• Title, Summary, Keyword: MMPP

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Effect of the Variable Packet Size on LRD Characteristic of the MMPP Traffic Model

  • Lee, Kang-Won;Kwon, Byung-Chun
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1B
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2008
  • The effect of the variable packet size on the LRD characteristic of the MMPP traffic model is investigated. When we generate packet traffic for the performance evaluation of IP packet network, MMPP model can be used to generate packet interarrival time. And a random length of packet size from a certain distribution can be assigned to each packet. However, there is a possibility that the variable packet size might change the LRD characteristic of the original MMPP model. In this study, we investigate this possibility. For this purpose the 'refined traffic' is defined, where packet arrival time is generated according to the MMPP model and a random packet length from a specific distribution is assigned to each generated packet. Hurst parameter of the refined traffic is estimated and compared with the original Hurst parameter, which is the input parameter of the MMPP model. We also investigate the effect of the packet size distribution on the queueing performance of the MMPP traffic model and the relationship between the Hurst parameter and queueing performance.

(E)-2-Methoxy-4-(3-(4-Methoxyphenyl)Prop-1-en-1-yl)Phenol Induces Apoptosis in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells via the Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway

  • Park, Chan-Woo;Song, Yong-Seok;Lee, Hee Pom;Hong, Jin Tae;Yoon, Do-Young
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1359-1366
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    • 2017
  • (E)-2-Methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-1-en-1-yl)phenol (MMPP), derived from butenal, is a recently synthesized Maillard reaction product. Owing to its novelty, little is known about the function of MMPP. In this study, we elucidated the effects of MMPP on apoptosis in cervical cancer by using the HeLa cervical cancer cell line, which is widely used in cancer research. We observed that MMPP was cytotoxic to HeLa cells and induced activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, without affecting the expression of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7. In particular, the expression of the death receptors DR5 and FAS was significantly increased by MMPP treatment. There were no significant alterations of mitochondrial intrinsic factors. Taking all these results together, our findings show that MMPP primarily induces apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells via the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, accompanied by an enhanced expression of death receptors.

A Study on the MMPP Model Verification for the Real-time VBR Traffic of ATM Network (ATM망의 실시간 VBR 트래픽에 대한 MMPP 모델 적합성 검증 연구)

  • 정승국;이영훈
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8B
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    • pp.699-706
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    • 2003
  • This paper is to verify that 2-state MMPP Model conform to ATM VBR traffic characteristics by measuring and analyzing real-time VBR traffic in KT's ATM network. As a result, we validated the fact that real-time VBR traffic of ATM network cannot be apply to MMPP model and must be represented by previously general On-Off Model with characteristics as follows: arrival rate of On state (λ$_1$) is deterministic, arrival rate of Off state (λ$_2$) is zero, and two transition rate (T$_1$,T$_2$) is only random variable. As research results are to handle real traffic, these results can be used to all ATM network traffic model with traffic management function such as KT's ATM network.

APPROXIMATE QUEUE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF MMPP/D/1 IN AN ATM MULTIPLEXER (ATM 다중화기의 MMPP/D/1 큐잉 모델의 큐길이 분포에 대한 근사방법)

  • 이규석;김영섭;박홍식
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.2170-2178
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    • 1994
  • Our previously proposed method is further applied to find the queue length distribution of MMPP/D1 in an ATM multiplexer. We derive some useful relationship between the queue distribution seen by arriving cells and for a server befor each service. The relations were used to improve out approximation. For MMPP/D1 the calculated results show a good agreement with those obtained by a simulation of the system. Furthermore, our approximation provides fast numerical algorithms for general traffic models. These advantages demomstrate that our approximation method is useful for a fast and accurate traffic analysis in ATM networks.

