• Title/Summary/Keyword: Ovulation

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Investigation of Relation between the Ovulation Confirmation and Conception Rate in Dairy Cattle

  • Lim, Hyun-Joo;Yoon, Ho-Beak
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 2018
  • Ensuring timely ovulation concerning the service is valuable. A satisfactory conception rate can be achieved by making sure that ovulation occurs within 7-18 hours after artificial insemination (AI). Delayed ovulation is one of the disturbances commonly encountered in repeat breeding animals. Although demanding research, many studies have not been conducted. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relation between ovulation confirmation and conception rate in dairy cattle. The research findings showed that the signs of true estrus were bred 12 hours after the onset of estrus by AI in cattle. Also, the performance of AI on ovulation was confirmed by the presence of fluctuant Graafian follicles through rectal palpation. From the results, we confirmed that cow encountered delayed ovulation were bred again. The Conception rate in cows with confirmed ovulation was 51.9%, while for those without confirmed ovulation were 33.3%. In conclusion, the results indicate that ovulation confirmation will likely increase conception rate.

Induction of Ovulation by Hormone Treatment in Ussurian Bullhead Leiocassis ussuriensis

  • Lim, Sang Gu;Kim, Young Soo;Han, Hyung Kyun;Kim, Kwang Suk;Kim, Dae Jung;Kang, Eon Jong;Son, Sang Gyu;Kim, Eung Oh
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2012
  • The effects of ovulation induction in ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis, were investigated by treating ussurian bullhead with hCG, LHRHa, GnRHa, ovaprim, and pimozide. hCG was injected to ussurian bullhead at 0.75% NaCl, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 IU, respectively. The ovulation inducement rates were 100% in 20,000 and 30,000 IU. Fertilization rates were 82.7% and 79.8%. Hatching rates were 59.4% and 57.2%. Ovulation time was between 16-19 hr The concentrations of LHRHa injected were 0.75 NaCl, 50, 100, 200, 300, and $300{\mu}g/kg$. The ovulation inducement rates were 100% in 300 and $400{\mu}g/kg$. Fertilization and hatching rates were 84.9% and 68.4% at $200{\mu}g/kg$. The times to ovulation were between 23 hr and 34 hr. Ovaprim of 0.75% NaCl, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 ml/kg were injected to the abdominal cavity. The ovulation inducement rate was highest at 2.0 and 3.0 ml/kg to 92% and ovulation time was between 27-38 hr. LHRHa concentrations of 0.75% NaCl, 50, 100, 200, 300 and $400{\mu}g$ were injected with pimozide ($1,000{\mu}g$). Ovulation inducement rate was 100% from 200 to 400 IU with pimozide. Ovulation time was 22-36 h. Fertilization and hatching rates were 88.9% and 70.4% in $200{\mu}g/kg$ with pimozide.

Effect of Endocrine Disruptors on the Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation in Amphibians, Rana dybowskii

  • Choi, Mee-Jeong;Kim, Seung-Chang;Kim, An-Na;Kwon, Hyuk-Bang;Ahn, Ryun-Sup
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2007
  • Recently, we have shown that some endocrine disruptors, heavy metals, organotins and azoles suppressed steroidogenic enzymes such as P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and aromatase in bullfrog ovarian follicles. In the present study, by using an amphibian ovarian follicle culture system, we examined the effects of these endocrine disruptors on maturation and ovulation of oocytes from Rana dybowskii in vitro. Ovarian fragments or isolated follicles were cultured for 24 h in a medium containing frog pituitary homogenate (FPH) or progesterone ($P_{4}$) with or without endocrine disruptors, and oocyte maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) and ovulation were examined. Among the organotins, tributyltin (TBT) strongly inhibited both FPH-and $P_{4}-induced$ oocyte maturation ($ED_{50}$:0.6 and 0.7 ${\mu}M$, respectively); however, tetrabutyltin (TTBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) showed only partial suppression, while monobutyltin (MBT) showed no inhibitory effect. All of the organotins suppressed $P_{4}-induced$ oocyte ovulation very effectively at a low concentration, and TBT and DBT exerted an inhibitory effect on FPH-induced ovulation. Among the heavy metals, mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and cobalt (Co) were very effective in inhibiting FPH-induced oocyte maturation and ovulation, while lead (Pb), arsenite (As) and zinc (Zn) were less effective. However, all of the heavy metals suppressed FPH-induced oocyte ovulation at a high dose ($100{\mu}M$). Among the azoles, itraconazole (ICZ), ketoconazole (KCZ) and clotrimazole (CTZ) effectively inhibited FPH-induced oocyte maturation and ovulation, while econazole (ECZ), miconazole (MCZ) and fluconazole (FCZ) were considerably less effective. These results demonstrated that the abovementioned endocrine disruptors exhibited differential effects on oocyte maturation and ovulation in amphibian follicles and that the frog ovarian culture system could be used as an effective experimental tool to screen and evaluate the toxicity of various endocrine disruptors in vitro.

