This study surveyed the Korean Kimchi preference for Chinese, potential Kimchi improvement for Chinese market adaptation and Kimchi application for Chinese cuisine, with the aim of spreading the recognition of Kimchi throughout the world, especially in China, by giving information and developing local types which could be expected to be suitable for utilization of Chinese food life. The subjects were consisted of 298 Chinese(male 108, female 190) residing in Weihai, Yantai and Qingdao, in Shandong province. The questionnaire form was developed and used for self administered evaluation. The collected data were analyzed by SAS package. Baechu Kimchi was found to be the most well-known Kimchi for Chinese, and Kkakdugi, Oi Kimchi, Yoelmu Kimchi and Nabak Kimchi were followed in order. Baechu Kimchi(75.9%) was found to be the most favorite Kimchi for Chinese, and Oi Kimchi(59.3%), Kkakdugi(52.8%), Nabak Kimchi(39.3%) and Yoelmu Kimchi(37.7%) were followed in order. The subjects knew about the Korean foods made with Kimchi, such as Kimchi kimbap(74.8%), Kimchi bibimbap(71.5%), Kimchi bokkeumbap(61.7%), Kimchi guk(58.1%) in order. But the experience of consumption for Korean foods made with Kimchi was low compared to the knowledge of the Korean foods made with Kimchi. Chinese's most favorite foods made with Kimchi were Kimchi bossam, Kimchi bibimbap, Kimchi bokkeumbap and Kimchi kimbap, Kimchi bokkeum, Kimchi tteoksanjeok and Kimchi jeon in order. Among the 9 kinds of new Chinese foods made with Kimchi, Kimchi chao zhurou(fried pork with Kimchi), Kimchi chao mian(fried noodle with Kimchi), Kimchi chao youcai xiaren(fried rape and prawn with Kimchi), Kimchi zhuroushuijiao(dumpling with pork and Kimchi), Kimchi gedatang(wheat flakes soup with Kimchi) and Kimchi hundun(dumpling with Kimchi), and Kimchi youbing(panfried flour with Kimchi), Kimchi lamian(handmade knife-cut noodle with Kimchi) and Kimchi tangyuan(tangyuan with Kimchi) were preferred foods by the subjects in order.
Kim, Eun-Young;Park, Young-Hee;Jung, Lan-Hee;Jeon, Eun-Raye
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
This study was conducted to improve the kimchi intake for high school students of various kimchi sub-ingredients and foods using kimchi. The students believed that kimchi is good for health. The overall satisfaction, baechu quality and the taste and degree of fermentation of kimchi was high, but there was a low preference for offered kimchi kinds, kimchi subingredient, foods using kimchi. The types of kimchi preferred and often offered in school meals were baechu-kimchi and kkakdugi. The common kimchi sub-ingredients were radish and welsh onion in vegetables, squid and oyster in sea foods, saeu-jeot and myeolchi-jeot in salted fish, and pear and apple in fruits. The preference for kimchi sub-ingredients were high for sesame leaf and yeolmu in vegetables, saeu-sal and squid in sea foods, saeu-jeot and nakji-jeot in salted fish, and pear and apple in fruits. The foods using kimchi preferred and often offered with school meals were kimchi-jjigae, bokkeumkimchi, kimchi soup, kimchi-bokkeum-bap, and kimchi-jeon. The kimchi sub-ingredient for which students had the greatest preference was meats. Among the foods using kimchi with meats, the most preferred were kimchi-pyeonyuk bossam, doejigogi kimchi duruchigi, and kimchi galbi-jjim. Among the foods using kimchi with noodles, the most preferred were kimchi- bibimmyeon, kimchi -naengmyeon, and kimchi-cheese spaghetti. Among the foods using kimchi with vegetables, the most preferred were kimchi-pa-jeon, kimchi- deopbap and kimchi- goguma gui. Of the foods using kimchi with processed foods, the most preferred were kimchi-mandu, kimchi-bacon jumeok-bap and kimchi- cheese omelet. Among the foods using kimchi containing sea food, kimchi-haemul bokkeum-bap, kimchi-hoe-deopbap, and kimchi-saeu-jjim were most preferred. Overall, these results suggest that various kimchi sub-ingredients and foods using kimchi should be improved for kimchi intake of school meals.
