• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radioactive effluents

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Radioactive effluents released from Korean nuclear power plants and the resulting radiation doses to members of the public

  • Kong, Tae Young;Kim, Siyoung;Lee, Youngju;Son, Jung Kwon;Maeng, Sung Jun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.1772-1777
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    • 2017
  • Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs) periodically evaluate the radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents released from power reactors to protect the public from radiation exposure. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the release of radioactive effluents from Korean NPPs and the effects on the annual radiation doses to the public. The amounts of radioactive effluents released to the environment and the resulting radiation doses to members of the public living around NPPs were analyzed for the years 2011-2015 using the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd's annual summary reports of the assessment of radiological impact on the environment. The results show that tritium was the primary contributor to the activity in both gaseous and liquid effluents. The averages of effective doses to the public were approximately on the order of $10^{-3}mSv$ or $10^{-2}mSv$. Therefore, even though Korean NPPs discharged some radioactive materials into the environment, all effluents were within the regulatory safety limits and the resulting doses were much less than the dose limits.

A Review and Characteristics for Radioactive Effluents from the Nuclear Power Plants in Korea (국내원전의 방사성유출물 배출현황과 특성에 대한 고찰)

  • Son, Jung-Kwon;Kong, Tae-Young;Choi, Jong-Rak;Kim, Hee-Geun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2012
  • As of the end of 2010, 21 nuclear power reactors were operating in Korea. Radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants (NPPs) had been increased continuously and the radioactivity of effluents released in 2010 was 547.12 TBq. From 2001 to 2010, the annual average radioactivity of gaseous and liquid effluents per reactor was 11.61 TBq for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants and 118.12 TBq for PHWR (pressurized heavy water reactor) plants. Most of the radioactivity from gaseous and liquid effluents was came from $^3H$. Based on the results of release trends and analysis, effluents characteristics was suggested for the management of radioactive effluents from NPPs.

Review on the Management for Radioactive Effluent and Methodology for Setting of Derived Release Limits at Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in Korea (중수로원전 방사성유출물 관리와 유도배출한계 설정방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2010
  • The radioactive effluents from pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) are relatively larger than those from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Futhermore, radioactive effluents from PHWRs are released continuously. Thus, the discharge of radioactive effluents is strictly controlled. To do this, radiation detectors are installed at stacks of reactor buildings to monitor the concentration of radioactive effluents in real-time. Derived release limits (DRLs) of annual discharge are also set up for each radionuclide and effluents are rigidly controlled not to exceed those limits. In this paper, the discharge process of radioactive effluents, the standard for establishment of DRL and its methodology, and currents status for PHWRs were reviewed.

Radiological Dose Analysis to the Public Resulting from the Operation of Daedeok Nuclear Facilities (대덕부지 원자력관련시설 운영에 따른 주민피폭선량 현황분석)

  • Jeong, Hae Sun;Kim, Eun Han;Jeong, Hyo Joon;Han, Moon Hee;Park, Mi Sun;Hwang, Won Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2014
  • This paper describes the results of assessment of radiological dose resulting from operation of the Daedeok nuclear facilities including the HANARO research reactor, which has been performed to assure whether or not to comply with the regulation standards of the radioactive effluents releases. Based on the meteorological data and the radiation source term, the maximum individual doses were evaluated from 2010 to 2012. The atmospheric dispersion and the deposition factors of gaseous effluents were calculated using the XOQDOQ computer code. ENDOS-G and ENDOS-L code systems were also used for maximum individual dose calculation from gaseous and liquid effluents, respectively. The results were compared with the regulation standards for the radioactive effluents presented by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC). The effective doses and the thyroid doses of the maximum individual were calculated at the maximum exposed point in the Daedeok site, and contributions of exposure pathways to the radiological doses resulting from gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents were evaluated at each facility of the Daedeok site. As a result, the maximum exposed age was analysed to be the child group, and the operation of HANARO research reactor had a major effect more than 90% on the individual doses. The main exposure pathways for gaseous radioactive effluent were from ingestion and inhalation. The effective doses and the thyroid doses were considerably influenced by tritium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous radioactive effluents contributed more than 90% on the total doses, whereas the contributions of the liquid radioactive effluents were relatively low. Consequently, the maximum individual dose due to radioactive effluents from the nuclear facilities within the Daedeok site were less than 3% of the regulation standard over 3 years; therefore, it can be concluded that radioactive effluents from the nuclear facilities were well managed, with the radiation-induced health detriment for residents around the site being negligible.

