• Title/Summary/Keyword: Methane ($CH_4$)

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The Relationship between Korea Agricultural Productions and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Using Environmental Kuznets Curve (환경쿠즈네츠곡선을 이용한 한국의 농업 생산과 온실가스 배출의 관계 분석)

  • Kang, Hyun-Soo
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.209-223
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    • 2021
  • Purpose - The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Korea agricultural productions and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Design/methodology/approach - This study utilized time series data of economic growth, greenhouse gas, agricultural productions, trade dependency, and energy usages. In order to econometric procedure of EKC hypothesis, this study utilized unit root test and cointegration test to check staionarity of each variable and also adopted Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) to analyze the short and long run relationships. Findings - In the short run, greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic growth show an inverse U-shape relationship, and an increase in agricultural production and energy consumption led to increase in greenhouse gas emission. In the long run, total GHG emissions and CO2 emissions show an N-shaped relationship with economic growth, and an increase in agricultural production has resulted in a decrease in total GHG and CO2 emissions. However, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions showed an inverse U-shape relationship with economic growth, which indicated the environment and production process of agricultural production. Research implications or Originality - Korea agricultural production has different effects on the GHG emission sources, and in particular, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions show to increase as the agricultural production expansions, so policy or technological development in related sector is required. Especially, in the context of the 2030 GHG reduction road-map, if GHG-related reduction technologies or policies are spread, national GHG emission reduction targets can be achieved and this is possible to predict the decline in production in the sector and damage to the related industries.

Development of Power Transformer Maintenance System Using Intelligent Dissolved Gas in Oil Analysis (지능형 유중가스분석법을 이용한 전력용 변압기 관리시스템 개발)

  • Sun, Jong-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.87-90
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    • 2004
  • This paper describes development of power transformer maintenance system using intelligent dissolved gases in oil analysis. The used gases are acetylene(C2H2), hydrogen(H2), ethylene(C2H4), methane(CH4), ethane(C2H6), carbon monoxide(CO) and carbon dioxide(CO2). The rule and neural network based gas analysis methods are used for artificial intelligent diagnosis. It is indicated that this program is efficient for diagnosis of oil immersed transformers diagnosis from application of gas analysis data of serviced transformer which has local overheating

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Waste-to-Energy and Landfill Gas Utilization Potential in Indonesia

  • Yurnaidi, Zulfikar
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2009
  • Indonesian Ministry of Environment estimates that each year 170 cities and regencies in Indonesia produce 45,764,354.30 $m^3$ or approximately 11,441,091.08 ton of solid waste. Unfortunately, unsustainable management system has created a severe waste problem, hazardous to health and environment. This paper deals with the problem and offers some solutions. They are 3R (Reduce Reuse and Recycle), waste-to-energy concept and landfill gas (LFG) utilization. While 3R policy has been adopted by the government, the remaining two technologies are still dormant. Thus the paper provides a complete yet compact analysis of technology, economics, and environment aspect of waste-to-energy and LFG. Given the facts of waste production and management in Indonesia, the purpose is to encourage Government of Indonesia and other stake holders (including international community) to explore and exploit this potential. Potential of reducing waste negative externality while receiving extra revenue. Two bird with a stone.

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Synthesis of Vertically Aligned SiNW/Carbon Core-shell Nanostructures

  • Kim, Jun-Hui;Kim, Min-Su;Kim, Dong-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.488.2-488.2
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    • 2014
  • Carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have emerged as promising building blocks in applications for nanoelectronics and energy devices due to electrical property, ease of processability, and relatively inert electrochemistry. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in core-shell nanomaterials, in which inorganic nanowires are surrounded by inorganic or organic layers. Especially, carbon encapsulated semiconductor nanowires have been actively investigated by researchers in lithium ion batteries. We report a method to synthesize silicon nanowire (SiNW) core/carbon shell structures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), using methane (CH4) as a precursor at growth temperature of $1000{\sim}1100^{\circ}C$. Unlike carbon-based materials synthesized via conventional routes, this method is of advantage of metal-catalyst free growth. We characterized these materials with FE-SEM, FE-TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. This would allow us to use these materials for applications ranging from optoelectronics to energy devices such as solar cells and lithium ion batteries.

