (p=0.307); the mean difference was 0.90 Gy (0.49-1.25Gy). The mean EQD2 was $81.85{\pm}13.03Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ for $D_{2cc}$ and $74.11{\pm}19.39Gy_{{\alpha}/{\beta}3}$ at $D_{ICRU}$. The mean ratio of $D_{2cc}$ bladder to $D_{ICRU}$ bladder was 1.24. In the majority of applications, the maximum dose point was not the ICRU point. On average, the rectum received 77% and bladder received 92% of the prescribed dose. Conclusions: OARs doses assessed by DVH criteria were higher than ICRU point doses. Our data suggest that the estimated dose to the ICRU bladder point may be a reasonable surrogate for the $D_{2cc}$ and rectal $D_{Max}$ for $D_{2cc}$. However, the dose to the ICRU rectal point does not appear to be a reasonable surrogate for the $D_{2cc}$.

Changes in Storage Characteristics of Pork Rectum by Addition of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) (생강의 첨가가 분쇄막창의 저장특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Won-Seok;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.956-961
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger addition (1%, 5% and 10%) on the quality of ground pork rectum. No significant difference in the pH was found between raw and cooked pork rectum during storage; however, the pH of cooked rectum was slightly lower than raw rectum. The TBA value of the cooked pork rectum (0.25 mg/kg) was higher than raw pork rectum (0.1 mg/kg). In addition, the TBA values of both raw and cooked pork rectum increased as storage progressed. The TBA value was found to decrease in proportion to the amount of ginger added. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values also decreased with the addition of ginger. Consequently, considering that the initial stage of decomposition was 30~40%, it was determined that it would be desirable to consume the raw and cooked pork rectum within 4 and 6 days of storage at $5^{\circ}C$, respectively. Further, it was found that the addition of 10% ginger could extend the storage period beyond the 4 days at $5^{\circ}C$.

Evaluating efficiency of Split VMAT plan for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes (골반 림프선을 포함한 전립선암 치료 시 Split VMAT plan의 유용성 평가)

  • Mun, Jun Ki;Son, Sang Jun;Kim, Dae Ho;Seo, Seok Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.145-156
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of Split VMAT planning(Contouring rectum divided into an upper and a lower for reduce rectum dose) compare to Conventional VMAT planning(Contouring whole rectum) for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes. Materials and Methods : A total of 9 cases were enrolled. Each case received radiotherapy with Split VMAT planning to the prostate involving pelvic lymph nodes. Treatment was delivered using TrueBeam STX(Varian Medical Systems, USA) and planned on Eclipse(Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3(Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28), AAA(Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28). Lower rectum contour was defined as starting 1cm superior and ending 1cm inferior to the prostate PTV, upper rectum is a part, except lower rectum from the whole rectum. Split VMAT plan parameters consisted of 10MV coplanar $360^{\circ}$ arcs. Each arc had $30^{\circ}$ and $30^{\circ}$ collimator angle, respectively. An SIB(Simultaneous Integrated Boost) treatment prescription was employed delivering 50.4Gy to pelvic lymph nodes and 63~70Gy to the prostate in 28 fractions. $D_{mean}$ of whole rectum on Split VMAT plan was applied for DVC(Dose Volume Constraint) of the whole rectum for Conventional VMAT plan. In addition, all parameters were set to be the same of existing treatment plans. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively using a 0.2cm grid. All plans were normalized to the prostate $PTV_{100%}$ = 90% or 95%. A comparison of $D_{mean}$ of whole rectum, upperr ectum, lower rectum, and bladder, $V_{50%}$ of upper rectum, total MU and H.I.(Homogeneity Index) and C.I.(Conformity Index) of the PTV was used for technique evaluation. All Split VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with portal dosimetry using EPID. Results : Using DVH analysis, a difference between the Conventional and the Split VMAT plans was demonstrated. The Split VMAT plan demonstrated better in the $D_{mean}$ of whole rectum, Up to 134.4 cGy, at least 43.5 cGy, the average difference was 75.6 cGy and in the $D_{mean}$ of upper rectum, Up to 1113.5 cGy, at least 87.2 cGy, the average difference was 550.5 cGy and in the $D_{mean}$ of lower rectum, Up to 100.5 cGy, at least -34.6 cGy, the average difference was 34.3 cGy and in the $D_{mean}$ of bladder, Up to 271 cGy, at least -55.5 cGy, the average difference was 117.8 cGy and in $V_{50%}$ of upper rectum, Up to 63.4%, at least 3.2%, the average difference was 23.2%. There was no significant difference on H.I., and C.I. of the PTV among two plans. The Split VMAT plan is average 77 MU more than another. All IMRT verification gamma test results for the Split VMAT plan passed over 90.0% at 2 mm / 2%. Conclusion : As a result, the Split VMAT plan appeared to be more favorable in most cases than the Conventional VMAT plan for prostate cancer radiotherapy involving pelvic lymph nodes. By using the split VMAT planning technique it was possible to reduce the upper rectum dose, thus reducing whole rectal dose when compared to conventional VMAT planning. Also using the split VMAT planning technique increase the treatment efficiency.