A survey of the notion and intake on Kimchi among college women in Pusan was conducted to get some basic information on kimchi. Two hundred sixty seven students in Pusan participated in this survey. Seventy five percent of students answered that they like kimchi. They preferred well-fermented kimchi with anchovy extracts, refreshing taste and crispy texture the saltly and sweet. Chinese cabbage kimchi (87.6%) was found to be the most favored kimchi and Kakdugi(seasoned pickles of cubed radish), Nabak kimchi and Chonggak kimchi (ponytail kimchi) were followed in the order. The most favorite food made from kimchi was stir fried kimchi with rice. They disliked traditional special kimchi, such as Puchu kimchi (leek kimchi), Pa kimchi (green onion kimchi), Kkennip kimchi (perilla leaf kimchi), Godulbaegi kimch (Korea wild lettuce kimchi) and Gat kimchi (Leaf mustard kimchi). About 93 grams of kimchi was consumed daily and this amount was a little. Seventy percent of students did not have any experiences preparing kimchi. Experiences of kimchi preparation were given by mother through kimchii-making event for the winter(71.7%), cooking practice in middle or high school (14.1%) and college(10.9%) and general cooking education (33%). They preferred to buy kimchi at the Agricultural Cooperative Association (48.5%) or a large kimch factory (32.75). College students believe that kimchi is a healthy food and are willing to learn how to make kimchi.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intake, preference, and utilization of kimchi in female high school students. A questionnaire was used as the instrument of investigation. The subjects were 371 female high school students in Chonbuk province. More than 80% of the subjects had eaten 8 kinds of kimchies Korean cabbage kimchi, cubed radish kimchi, radish leaves kimchi, green onion kimchi, salted cucumber, watery radish kimchi, radish root & leaves kimchi, and Korean wild radish kimchi. The subjects living in urban areas ate more stalk of sweet potato kimchi and leaf mustard kimchi, however the subjects living in rural areas ate more sedum kimchi. The subjects in large families ate more leaf mustard kimchi and sedum kimchi. The preferred kinds of kimchi were radish kimchi, Korean cabbage kimchi, cubed radish kimchi, and cucumber radish kimchi. Seventy-four point four percent of the subjects liked kimchi, whereas 1.6% of them disliked it. The reason eating kimchi was 'custom'(59.0%), 'taste'(30.7%), 'nutrition'(4.3%), 'traditional flod'(2.7%), and 'parents advice'(2.7%). 38.4% of the subjects in urban area ate kimchi for taste whereas 25.0% of them in rural area did. They prefefrred 'well fermented', 'hot', and 'very pungent' kimchi. The preferred dishes made with kimchi were stir-fried rice with kimchi, kimchi stew, pan-fried kimchi, and rice with bean sprouts & kimchi.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of Korean kimchi in Singapore. A questionnaire was given to male 236(43.0%) and female 313(57.0%) college students residing in Singapore. The results are as follows: 86.9% of the participants answered that kimchi is Korean in origin, and 48.7% had eaten kimchi. Also 75.2% of the males and 65.2% of the females had purchased commercial kimchi at restaurants(p<0.05). Regarding the primary reason they purchased commercial kimchi, 62.1% responded 'its taste'(male 58.1%, female 65.0%), also 47.6% stated the package size was 50g(male 44.8%, female 49.7%). Among the kimchi they had experienced, 86.7% had eaten Baechu kimchi, 31.0% Mu kimchi and 30.9% Oi kimchi(males : 82.2% Baechu kimchi, 30.9% Oi kimchi, and 27.4% Mu kimchi, females: 90.0% Baechu kimchi, 33.6% Mu kimchi, and 26.2% Oi kimchi respectively). For their kimchi preference, 67.0% preferred Baechu kimchi, 9.4% Oi kimchi, and 7.1% Mu kimchi(males: 63.4% Baechu kimchi, 12.9% Oi kimchi and 5.4% Mu kimchi, females: 69.5% Baechu kimchi, 8.4% Oi kimchi and 6.9% Mu kimchi, respectively). After having eaten kimchi, 19.3% answer it tasted good, and the primary reason for liking kimchi, 'spicy and hot taste'(51.3%), The main reasons for not liking kimchi were the odor(garlic, ginger, anchovy juice, etc) and too spicy, respectively. Regarding improvements for its expanded consumption 32.0% answered 'not to improve', 18.0% answered 'don't make it too hot', 17.6% answered 'don't make it too salty', and 9.4% answered 'don't make it over-ripe'. For the overall perception of kimchi, the answer with the highest mean(3.95) was 'kimchi is a good side dish with cooked rice', which was significantly different than 'kimchi is delicious'(M=3.14, p<0.05).
