• Title, Summary, Keyword: IRI

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A Study on the Interpretation of Modern Urban Structure and Urban Landscape of Iri(Iksan) in Connection with Railway (철도시설과 연계한 이리 도시구조와 도시경관의 근대성 해석)

  • Lee, Kyung-Chan
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.63-76
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    • 2012
  • Modern railway construction by Japanese had a great influence on the urbanization, transformation of urban structure and landscape during the Japanese imperialism and compressive increasing period in Iri(Iksan). This paper aims to find out the effect of railway on the modern urban structure and urban landscape in Iri(Iksan). Railways in Iri, Honam railway, Kunsan railway, Jeonla railway have been constructed progressively during 1911 and 1915 with Iri and old Iri(east-Iri) station. From the analysis of land registration maps and street plans, old photographies and historical records, some significant features underling railway construction can be followed in view of modern urbanization process in Iri. Firstly railways cut off the possibility of developing urban structure based on traditional spatial structure of Iksan. Secondly railways made dual spatial structure in Iri. Japanese and Korean life zone were divided into separate district around urbanization area and market place. Thirdly traditional space cognition system based on four cardinal directions were changed to front and rear space of railway station. Fourthly railways and stations caused neo-baroque spatial order and imperialistic urban landscape of Iri with axis, vista and gridiron plan. Fifthly break points and fringe belts garbling modern urbanization process are created. Sixthly modern cultural and consumptive urban spaces were taken their seats in relation with daily urban life.

Role of Ischemic Preconditioning in the Cardioprotective Mechanisms of Monomeric C-Reactive Protein-Deposited Myocardium in a Rat Model

  • Kim, Eun Na;Choi, Jae-Sung;Kim, Chong Jai;Kim, So Ra;Oh, Se Jin
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2021
  • Background: The deposition of monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) in the myocardium aggravates ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and myocardial infarction. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to protect the myocardium against IRI. Methods: We evaluated the effects of IPC on myocardium upon which mCRP had been deposited due to IRI in a rat model. Myocardial IRI was induced via ligation of the coronary artery. Direct IPC was applied prior to IRI using multiple short direct occlusions of the coronary artery. CRP was infused intravenously after IRI. The study included sham (n=3), IRI-only (n=5), IRI+CRP (n=9), and IPC+IRI+CRP (n=6) groups. The infarcted area and the area at risk were assessed using Evans blue and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium staining. Additionally, mCRP immunostaining and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed. Results: In the IRI+CRP group, the infarcted area and the area of mCRP deposition were greater, and the level of IL-6 mRNA expression was higher, than in the IRI-only group. However, in the IPC+IRI+CRP group relative to the IRI+CRP group, the relative areas of infarction (20% vs. 34%, respectively; p=0.079) and mCRP myocardial deposition (21% vs. 44%, respectively; p=0.026) were lower and IL-6 mRNA expression was higher (fold change: 407 vs. 326, respectively; p=0.376), although the difference in IL-6 mRNA expression was not statistically significant. Conclusion: IPC was associated with significantly decreased deposition of mCRP and with increased expression of IL-6 in myocardium damaged by IRI. The net cardioprotective effect of decreased mCRP deposition and increased IL-6 levels should be clarified in a further study.

Protective Role of Fucoidan in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of MAPK Signaling Pathway

  • Che, Nan;Ma, Yijie;Xin, Yinhu
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.272-278
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    • 2017
  • Fucoidan has been reported to exhibit various beneficial activities ranging from to antivirus and anticancer properties. However, little information is available about the effects of fucoidan on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Our study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan on cerebral IRI, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly subjected to four groups: Sham, IRI+saline (IRI+S), IRI+80 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F80), and IRI+160 mg/kg fucoidan (IRI+F160). Fucoidan (80 mg/kg or 160 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected from 7 days before the rats were induced to cerebral IRI model with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method. At 24 h after reperfusion, neurological deficits and the total infarct volume were determined. The levels of inflammation-associated cytokines (interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$), oxidative stress-related proteins (malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the ischemic brain were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Besides, the levels of apoptosis-related proteins (p-53, Bax, and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (phosphorylation-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-p38) were measured. Results showed that administration of fucoidan significantly reduced the neurological deficits and infarct volume compared to the IRI+S group in a dose-dependent manner. Also, fucoidan statistically decreased the levels of inflammation-associated cytokines, and oxidative stress-related proteins, inhibited apoptosis, and suppressed the MAPK pathway. So, Fucoidan plays a protective role in cerebral IRI might be by inhibition of MAPK pathway.

