• Title/Summary/Keyword: Lung cancer

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Study on Theoretical Models of Regional Humanity Lung Cancer Hazards Assessment

  • Zhang, Chuan;Gao, Xing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1759-1764
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To establish the concept of lung cancer hazard assessment theoretical models, evaluating the degree of lung cancer risk of Beijing for regional population lung cancer hazard assessment to provide a basis for technical support. Materials and Methods: ISO standards were used to classify stratified analysis for the entire population, life cycle, processes and socioeconomic management. Associated risk factors were evaluated as lung cancer hazard risk assessment first class indicators. Study design: Using the above materials, indicators were given the weight coefficients, building lung cancer risk assessment theoretical models. Regional data for Beijing were entered into the theoretical model to calculate the parameters of each indicator and evaluate the degree of local lung cancer risk. Results: Adopting the concept of lung cancer hazard assessment and theoretical models for regional populations, we established a lung cancer hazard risk assessment system, including 2 first indicators, 8 secondary indicators and 18 third indicators. All indicators were given weight coefficients and used as information sources. Score of hazard for lung cancer was 84.4 in Beijing. Conclusions: Comprehensively and systematically building a lung cancer risk assessment theoretical model for regional populations in conceivable, evaluating the degree of lung cancer risk of Beijing, providing technical support and scientific basis for interventions for prevention.

PREVENTION OF CIGARETTE SMOKE INDUCED LUNG CANCER BY LOW LET IONIZING RADIATION

  • Sanders, Charles L.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.539-550
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    • 2008
  • Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, ${\sim}90%$ of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of ${\sim}1\;Gy$ for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by ${\sim}40%$ following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of ${\sim}60%$ in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of ${\sim}1\;Gy$ gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of $\alpha$-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer.

Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

  • Park, Ji Young;Jang, Seung Hun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.2
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 2016
  • Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%-56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%.

Expression of HYOU1 via Reciprocal Crosstalk between NSCLC Cells and HUVECs Control Cancer Progression and Chemoresistance in Tumor Spheroids

  • Lee, Minji;Song, Yeonhwa;Choi, Inhee;Lee, Su-Yeon;Kim, Sanghwa;Kim, Se-Hyuk;Kim, Jiho;Seo, Haeng Ran
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.50-62
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    • 2021
  • Among all cancer types, lung cancer ranks highest worldwide in terms of both incidence and mortality. The crosstalk between lung cancer cells and their tumor microenvironment (TME) has begun to emerge as the "Achilles heel" of the disease and thus constitutes an attractive target for anticancer therapy. We previously revealed that crosstalk between lung cancer cells and endothelial cells (ECs) induces chemoresistance in multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs). In this study, we demonstrated that factors secreted in response to crosstalk between ECs and lung cancer cells play pivotal roles in the development of chemoresistance in lung cancer spheroids. We subsequently determined that the expression of hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 (HYOU1) in lung cancer spheroids was increased by factors secreted in response to crosstalk between ECs and lung cancer cells. Direct interaction between lung cancer cells and ECs also caused an elevation in the expression of HYOU1 in MCTSs. Inhibition of HYOU1 expression not only suppressed stemness and malignancy, but also facilitated apoptosis and chemosensitivity in lung cancer MCTSs. Inhibition of HYOU1 expression also significantly increased the expression of interferon signaling components in lung cancer cells. Moreover, the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was involved in the HYOU1-induced aggression of lung cancer cells. Taken together, our results identify HYOU1, which is induced in response to crosstalk between ECs and lung cancer cells within the TME, as a potential therapeutic target for combating the aggressive behavior of cancer cells.

Geographic Distribution and Epidemiology of Lung Cancer During 2011 in Zhejiang Province of China

  • Lin, Xia-Lu;Chen, Yan;Gong, Wei-Wei;Wu, Zhao-Fan;Zou, Bao-Bo;Zhao, Jin-Shun;Gu, Hua;Jiang, Jian-Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5299-5303
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    • 2014
  • Background: To explore etiology for providing scientific clues for the prevention of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Data for lung cancer incidence and meteorological geographic factors from 25 counties in Zhejiang province of China during 2011 were studied. Stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis were performed to analyze the geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer. Results: 8,291 new cases (5,998 in males and 2,293 females) of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province were reported in the 25 studied counties. Reported and standardized incidence rates for lung cancer were 58.0 and 47.0 per 100,000 population, respectively. The incidence of lung cancer increased with age. Geographic distribution analysis shows that the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer in northeastern Zhejiang province were higher than in the southwestern part, such as in Nanhu, Fuyang, Wuxing and Yuyao counties, where the rates were more than 50 per 100,000 population. In the southwestern Zhejiang province, for instance, in Yueqing, Xianju and Jiande counties, the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer were lower than 37 per 100,000 population. Spearman correlation tests showed that forest coverage rate, air quality index (AQI), and annual precipitation level are associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Conclusions: Lung cancer in Zhejiang province shows obvious regional differences. High incidence appears associated with low forest coverage rate, poor air quality and low annual precipitation. Therefore, increasing the forest coverage rate and controlling air pollution may play an important role in lung cancer prevention.