The purposes of this study are to investigate perception and preference of Chinese college students for Korean Kimchi by a survey and sensory evaluation and to globalize and industrialize Kimchi in the world. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 588 students residing in Beijing. About 80% of all the participants knew what Kimchi was and 63.4% had eaten Kimchi before the survey . On thier first impression of Kimchi, 43.6% of respondents, answered the nationality of Kimchi is impression after eating Kimchi was 'good'. 51.4% of respondents, answered the nationality of Kimchi is 'Korea'. The most liked Kimchi is Baechu Kimchi, and they preferred the white stem of the Chinese cabbage. On their perception of Kimchi,'Kimchi is a good side dish with cooked rice' was totally received point. The most well-known cooking method of Kimchi turned out to be Kimchi Chigae. As the results of sensory evaluation on several types cabbage Kimchies at room temperature, the most preferred Kimchi by the students was two-day old and made out of 5g red pepper. And two-day old Kimchi lOg red pepper and 2g shangchai added was preferred, too. But the six-day old Kimchi was disliked. The two-day old Kimchi made out of lOg red pepper preserved in the refrigerator was the most-liked. The dishes using Kimchi as the main ingredient are listed according to the students preference as follows Kimchi Hundun, Kimchi Ddungchai, Kimchi Bokum, and Kimchi Ramen, and so on.
This study was designed to investigate foreigner preferences for the sensory characteristics of kimchi with different fermentation periods. After fermentation in a 5 freezer for 1, 7, and 15 days, Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kkakdugi, Chonggak Kimchi, Cucumber Kimchi, Green Onion Kimchi, and Mustard Kimchi were served to the respondents. The respondents had resided in Seoul and Kyunggi province for 3 years or less, and were from Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. Most respondents (62.9%) consumed a Korean meal daily, and 45% of all respondents reported eating kimchi 3 or 4 times a week. As a result, it can be said that foreigners residing in Korea preferred to eat kimchi as a side dish. Based on the respondents answers, we were able to determine the relative popularity of the different types of kimchi. They were, from most popular to least popular, Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Kkakdugi Kimchi, Cucumber Kimchi, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi, Chonggak Kimchi, Green Onion Kimchi, and Mustard Kimchi. Among those fermented for 1 day, Cucumber Kimchi was most preferred for its. When evaluating the overall preference of Kimchi, the best was in the order of Chinese cabbage (red)>Kkakdugi>Cucumber>Chinese cabbage (white)>Chonggak>Green onion>Mustard Kimchi. For 1 day in a fermented period, Cucumber Kimchi had the most preferred taste (5.76), appearance (5.66), odor (5.89), and texture (5.70). However, Cucumber Kimchi was least popular after 15 days of fermentation (p<0.01). The most preferred Kimchi after 15 days of fermentation was Red Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Among the kimchi fermented for 7 days, White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi was most preferred. While foreigners indicated that they were satisfied with all the types of kimchi fermented for 1 day and 15 days, they were not satisfied with any of the kimchi fermented for 7 days, save for the White Chinese Cabbage Kimchi. Kkakdugi Kimchi had very high satisfaction scores for appearance, but low scores in taste. On the other hand, Chinese Cabbage Kimchi had low scores in odor (5.02-5.29), but high in texture (5.37-5.62) and taste (4.80-5.30), which are not factors sensitive to a change in acidity. These results showed that foreigners were generally satisfied with Kimchi, but became less satisfied as the Kimchi ripened. Most foreigners were not satisfied with the types of Kimchi that had a strong flavor. Chinese Cabbage Kimchi became the least sour after fermentation, and Cucumber Kimchi became most sour after fermentation.