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A Performance Analysis Model of PC-based Software Router Supporting IPv6-IPv4 Translation for Residential Gateway

  • Seo, Ssang-Hee;Kong, In-Yeup
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a queuing analysis model of a PC-based software router supporting IPv6-IPv4 translation for residential gateway. The proposed models are M/G/1/K or MMPP-2/G/1/K by arrival process of the software PC router. M/G/1/K is a model of normal traffic and MMPP-2/G/1/K is a model of burst traffic. In M/G/1/K, the arriving process is assumed to be a Poisson process, which is independent and identically distributed. In MMPP-2/G/1/K, the arriving process is assumed to be two-state Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) which is changed from one state to another state with intensity. The service time distribution is general distribution and the service discipline of the server is processor sharing. Also, the total number of packets that can be processed at one time is limited to K. We obtain performance metrics of PC-based software router for residential gateway such as system sojourn time blocking probability and throughput based on the proposed model. Compared to other models, our model is simpler and it is easier to estimate model parameters. Validation results show that the model estimates the performance of the target system.

Analysis of MMPP/M/1 Queue with several homogeneous two-state MMPP sources (여러개의 two-state MMPP 입력을 갖는 대기체계에 대한 계산방법)

  • 이계민;안수한;전종우
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.24 no.9A
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    • pp.1354-1358
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    • 1999
  • In this paper, we suggest a simple computational algorithm to obtain the queue length distribution in the finite queue, where the input process consists of several homogeneous two-state Markov modulated Poisson processes. With comparison to the conventional algorithm, is more practical, in particular, when a large number of input sources are loaded to the system.

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MMPP,M/G/1 retrial queue with two classes of customers

  • Han, Dong-Hwan;Lee, Yong-Wan
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.481-493
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    • 1996
  • We consider a retrial queue with two classes of customers where arrivals of class 1(resp. class 2) customers are MMPP and Poisson process, respectively. In the case taht arriving customers are blocked due to the channel being busy, the class 1 customers are queued in priority group and are served as soon as the channel is free, whereas the class 2 customers enter the retrial group in order to try service again after a random amount of time. We consider the following retrial rate control policy, which reduces their retrial rate as more customers join the retrial group; their retrial times are inversely proportional to the number of customers in the retrial group. We find the joint generating function of the numbers of custormers in the two groups by the supplementary variable method.

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A Estimation of Transmission Link Capacity using Statistical Multiplexing Model on Optical Access Networks (광 가입자망에서 트래픽 다중화에 의한 링크 용량 산출)

  • 정승욱;정수환;권순철;길계태
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10B
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    • pp.1815-1823
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    • 1999
  • This study investigates the problem of potential bottleneck on FTTC access networks. The link capacity for multiplexed stream using the 2-state MMPP source model is estimate on the assumption of a single VC per user. An analytic from between the cell loss rate and the effective bandwidth has been used to estimate an appropriate ling bandwidth varying the fraction of active users.

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ANALYSIS OF AN MMPP/G/1/K FINITE QUEUE WITH TWO-LEVEL THRESHOLD OVERLOAD CONTROL

  • Lee, Eye-Min;Jeon, Jong-Woo
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.805-814
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    • 1999
  • We consider an MMPP/G/1/K finite queue with two-level threshold overload control. This model has frequently arisen in the design of the integrated communication systems which support a wide range applications having various Quality of Service(QoS) requirements. Through the supplementary variable method, se derive the queue length distribution.

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Dimensioning leaky bucket parameters considering the cell delay variation (셀 지연 변이를 고려한 리키 버킷 계수 결정 방법)

  • 이준원;이병기
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.32A no.8
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 1995
  • In this paper, we consider the leaky bucket parameter dimensioning problem in the presence of the cell delay variation(CDV) which arises at the customer premises network dud to the multiplexing with other traffic streams. We consider an ATM multiplexer in which a single CBR stream and several heterogeneous VBR traffic streams are multiplexed. Choosing an MMPP model for the bursty traffic streams, we derive an (MMPP+DD)/D/1/K queueing model for the evaluation of the CDV experienced by the CBR stream. We first evaluate the equilibrium queue length distribution embedded at tagged-cell arrival-time instants, based on whcih we calcuate the inter-cell time distribution and the distribution kof the number of tagged-cell departures in an arbitrary interval. Then we apply the analysis to the dimensionging problem of the leaky bucket parameters, examining how the employed traffic model affects the determination of the bucket size. Through numerical examples, we confirm that the Poisson traffic model can underestimate the bucket size, thus causing a considerable blocking probability for compliant use cells while the MMPP model can optimally design the bucket size which keeps the blocking probability under the target value.

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