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Analysis of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide using MOPITT data

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Park, Gi-Hyuk;Lim, Hyo-Suk;Lee, Joo-Hee
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2002
  • The Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is an eight-channel gas correlation radiometer launched on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in 1999. Its main objectives are to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) concentrations in the troposphere. This work analyzes tropospheric carbon monoxide distributions using MOPITT data in East Asia and compared ozone distributions. In general, seasonal CO variations are characterized by a spring peak and decreased in the summer. Also, this work revealed that the seasonal cycles of CO are spring maximum and summer minimum with averaged concentrations ranging from 118ppbv to 170ppbv. The CO monthly means show a similar profiles to those of O3. This fact clearly indicates that the high concentration of CO in spring is caused by two possible causes: the photochemical CO production in the troposphere, transport of the CO in the northeast Asia. The CO and O3 seasonal cycles in northeast Asia are influenced extensively by the seasonal exchange of the different types of air mass due to the Asian monsoon. The continental air masses contain high concentrations of O3 and CO due to higher continental background concentrations and sometimes due to the contribution of regional pollution. In summer the transport pattern is reversed. The Pacific marine air masses prevail over Korea, so that the marine air masses bring low concentrations of CO and O3, which tend to give the apparent minimum in summer.

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Reactioin Characteristics of the Sm2Fe17-xGax(x0, 2) Alloy with Hydrogen and Methane Gas

  • Shon, S.W;Kwon, H.W
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 1999
  • The Ga-stabilised $Sm_2Fe_{17-}$type alloy can hardly be disproportionated under ordinary HDDR condition. The HDDR characteristics of Ga-substituted $Sm_2Fe_{17-}$type alloy were examined, and, in particular, the effect of particle size on the disproportionation of the Ga-substituted alloy was investigated in detail. The reaction characteristics of the $Sm_2Fe_{17-}$type alloys with or without Ga-substitution with methane (CH4) gas are also examined. The Ga-stabilised $Sm_2Fe_{17-}$type alloy was able to be disproportionated significantly on heating up to 80$0^{\circ}C$ under hydrogen with normal pressure. The particle size influenced significantly on the disproportion-ation of the Ga-substitute alloy, and the materials with finer particle size (<40 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) was fully disproportionated on heating up to around 80$0^{\circ}C$ under hydrogen gas with normal pressure. The Ga-substituted alloy has a very sluggish recombination kinetics with respect to the alloy without Ga-substitution. The $Sm_2Fe_{17}C_{x-}$type carbide was stabilised significantly by the Ga-substitution for Fe in the parent alloy. While the $Sm_2Fe_{17}C_x$ was disproportionated below 80$0^{\circ}C$ the Ga-stabilised $Sm_2Fe_{14}Ga_2C_x$ carbide remained intact even on heating up to 80$0^{\circ}C$.

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Surface analysis of a-$Si_xC_{1x}:H$ deposited by RF plasma-enhanced CVD (RF plasma-enhancd CVD 법에 의해 증착된 a-$Si_xC_{1x}:H$ 의 표면분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Tak;Yang, Woo-Seok;Lee, Hyun;Byungyou Hong;Yoon, Dae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Association of Crystal Growth Conference
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    • pp.285-303
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    • 1999
  • Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide compounds (a-SixC1x:H) of different compositions were deposited on Si substrate by RF plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Experiments were carried out using silane(SiH4) and methane(CH4) as the gas precursors at 1 Torr and at low substrate temperature (25$0^{\circ}C$). The gas flow rate was changed with every other parameters (pressure, temperature, RF power) fixed. The substrate was Si(100) wafer and all of the films obtained were amorphous. The bonding structure of a-SixC1x:H films deposited was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the film compositions. In addition, the surface morphology of films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

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Entomological approach to the impact of ionophore-feed additives on greenhouse gas emissions from pasture land in cattle