Development of HPCI Prediction Model for Concrete Pavement Using Expressway PMS Database (고속도로 PMS D/B를 활용한 콘크리트 포장 상태지수(HPCI) 예측모델 개발 연구)

  • Suh, Young-Chan;Kwon, Sang-Hyun;Jung, Dong-Hyuk;Jeong, Jin-Hoon;Kang, Min-Soo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.83-95
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to develop a regression model to predict the International Roughness Index(IRI) and Surface Distress(SD) for the estimation of HPCI using Expressway Pavement Management System(PMS). METHODS : To develop an HPCI prediction model, prediction models of IRI and SD were developed in advance. The independent variables considered in the models were pavement age, Annual Average Daily Traffic Volume(AADT), the amount of deicing salt used, the severity of Alkali Silica Reaction(ASR), average temperature, annual temperature difference, number of days of precipitation, number of days of snowfall, number of days below zero temperature, and so on. RESULTS : The present IRI, age, AADT, annual temperature differential, number of days of precipitation and ASR severity were chosen as independent variables for the IRI prediction model. In addition, the present IRI, present SD, amount of deicing chemical used, and annual temperature differential were chosen as independent variables for the SD prediction model. CONCLUSIONS : The models for predicting IRI and SD were developed. The predicted HPCI can be calculated from the HPCI equation using the predicted IRI and SD.

Prevalence of parasite infection of poultry in Chonbuk area (가금의 장내 기생충 감염실태)

  • Yang Hong-Ji;Seo Chang-Sub;Yoon Yea-Baek;Park Tae-Wook;Choi Eun-Young;Kim Youn-Tae
    • Journal of the korean veterinary medical association
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.679-688
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    • 1994
  • In order to monitor the parasites, fecal samples were taken from chicken (n=1,000), turkey(n=157), helmeted guineafowl(n=149), pheasant(n=190) and duck(n=190) in Chonbuk area. The identification of the parasites were determined by the fecal examination us

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The Change Rate of Fuel Consumption for Different IRI of Paved Roads (포장도로의 거칠기 변화에 대한 차량 연료소모량 변화율)

  • Ko, Kwang-H.
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 2010
  • High VOC(Vehicle Operating Cost) is the main reason for the rehabilitation of paved road and VOC is composed of fuel consumption, lubricant oil consumption, parts consumption, etc. Fuel consumption is one of the largest components of VOC and the roughness of road represents the deterioration level of the road. For these reasons, the fuel consumption is measured for different IRI(International Roughness Index) in this study. The fuel consumption was measured by processing the voltage signal of fuel injector of vehicle and the speed was measured with GPS. The change rate of fuel consumption for different IRI can be calculated with the results of this test. It's concluded that fuel consumption(L/100km) of medium and large passenger car increases 7 times fast of the increase of IRI(m/km) around 3.5m/km in the speed range of 40 ~ 100km/h, and fuel consumption is the best at 60km/h.

IRI estimation using analysis of dynamic tire pressure and axle acceleration

  • Zhao, Yubo;McDaniel, J. Gregory;Wang, Ming L.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.151-161
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    • 2017
  • A new method is developed to estimate road profile in order to estimate IRI based on the ASTM standard. This method utilizes an accelerometer and a Dynamic Tire Pressure Sensor (DTPS) to estimate road roughness. The accelerometer measures the vertical axle acceleration. The DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures dynamic pressure inside the tire while driving. Calibrated transfer functions are used to estimate road profile using the signals from the two sensors. A field test was conducted on roads with different quality conditions in the city of Brockton, MA. The IRI values estimated with this new method match the actual road conditions measured with Pavement Condition Index (PCI) based on the ASTM standard, images taken from an onboard camera and passengers' perceptions. IRI has negative correlation with PCI in general since they have overlapping features. Compared to the current method of IRI measurement, the advantage of this method is that a) the cost is reduced; b) more space is saved; c) more time is saved; and d) mounting the two sensors are universally compatible to most cars and vans. Therefore, this method has the potential to provide continuous and global monitoring the health of roadways.

