• Title/Summary/Keyword: Litter Composition

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Effects of Bedding Materials and Season on the Composition and Production Rate of Broiler Litter as a Nutrient Resource for Ruminants

  • Park, K.K.;Yang, S.Y.;Kim, B.K.;Jung, W.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1603
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    • 2000
  • Broiler litter can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants. Fifty seven litter samples collected from 47 farms in Kyungkee Province of Korea were analyzed to assess the effects of type and amount of bedding (rice hulls vs. sawdust), season (winter vs. summer) and drinkers (bell- vs. trough-type) on composition of broiler litter. Rearing conditions of broilers were also surveyed from the farms to estimate annual production rate of litter. Nutrient composition of broiler litter varied widely and moisture and ash concentrations were higher than observed by other researchers. Ash concentration was higher (p<0.05) for samples taken in winter than in summer and higher (p<0.05) in the rice hulls- than in the sawdust-based litter both in winter and summer. Only minor differences in litter composition were noted between drinkers. Ash was negatively correlated with crude protein and neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05). The estimated litter production rate was 2.7 kg per bird per flock on a wet basis (60% DM) and the annual production rate was 12.7 kg per bird per yr (60% DM). Therefore, the 42 million broilers per month grown in Korea in 1999 produced a total of 533,400 metric tons of litter.

The distribution and composition of seabed litter in the exclusive economic zone of the West Sea of South Korea (우리나라 서해 근해 해저 쓰레기 분포 및 조성)

  • KIM, Jung Nyun;KANG, Myounghee;JO, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.437-445
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    • 2017
  • Distribution and composition of the seabed litters in the exclusive economic zone of the West Sea of South Korea including 18 sea-blocks were investigated using a bottom trawl gear of the R/V Tamgtu 20 (National Institute of Fisheries Science) from 24th April 2011 to 4th May 2012. Each trawl shot was conducted for an hour in each sea-block and the total trawl shots was 18. As a result, 325.6 kg of seabed litter in total has been collected. The quantity of the seabed litter was highest at No. 202 of the sea-block, close to the Heuksan-Do. The highest occupied sea material was plastic (83.1% of entire seabed litters), the second highest material was metal combined with plastic (10.6%), and glass (2.9%), metals (2.3%), vinyl (0.6%), cloth (0.4%) and wood (0.2%) in order. The origin of seabed litters was from fishing gear (89.0% of all seabed litters). Therefore, it could be assumed that most seabed litters were derived from the fishing activity for example fishing nets and ropes.

Effects of Bedding Material Composition in Deep Litter Systems on Bedding Characteristics and Growth Performance of Limousin Calves

  • Meng, J.;Shi, F.H.;Meng, Qingxiang;Ren, L.P.;Zhou, Z.M.;Wu, H.;Zhao, L.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different litter mixture compositions on bedding system temperature, pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia-N ($NH_3$-N) content, and the serum physico-chemical parameters and growth indices of calves. Thirty-two Limousin calves ($280{\pm}20kg$) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 for each group) according to the bedding system used: i) control with soil only (CTR); ii) mixture with 50% paddy hulls (PH), 30% saw dusts (SD), 10% peat moss (PM) and 10% corn cobs (CC) (TRT1); iii) mixture with 15% PH, 15% SD, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% corn stover (CS) (TRT2); iv) mixture with 30% PH, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% CS (TRT3). The litter material combinations of different treatments were based on the cost of bedding system materials in China. The cost of four treatments from low to high: Control$NH_3$-N level (271.83 to 894.72 mg/kg) was lowest for TRT1 (p<0.0001) and highest for TRT2 (p<0.0001). The acetate, propionate and butyrate levels were highest for the control group (p<0.0001). In all the groups, the pH value (6.90 to 9.09) increased at the beginning and later remained stable at below 9.09. The temperature of deep litter increased at the first week and reached the maximum ($42.1^{\circ}C$) on day 38. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine ($T_3$) levels in the TRT1 group animals (p<0.0001) were lower than those in the control and TRT2 animals. 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodothyronine ($T_4$) in the TRT1 group (p = 0.006) was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Cortisol (COR) in the control and TRT1 group was lower (p<0.0001) than that in the TRT2 and TRT3 groups. Corticosterone (CORt) in the control group was higher (p<0.0001) than that in the treatment groups. The findings indicate that the deep litter bedding systems provided better conditions for animal health and growth performance compared with the control system. Furthermore, the litter composition of TRT1 was found to be optimal among the three treatment groups.

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND ALUM IN LITTER ON PERFORMANCE, NH3 GAS CONCENTRATION AND LITTER COMPOSITION IN BROILER

  • 남기홍
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.86-88
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted to determine how broiler performance, feces and litter concentration of N can be maintained and whether NH3 gas concentration can be reduced with reducing dietary CP, adding ALUM(AL2(SO4)3.14H20) in litter and supplementing with amino acid and vitamin D in feed. The experiment was divided into a starter period(1 to 21d) and grower period(22 to 42d), each having three different CP with 90 birds per treatment of 3 replications. The CP treatments consisted of a mean CP of 23.0(control 71), 20.4 (72) and 18.0 (73) % for starter and 21.0(control 71),19.3 (72) and 17.0 (73) % for grower, respectively, but with similar amino acid levels as the control. Alum was mixed in each treatment except control treatment with 200g in kilogram litter(rice bran) weight. Results suggested that reducing CP below control in the diets fed during 3wks and 6wks slightly increased feed gain and slightly decreased feed intake and weight gain. However, there were no significant difference among treatments. Reducing CP caused NH3 gas concentration to decline by 74.8 - 80.9% when Alum was mixed in litter(P < 0.05). Litter N concentration did not show any difference(P > 0.05) among treatments. These results suggest that dietary manipulation with adding Alum in litter show for significant reducing NH3 gas concentration while maintaining acceptable Production performance from broiler.

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