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TLD Dosimetry in HDR Intracavitary Brachytherapy (고선량률 강내 근접치료시 열형광량계를 이용한 선량측정법)

  • Kim, Chang-Seon;Yang, Dae-Sik;Kim, Chul-Yong;Park, Myung-Sun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2000
  • One consideration of radiation delivery in cervical cancer is the complication of critical organs, e.g., bladder and rectum. The absorbed dose of bladder and rectum in HDR intracavitary brachytherapy is measured indirectly with TLD dosimetry A method for the complication reduction of bladder and rectum is suggested. For two-hundred cervical cancer patients, follow-up MRI images were reviewed and distances from cervical central axis to bladder and rectum and vaginal wall thickness were measured. The sealed TLDs were placed upon the gauze packing of the ovoids and the distances to the TLDs from the ovoid center were measured in the simulation film and actual doses of bladder and rectum were calculated. From published data, maximal tolerance doses of bladder and rectum were derived and based on the permissible doses per fraction in HDR brachytherapy the packing thicknesses were determined in both directions. The required minimal packing thicknesses for bladder and rectum were 0.43 and 0.92 cm, respectively. The results were compared with computer calculation using the Meisberger polynomial approach. It is our hope this study can be used for a guideline for users in clinic in estimating critical organ dose in bladder and rectum in HDR brachytherapy in vivo dosimetry.

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Dose Distribution of Rectum in the treatment of Uterine Cervical Cancer using Remote Afterloading System (RALS시행시 선원의 거리 이동및 직장선량에 관한 계산치와 측정치의 비교연구)

  • 김성규;신세원;김명세
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1994
  • Dose distribution of point source represents an inverse square law as the distance, Difference of measurement value and calculation value according to moving distance of radiation source show very large error in dose calculation of Brachytherapy. Therefore, in RALS of high dose rate, dose calculation have an important effect in treatment of uterine cervix cancer and recurrent rate. In this paper, authors measured moving distance of radiation source carrying out RALS. And we measured Rectum dose compared with calculationdose.

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A Study on the Absorption Enhancing Effect of Sodium 5-Methoxysalicylate(II) (Sodium 5-Methoxy Salicylate의 흡수촉진 효과에 관한 연구 (II). 흡수촉진제에 대한 반응성)

  • 김기헌
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.96-99
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    • 1986
  • Absorption enhancing effect of 5 MSA-Na at the mucous memberanes of the rectum and duodenum was studied via in vitro sac test. There were no significant differences between two membranes. Effect of 5MSA-Na on the transfer of CMZ to the tissue was also studied via in situ loop method. There was no significant difference at the duodenum, compared to the control when CMZ was administered intravenously. Transfer of CMZ to the loop of the rectum was increased in the presence of 5MSA-Na compared to the control, which might be attributed to the enhanced permeability of the mucous memberane of the rectum.

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