  • Takahashi, Junichi;Iwasa, Mitsuhiro
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.63 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 2021
  • The suppressive effect of monensin as an ionophore-feed additive on enteric methane (CH4) emission and renewable methanogenesis were evaluated. To clarify the suppressive effect of monensin a respiratory trial with head cage was performed using Holstein-Friesian steers. Steers were offered high concentrate diets (80% concentrate and 20% hay) ad libitum with or without monensin, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) or L-cysteine. Steers that received monensin containing diet had significantly (p < 0.01) lower enteric CH4 emissions as well as those that received GOS containing diet (p < 0.05) compared to steers fed control diets. Thermophilic digesters at 55℃ that received manure from steers fed on monensin diets had a delay in the initial CH4 production. Monensin is a strong inhibitor of enteric methanogenesis, but has a negative impact on biogas energy production at short retention times. Effects of the activity of coprophagous insects on CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cattle dung pats were assessed in anaerobic in vitro continuous gas quantification system modified to aerobic quantification device. The CH4 emission from dungs with adults of Caccobius jessoensis Harold (dung beetle) and the larvae of the fly Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius) were compared with that from control dung without insect. The cumulative CH4 emission rate from dung with dung insects decreased at 42.2% in dung beetles and 77.8% in fly larvae compared to that from control dung without insects. However, the cumulative N2O emission rate increased 23.4% in dung beetles even though it reduced 88.6% in fly larvae compared to dung without coprophagous insects. It was suggested that the antibacterial efficacy of ionophores supplemented as a growth promoter still continued even in the digested slurry, consequently, possible environmental contamination with the antibiotics might be active to put the negative impact to land ecosystem involved in greenhouse gas mitigation when the digested slurry was applied to the fields as liquid manure.

Optical Properties of Diamond Like Carbon Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced CVD (rf PECVD법으로 증착된 DLC film의 광학적 성질)

  • Kim, Moon-Hyup;Song, Jae-Jin;Kim, Seong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.11 no.7
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    • pp.550-555
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    • 2001
  • A diamond-like carbon(DLC) films were deposited on the borosilicate glass substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical deposition(rf-PECVD). The $methane(CH_4)-hydrogen(H_2)$ gas mixture was used as precursor gas. The morphologies, the structure and the optical properties of the DLC films were investigated by SEM, Raman and UV spectrometer. The deposition rate was slightly increased with the hydrogen concentration in the gas mixture and it maintained constant at over 25 sccm of the gas flow rate. The optical band gap calculated by UV spectra decreased with increase of deposition time and DC self bias, but that were not effected by hydrogen content. Most effective parameter on the transmittance of film was bias voltage, especially in the range of ultra violet and visible light.

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On the Regional Background Levels of $CH_4$ Observed Peninsula in Korea during 1990~1992 (한국의 태안반도에서 관측된 $CH_4$의 지역적 배경농도에 관한 연구 -1990~1992년 자료를 중심으로-)

  • 정용승;이근준
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.33-48
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    • 1992
  • Since November 1990, the observations of methane (CH4) level have been carried out at Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in Korea. Analysis on atmospheric data obtained in the period from November 1990 to August 1992 is carried out and the results are included in this study. We 임ole that CIL does not have a clear seasonal cycle with a minor maximum in August- september and with a minimum in June-July. The variations in monthly average level are much larger with 1765.01∼ 1857.21 pub (amplitude 92.20 ppb). The occurrence of a minimum in June-July is due to the inflow of the North Pacific air, an increase of OH radical and due to a decrease in CH4 emission from rice paddy. A maximum in August and September appears to result from an increase in organic materials in agriculture (rice paddy) and forests, inputs of local sources due to weak airflows, stagnation of the warm and moist air and from a decrease in OH radical.'rho present analysis indicates that according to CH4 data from Mongolia and from several sites in North Pacific TAP is influenced as much as 31 pub in average from the inputs of Chinese omission. When the atmospheric CH4 of TAP is compared with data observed at Korea National University of Education (KNU), the values of KNU are higher (127 ppb) than those of TAP. It is clear that air samples taken at KNU are influenced strongly by local sources in central Korea than those at TAP. According to analysis of trajectories and airflows, we find that there are 4 types in classification. Firstly, when an air flow is originated mainly in China values of CH4 gas are in medium ranges. Secondly, when an airflow is from both local (Korea) and China we find higher values. Thirdly, with an airflow from both local (Korea) and Japan origins medium values are recorded. Fourths)r, when an airflow of maritime origin arrives low values of atmospheric CH4 are observed at TAP.

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