Practical Radiation Safety Control: (II) Application of Numerical Guidance for the Discharges of Radioactive Gaseous and Liquid Effluents (방사선안전관리 실무: (II) 배기중 및 배수중 배출관리기준의 적용)

  • Kim, Hyun Kee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.61-64
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    • 2014
  • Radioactive materials are in use and have many applications from the generation of electricity to the purposes of research, industry and medicine such as diagnosis and therapy. In the course of their use some of radioactive substances may be discharged into the environment from facilities using the unsealed radioactive materials, which are main artificial sources occurring the public exposure. Discharges are in the form of gases, particles or liquids. This paper provides procedures to estimate the level of the public exposure based on the conservative assumptions and simple calculations in the facility using unsealed liquid sources. They consist of two processes; (1) to calculate maximum concentration of gaseous effluents discharged through the exhaust pipe and average concentration of liquid effluents discharged through the drain of the storage tank, (2) to compare each of them to numerical guidances for the discharges of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents mentioned in the related notification. For this purpose followings are assumed properly; daily usage, form and dispersion rate of radionuclides, daily amount of radioactive liquid waste and exhaust and drainage equipment. The procedures are readily applicable to evaluate environmental effects by planned effluent discharges from facilities using the unsealed radioactive materials. In addition they may be utilized to obtain practical requirements for radiation safety control necessary for the reductions of the public exposure.

Radiological Dose Assessment Due to the Operation of Nuclear Facilities at KAERI Nuclear Site

  • Han, M.H.;Kim, E.H.;Hwang, W.T;Yeom, J.M.;Han, J.T.;Lee, Y.B.;Han, W.J.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.247-254
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    • 2003
  • To prevent the potential health detriment to the public from radioactive effluents, radiological dose assessments due to the operation of nuclear facilities located at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) site has been performed semiannually in compliance with the Minister of Science and Technology (MOST)'s Notice in Korea. Radiological dose assessment based on the new recommendation of the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) has been conducted since 1998. In this manuscript, a serial activities at KAERI site to meet the regulatory standards for routine releases of radioactive effluents are introduced and discussed including technical approaches. It is clear that each nuclear facility has been operated in compliance with regulatory standards. Furthermore, it is identified that the radiation induced health effects for residents around the site are neglectable.

A Study on the Oceanic Diffusion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents based on the Statistical Method (통계적 방법을 이용한 방사성 물질의 해양 확산 평가)

  • Kim, Soong-Pyung;Lee, Goung-Jin
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1998
  • A diffusion model of radioactive liquid effluents is developed and applied for YGN NPP's site, based on the Gaussian plume type model. Due to the complexity of oceanic diffusion characteristics of YGN site, a simple and reliable statistical model based on Reg. Guide 1.113 is developed. Also, a computer code package to calculate dilution factors as a function of plant operation conditions and pathway of radioactive materials. A liquid effluents diffusion model is developed by dividing the diffusion range into two categories, i. e, a near field mixing region and a far field mixing region. In the near field, the initial mixing is affected by a buoyance force, a high initial turbulence and momentum which is characterized by a plant operation condition and environmental conditions. The far field mixing is similar to gaseous effluents diffusion. So, beyond the near field region, wellknown Gaussian plume model was adopted. A different area averages of Gaussian plume equation was taken for each radioactive exposure pathway. As a result, we can get different dilution factors for different pathways. Results shows that present dilution factors used for YGN ODCM is too much overestimated compared with dilution factors calculated with the developed model.

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An Investigation on the Technical Background for Carbon-14 Monitoring in Radioactive Effluents (원자력시설의 Carbon-14 방사성유출물에 대한 감시배경의 조사)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2009
  • effluents to the environment. The activity of carbon-14, one of the radioactive effluents, in the environment is already high level and its effect on radiation exposure to the public and the environment is insignificant; thus, NPPs did not perform the carbon-14 monitoring in effluents in the past. By the way, effluents of noble gas and particulate radioactive materials originated from nuclear fuels has been continuously reduced due to both the advancement of manufacturing and integrity technology for nuclear fuels and the improvement of operation methods of NPPs. Futhermore, the portion of dose assessment by tritium and carbon-14 to the public has been relatively increased because the lower limit of detection for low-energy beta sources, such as tritium and carbon-14, is low due to the advancement of radiation detection technology. In this paper, the technical background for carbon-14 monitoring in nuclear facilities was investigated using United States technical reports and papers. This paper also reviews whether carbon-14 monitoring is necessary or not based on the investigated documents.

Comparison of Off-site Radiological Dose Due to the Routine Release of Gaseous Radioactive Effluents Based on the Korean and Japanese Regulatory Recommendations

  • Hwang, Won Tae;Kim, Chang Lak;Lee, Cheol-Woo;Han, Moon Hee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.161-165
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    • 2019
  • Background: Not only regulatory framework including radiation protection quantities and regulatory standards, but also methodology for regulatory compliance may be different in each country due to inherent philosophy for radiation protection. Materials and Methods: Based on the Korean regulatory models, off-site radiological dose resulting from the routine releases of gaseous radioactive effluents was calculated by applying the parameter values and assumptions recommended in the Korean and Japanese regulations. Results and Discussion: Effective dose for adult based on the Korean recommendation were 17.5 and 1.6 times higher than those of Japanese recommendation for 131I and 133I, respectively, for the same atmosphere dispersion and ground deposition factors. Conclusion: It was due to different parameter values and assumptions recommended for the purpose of evaluating compliance with dose criteria for the radiation protection of the public in each country.