Aberrant Expression of E-cadherin in Lung Tissues of Patients with Probable Lung Cancer

  • Yuan, Yu-Lin;Wang, Yu-Ming;Liu, Hua;Qin, Gui-Fang;Tang, Ai-Guo;Duan, Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5149-5153
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: This study assessed the relationship of E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression with the diagnosis of lung cancer with the aim of providing an auxiliary diagnostic method. Methods: Semi-quantitative nested RT-PCR and western blotting were applied to detect E-cadherin mRNA transcripts and protein, respectively, in 30 cases of diagnostic lung cancer, 30 cases of clinically suspected patients with lung cancer and 30 cases of other disease. Immunohistochemical staining was also used to detect E-cadherin. Results: Remarkably decreased levels of relative E-cadherin mRNA value and increased E-cadherin protein negativity were observed in probable lung cancer, when compared with possible lung cancer and others. With a threshold of 1.45, relative E-cadherin mRNA value showed a sensitivity of 90% and a specifity of 83% for the diagnosis of lung cancer. The combination of decreased relative E-cadherin mRNA value and negative E-cadherin protein increased the specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: These data suggest that Chinese patients with diagnostic lung cancer have similar decreased levels of relative E-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein value in the lung cancer tissues as in lung cancer patients in other countries. Measurement of relative E-cadherin mRNA and protein values in lung cancer tissues has potential for lung cancer diagnosis.

The Development of the Korean Lung Cancer Registry (KALC-R)

  • Kim, Young-Chul;Won, Young-Joo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.82 no.2
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    • pp.91-93
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    • 2019
  • Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Globally, there were an estimated 1.8 million new cases and 1.59 million deaths in 2012. In Korea, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing and 24,267 (47.6/100,000) patients with lung cancer were registered at the Korea Central Cancer Registry in 2015. Previous nationwide surveys of lung cancer were performed in 1998 by the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases and in 2007 by the Korean Association for Lung Cancer (KALC), but the studies faced difficulties in maintaining lung cancer registry because of limitations regarding the Private Information Protection Act. To produce unbiased and reliable epidemiological data, the KALC and Korean Central Cancer Registry developed a detailed lung cancer registry (KALC-R) data structure. Following a pilot survey of 489 lung cancer cases in 2013, about 10% of the sampled lung cancer cases from the Korean Central Cancer Registry are surveyed each year. With the analysis of detailed data from the KALC-R, an important epidemiological background for scientific research or policy development is expected to be generated.

No Association between Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk

  • Kim, Jin Hee;Hong, Yun-Chul
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.28
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    • pp.12.1-12.5
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    • 2013
  • Objectives The role of genetic polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) for lung cancer development was evaluated. Methods Genotypes of the TNF-${\alpha}$ polymorphisms, -1210C>T, -487A>G, -417A>G, IVS1+123G>A, and IVS3+51A>G, were determined in 616 lung cancer cases and 616 lung cancer-free controls. Results After adjusting for body mass index and smoking, each TNF-${\alpha}$ genotype or haplotype composed of five TNF-${\alpha}$ single nucleotide polymorphisms did not show an association with lung cancer risk (p>0.05). The statistical power was found to be 88.4%, 89.3%, 93.3%, 69.7%, and 93.9% for 1210C>T, -487A>G, -417A>G, IVS1+123G>A, and IVS3+51A>G, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of each SNP or haplotype on lung cancer risk were not found to be different according to the cell type of lung cancer (p>0.05). In the repeated analysis with only subjects without other diseases related to inflammation, there was also no association between polymorphisms or haplotypes of the TNF-${\alpha}$ gene and lung cancer risk (p>0.05). Conclusions This study found no association between common variants of the TNF-${\alpha}$ gene and lung cancer risk.

GPR78 promotes lung cancer cell migration and metastasis by activation of Gαq-Rho GTPase pathway

  • Dong, Dan-Dan;Zhou, Hui;Li, Gao
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2016
  • GPR78 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is predominantly expressed in human brain tissues. Currently, the function of GPR78 is unknown. This study revealed that GPR78 was expressed in lung cancer cells and functioned as a novel regulator of lung cancer cell migration and metastasis. We found that knockdown of GPR78 in lung cancer cells suppressed cell migration. Moreover, GPR78 modulated the formation of actin stress fibers in A549 cells, in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, GPR78 regulated cell motility through the activation of $G{\alpha}q$-RhoA/Rac1 pathway. We further demonstrated that in vivo, the knockdown of GPR78 inhibited lung cancer cell metastasis. These findings suggest that GPR78 is a novel regulator for lung cancer metastasis and may serve as a potential drug target against metastatic human lung cancer.