Prostaglandin Affects In Vitro Ovulation and 17α, 20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one Production in Longchin Goby, Chasmichthys dolichognathus Oocytes

  • Baek, Hea Ja;Lee, Da Som
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2019
  • This study focused on the association of prostaglandins and a progestin, $17{\alpha}$, $20{\beta}P$-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one ($17{\alpha}20{\beta}P$) during the ovulation process in longchin goby, Chasmichthys dolichognathus. We performed several in vitro experiments using $850-920{\mu}m$ diameter oocytes which were at the migratory nucleus stage. With the $890-920{\mu}m$ diameter oocytes, no significant difference in ovulation was observed in any of the prostaglandins (PGE1, PGE2, and $PGF2{\alpha}$) treated groups although PGE2 and $PGF2{\alpha}$ at concentrations of 50 ng/mL increased ovulation slightly compared with controls; however, $17{\alpha}20{\beta}P$ production was stimulated with PGE1 alone at low concentrations (5 ng/mL). In $850{\mu}m$ diameter oocytes, $PGF2{\alpha}$ at concentrations of 50 and 500 ng/mL resulted in a significant increase in ovulation. $17{\alpha}20{\beta}P$ (50 ng/mL) alone had no observable effect on ovulation, but in the combined of $PGF2{\alpha}$ 50 or 500 ng/mL it caused the greatest effect on ovulation. The sensitivity of oocytes to the induction of ovulation varies between 850 and $890-920{\mu}m$, it appeared to vary depending on the migration status of nucleus. These results suggest that $PGF2{\alpha}$ (or combined of $17{\alpha}20{\beta}P$) was more potent in inducing ovulation of the longchin goby.

Effects on Reproduction Efficiency of Estrous Status in Thoroughbred Mares During the Breeding Season (더러브렛 암말의 번식기 발정상태가 번식효율에 미치는 영향)

  • 양영진;조길재;남치주
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to ascertain the breeding efficiency in Thoroughbred mare. A total of 106 mares were investigated for the status of follicle (462 cases), ovulation (179 cases) and pregnancy (346 cases). Of total examination, 46.8% was follicle measure to determine breeding time, and mating rate per cases examined was 39.9%. There was no correlation between reproductive results and size of follicles or endometrial edema or degrees of teasing alone. 143 cases were ovulated among 179 cases which were performed ovulation examination, and ovulation rate and fertilization rate per mating times were 79.9% and 39.0%, respectively. The use of hCG(human chorionic gonadotropin), to facilitate ovulation, presented to increase occurrence of double ovulations and twin fertilizations In conclusion, though more examination to estimate the optimal breeding time and higher mating rate was performed, fertilization rate per mating times was lower and then reproductive efficiency also became decreased. Therefore, it seemed that accurate examination of reproductive tracks, appropriate teasing programme and hCG administration before ovulation were of help to improve ovulation rate and fertilization rate.

THE EFFECTS OF PROSTAGLANDINS AND INDOMETHACIN ON OVULATION IN THE PERFUSED FOWL OVARY

  • Tanaka, K.;Higuchi, T.;Tawarazumita, M.;Hertelendy, F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 1992
  • The effects of prostaglandins (PG) and indomethacin, a PG synthesis inhibitor, on ovulation in the perfused fowl ovary were studied. Laying hens were killed by cutting the jugular vein 18-19 h before expected ovulation of the second follicle of a clutch sequence. The cannulated ovary was dissected free and connected with a recycling perfusion apparatus. Agents to be studied for their effects on ovulation were added to the perfusion fluid. $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ at 0.1 and 1 mg/l induced ovulation, with a success rate of 25% and 30%, respectively. The same doses of $PGE_2$ were effective at 60% and 63%, respectively. Indomethacin partially blocked gonadotrophin-induced ovulation. It is suggested that PGs may play a supportive role in the process of follicular rupture in the domestic fowl.

In Vitro Ovulation and Prostaglandin Synthesis by Ovarian Follicles of Rana dybowskii

  • Kong, Hye-Young;Chang, Kyung-Ja;Im, Wook-Bin;Kwon, Hyuk-Bang
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 1999
  • Changes in the levels of prostaglandian F$_{2a}$ (PGF$_{2a}$) and E$_2$ (PGE$_2$) in culture medium during in vitro ovulation of Rana dybowskii follicles were examined. The ovulation was induced by frog pituitary homogenate (FPH) or TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a protein kinase activator) and the levels of PGs were measured by radioimmunoassay. When the ovarian follicles were cultured, only a few oocytes were ovulated by 12 h, but half of them were ovulated by 24 h in response to FPH, whereas around 30% of oocytes were ovulated by 12 h and maximum ovulation (around 50%) occurred by 24 h in response to TPA. Without any stimulation (control), no ovulation occurred. TPA elevated the level of PGF$_{2a}$ to high levels when compared to control (basal levels), but the increase by FPH was less evident. Likewise, the levels of PGE$_2$ increased markedly in response to TPA, but rather decreased by FPH treatment. Interestingly, PGF$_{2a}$ induced ovulation but PGE$_2$ suppressed FPH- or PGF$_{2a}$-induced oocyte ovulation. Basal levels of PGs Increased steadily during culture. When theca/epithelium (THEP) layer and granulosa cell-enclosed oocytes (GCEOs) were separated by microdissection and cultured independently, higher levels of both PGs were secreted by THEP than by GCEOS. Synthesis of PGs by follicle or follicular components was strongly suppressed by exogenous cAMP or indomethacin. These results suggest that: 1) PGF$_{2a}$ plays an important role in Rana ovulation, 2) protein kinase C is involved in PGs production, and 3) thecal epithelium layer is responsible for the PGs production in Rana.