This study was carried out to investigate Chinese in Beijing and Shanghai perception and preference for Korean Kimchi. The results were as follows: A questionnaire was examined on male 145(45.7%) and female 172(54.3%) of residing in Beijing, and on male 139(49.5%) and female 142(50.5%) of residing in Shanghai. In foods of eating with Kimchi resulted the highest Chinese foods 40.3% on male, and Korean. Chinese foods 25.3% on female in Beijing(p< .05), Korean, Chinese foods 26.7% and 25.3% on male respectively, and Korean foods 50.7% on female in Shanghai. In Kimchi used dishes Beijing resulted high Kimchi Ramyon 61.5%, Kimchi Kuk 51.3%, and Kimchi Chigae 44.9%, and Shanghai were Kimchi Ramyon 51.2%, Kimchi Kuk 41.3%, and Kimchi Fried Rice 22.4% in order. In evaluation by kinds of Kimchi, the taste resulted high onion juice Kimchi(M=6.55) of the third days, and overall acceptability resulted high onion juice Kimchi(M=6.18) of the third days, similary in Beijing, and Kimchi added in shrimp(M=5.70) of two days, and overall acceptability resulted high Kimchi added in shrimp(M=5.70) of the third days, similary in Shanghai. In Sensory evaluation by used Kimchi, the taste resulted high in the order of Kimchi Fried Rice and Chinese style Kimchi Fried Pork(M=6.27), and overall acceptability resulted Kimchi Fried Udong(M=6.40), Chinese style Kimchi Fried Pork(M=6.27), Kimchi Dumpling(M=6.20) in Beijing, and Kimchi Chige(M=6.70), Kimchi Fried Rice(M=6.67) and Kimchi Pancake(M=6.44), and overall acceptability resulted Kimchi Fried Udong, Kimchi Chige(M=6.50), Kimchi Fried Rice and Kimchi Pancake(M=6.44) in Shanghai.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intake and preference of Kimchi in middle school students. A questionnaire was used as the instrument of investigation. The subjects were 375 male and 278 female students in Masan and Changwon City. The main results of this study are as follows. Fifty-nine point seven percent of the subjects liked Kimchi, whereas 3.7% of them disliked it, and the main reason liking Kimchi was 'hot taste' of Kimchi. Korean cabbage Kimchi and cubed radish Kimchi were highly preferred. And the preferred dishes made with Kimchi were stir-fried rice with Kimchi, Kimchi stew, pan-fried Kimch, seaweed rice with Kimch, Kimch pancake, Mandu with Kimchi, pork stew with Kimch. More than 90% of the subjects had eaten 6 kinds of Kimchi : Korean cabbage Kimchi, cubed radish Kimchi, radish leaves Kimchi, radish root & leaves Kimchi, watery radish Kimchi, white Kimchi. The frequency of Kimchi intake was 55.1% of the subjects ate Kimchi in every meal time, and 21.9% ate 2 times in a day. They preferred 'well fermented' and 'freshly prepared' Kimchi, and it was significantly difference between gender, male students more liked 'freshly prepared', whereas female students more liked 'well fermented' Kimchi(p<0.01).
Kimchi is the most well-known Korean traditional food, but it is also the main leftover of school lunch and dinner menus. This study aimed to familiarize teenagers with kimchi through school meals and to increase their daily kimchi intake, ultimately by appealing to the young generation's taste. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the Ansan area to examine student's acceptability of kimchi and their attitudes toward kimchi. Approximately 65% of males and 67% of female students liked the moderately fermented and pungent taste of kimchi. Kimchi served in school meals was regarded as nutritional but cheap. Approximately 72% of male and 82% of female students responded that they liked menu items using kimchi. Approximately 48% of students responded that menu items using kimchi in schools are not diverse. Students preferred meat as an ingredient in kimchi. The preferred cooking methods were stir-frying and frying, whereas boiling was the least favorite. Based on the survey results, ten kimchi menu items had been developed. The suitability of the menu was evaluated by students and cooks. Six kimchi items, including Kimchi mixed with rice, chicken, soybean sprouts, Kimchi cheese rice, stewed beef ribs with kimchi, rice topped with kimchi curry, kimchi cheese meat roast, and kimchi udong were considered appropriate for school meals, whereas kimchi kangchong, kimchi topokki, kimchi stew with surimi, and frozen Pollack kimchi soup were not suitable as menu items. Kimchi topokki was not accepted by students, while kimchi kangchong was not accepted by cooks. Cooks judged the suitability of a menu item by the cooking process and cooking times, whereas students judged an item by its sensory preference. Approximately 63% of students responded that kimchi intake has increased by participating in the development of kimchi dishes.
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