Absorption of Nutrients on Different Growth Stages in Maize with Tillers (다수다얼성 옥수수 교잡종($IK_1$/IRI)의 생육시기별 양분흡수)

  • Joonsi, Asada;Hee Bong, Lee;Bong Ho, Choe;Moon Kyu, Kim
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 1992
  • The objective of the study was to clarify the pattern of fertilizer absorption by tillering hybrid, IK$_1$/IRI. Nangano No.1 hybrid was included as non-tillering check hybrid. Hybrids were grown in pots and the plants were periodically analyzed for their chemical components like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results obtained indicate that the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium absorbed by IK$_1$/IRI was slightly lower than that absorbed by Nangano No.1, except nitrogen in the maturity of IK$_1$ /IRI. However, no major differences were observed for the calcium and magnesium content between two hybrids. In most cases amount of nitrogen and calcium in the plant of two hybrids seemed to decrease as the plants mature, while amount of those chemicals in the ears increased. Nitrogen efficiency for IK$_1$ /IRI seemed a little lower than that for Nangano No.1.

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Effects of Fertilizer Source and Amount on Plant Characteristics of Maize with Tillers (다수다얼성 옥수수 교잡종(IK$_1$/ IRI)의 분얼발생에 미치는 비종 및 시비량의 영향)

  • Joonsi, Asada;Hee Bong, Lee;Bong Ho, Choe;Moon Kyu, Kim
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.166-170
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    • 1992
  • An experiment was conducted to study the dffects of fertilizers on maize tillering. Hybrids used were non-tillering hybrid, Nangano No.1, one of the leading hybrids in Japan and tillering hybrids, IK$_1$ /IRI develored at the Dept. of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon, Korea. The experiment was conducted at Dottori Prefecture in Japan. Four fertilizer levels, i. e., standard level, half amount of standard level, standard level plus composts and standard level plus two times of composts currently recommended for farmers were used. Higher fertilizer levels were effective for increasing plant weight of both hybrids. All fresh weight as well dry weight of the whole plants and plant parts of IK$_1$/IRI were higher than those of Nangano No. 1, regardless of fertilizers applied mainly due to the tiller development. The number of tillers per plant of IK$_1$/IRI was increased as the level of fertilizer was increased. Especially in sandy soil, composts seemed to be very effective in increasing tiller number per plant of IK$_1$/IRI.

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A Study for Roughness of Joungbu Expressway (중부고속도로 평탄성 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Ho;Suh, Young-Chan;Cho, Yoon-Ho;Park, Kyung-Boo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2001
  • Concrete pavement of Jungbu Expressway composed of CRCP(Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement) and JCP(Jointed Concrete Pavement). The CRCP was firstly constructed and applied to new expressway in Korea. It is a good source of the study to analyze the performance of CRCP and JCP because it experiences same amount of traffic and environmental loading. Up to the present, condition survey has conducted several times during 13 years but roughness measurement has not been carefully conducted. Through comparisons among several types of pavement(CRCP, JCP, Asphalt) by roughness, CRCP is superior to JCP. In addition, connected sections in the highway such as bridges and tunnels that have higher IRI values, about 5mm/m, than normal sections should be considered appropriated maintenance such as diamond grinding. The relationship between IRI and distresses carried out by Korea Highway Cooperation in 1999 skewed that the number of crack is related to IRI value in JCP, while other distresses of JCP and CRCP are not shown clearly. The comparison study with IRI values between Jungbu Expressway and GPS-3(JCP) and GPS-5(CRCP) of LTPP data also showed that roughness of Jungbu Expressway is not inferior to that of the state. Some of section showed larger values of IRI are linked with under-9round structures for passages and drainages. The overall performance considering only roughness, the CRCP is also superior to JCP in sections with under-ground tunnels.

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