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Determination of the Granulosa Cell-Specific Endothelin Receptor A Deletion on Ovarian Function

  • Cho, Jong-Ki
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2014
  • Endothelin 2 (EDN2) induces follicular rupture by constricting periovulatory follicles. In this study, it was investigated the mechanisms of EDN2 action on follicular rupture with respect of receptor using the conditionally granulosa cell specific EDN2 receptor type A (ETa) KO mice (gcETaKO; $ETa^{flox/-}{\cdot}Amhr2^{Cre}$). It was generated the gcETaKO mice by breeding with $ETa^{flox/-}$ mice after mono-alleic ETa knockout by $ZP3^{Cre}$ and $Amhr2^{Cre}$ mice. Fertility, ovulation and maturation rates of ovulated oocytes after super ovulation were investigated in the gcETaKO mice compared with wild-type mice ($ETa^{flox/flox}$ and $ETa^{flox/-}$) as a control group. In the gcETaKO mice, normal fertility after breeding with male mice was shown compared with wild-type mice. And, there was no significant differences in ovulation rates after super ovulation, however its maturation rates was lower than that of wild type mice. These findings show that EDN2 in follicular rupture for ovulation is related with an other ETa not in granulosa cells. Further studies are needed to investigate how EDN2 is acted in ovarian follicular rupture for ovulation.

The Estrous Cycle and Induction of Ovulation in Mares

  • Yoon, Min-Jung
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.165-174
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    • 2012
  • For horse breeders or managers, it is critical to understand the estrous cycle of mares. Breeding of mares cannot be successfully achieved throughout the whole year as mares breed seasonally. Mares are only able to breed when day length is more than 16 h, and this period is known as the breeding season. Their estrous cycle is approximately 21 days with 5-7 days of estrus and 14 to 15 days of a diestrus period. The estrous cycle of the mare is mainly controlled by gonadotropins, which control follicular development and ovulation. Mares exhibit unique ovulatory events which are not observed in other species. A LH surge occurs for several days, with levels of LH reaching their peak after ovulation. The LH level at the time of LH peak is lower than most other species. The unique anatomical structure of the ovaries of mares is known to limit the number of eggs ovulated. Several attempts have been made to develop chemical/hormonal agents which might be used to manipulate the timed ovulation of mares. Agents that have been tested include hCG, native GnRH, Deslorelin (Ovuplant, GnRH-agonist), Buserelin (GnRH analogue), equine pituitary extracts and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG or PMSG). However, the function, purity or stability of these agents is not reliable. Recombinant equine LH, an alternative agent for the timed ovulation, has been developed and tested for its biological activities, through the use of both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The reLH was suggested to be a reliable agent in inducing ovulation within 48 h after being administered through injection, when the size of dominant follicle is 35 mm in diameter.

Induction of Ovulation with Clomiphene Citrate (Clomiphene Citrate를 이용한 배란유도에 관한 연구)

  • Moon, S.Y.;Yoon, B.K.;Yoon, B.H.;Kim, J.G.;Lee, J.Y.;Chang, Y.S.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 1985
  • Therapy for anovulation represents one of the more gratifying and successful type of infertility management. Despite the introduction of bromocriptine, human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), clomiphene citrate remains the mainstay of ovulation induction therapy. There is wide variability in reported rates of ovulation induction (57-91%) and conception (25-43%) following clomiphene therapy. Factors contributing to this variability among different reports are the differences in dosage and duration of therapy, different criteria utilized in selecting patients for clomiphene therapy and different luteal phase parameters of presumptive ovulation. A review of recent experience with clomiphene citrate in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Seoul National University from January, 1983 to May, 1985 yields the following conclusions: 1. Ovulation rate per total patients treated was, 69.0% 2. Pregnancy rate per total patients treated was 31.7%, and that per total patients ovulated was 45.9%. 3. Ovulation rate at the dosage level up to 150 mg/day (50.3-53.8%) was somewhat higher than that at 200 mg/day or more (33.3-34.6%), and pregnancy rate per total patients treated was comparable at each dosage level. 4. Ovulation rate per total patients ovulated at each dosage level, where ovulation and conception occurred, showed a decreasing tendency as the dosage increased, but pregnancy rate per total patients conceived was comparable except at 200 mg/day. 5. Cumulative pregnancy rate per total patients conceived in each ovulatory cycle was 68.9% in 3 cycles, 88.9% in 4 cycles, and 100% in 6 cycles.

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