• Title, Summary, Keyword: Hypercholesterolemia

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Analysis of Risk Factors in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (관동맥우회술의 위험인자 분석)

  • 정태은;한승세
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1049-1055
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    • 1998
  • Background: Coronary artery bypass surgery is an important treatment for ischemic heart disease. Recently operative mortality and morbidity has decreased, however further improvement is necessary. Materials and methods: This study was designed to evaluate the risk of operative mortality and morbidity by retrospective method. From 1992 to 1997, eighty six patients underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. There were 61 males and 25 females aged 36~74 years(mean, 58.6). Fourteen patients(16%) had previous PTCA or stent insertion, 41 patients(48%) had unstable angina, and 45 patients(52%) had three vessel disease. Patients with low LV ejection fraction(<35%) were 7 cases and urgent or emergent operation were 10 cases. There were 6 cases of combined surgery which were mitral valve replacement(2 cases), aortic valve replacement(2 cases), ASD repair(1 case), and VSD repair(1 case). Average number of distal anastomosis was 3.5 per patient and average aortic cross clamp time was 115±38.3min. Preoperative risk factors were defined as follows: female, old age(>70 years), low body surface area(<1.5M2), PTCA or stent insertion history, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, DM, COPD, urgent or emergent operation, left main disease, low LV ejection fraction(<35%), and combined surgery. Results: Operative mortality was 7cases(8%). As a postoperative morbidity, perioperative myocardial infarction was 6 cases, cerebrovascular accident 6 cases, reoperation for bleeding 5 cases, acute renal failure 4 cases, gastrointestinal complication 3 cases, and mediastinitis 3 cases. In the evaluation of operative risk factors, low body surface area, DM and low LV ejection fraction were found to be predictive risk factors of postoperative morbidity(p<0.05), and low ejection fraction was especially a risk factor of hospital mortality(p<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, low body surface area, DM and low LV ejection fraction were risk factors of postoperative morbidity and low ejection fraction was a risk factor of hospital mortality.

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Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting According to Ventricular Function (좌심실기능에 따른 관상동맥우회술의 위험인자)

  • 이헌재;현성렬
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.885-890
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    • 1997
  • Patients with coronary artery disease and depressed ventricular function have better longterm benefits after coronary artery bypass grafting compared with medical therapy. But operative mortality remains high. This study was designed to identify the risk factors for coronary artery bypass grafting according to ventricular function. The records of 103 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting from truly 1994 to June 1996 were analysed. The patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative ejection fraction: Low EF group(Ejection fraction < 40%, n=24) and Normal EF group(Ejection fraction $\geq$ 40%, n=79). The indication of operation was significantly different between the two groups (p=0.00003). Postinfarction angina was frequent in Low EF group but unstable angina was frequent in Normal EF group. The frequency of cardiomegaly(p=0.0012), serum creatinine abnormality(p=0.0473) and preoperative use of IABP(Intra Aortic Balloon Pump, p=0.0095) were higher in Low EP group. The left internal thoracic artery was used less frequently in Low EP group(p=0.00416). The operative mortality was 8.3% in Low EF group and 5.1% in Normal EF group, but without statistical difference(p=0.5492). In Normal EF group, age (p=0.041) was identified as a significant risk factor for operative mortality. In Low EF group, age(p=0.018), preopertive use of IABP(p=0.0036), hypercholesterolemia(p=0.0007), and emergency of operation(p=0.0037) were identified as significant risk factors. Postoperative morbidity was 50% in Low EF group and 33olo in Normal EP group, but without s atistical significance(p=0.1007). These results suggest that in patients with coronary artery disease and depressed ventricular function, more aggresive coronary artery bypass grafting is needed to improve the symptom and long-term benefit.

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Effects of Namhae Specialized Crops Water Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a Cholesterol Diet (남해군 특용작물 열수 추출분말이 콜테스테롤 급이 흰쥐의 혈청 및 장기 중 지질성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Jung-Hye;Kang, Min-Jung;Yang, Seung-Mi;Lee, Soo-Jung;Sung, Nak-Ju
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.599-610
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extracts from Namhae special crops (NSC) on improved serum lipid composition using rats fed a 1% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. Male Wister rats (200-210 g) were divided into six groups: Normal cholesterol diet group (Normal), 1% cholesterol diet group (Control), 1% cholesterol and NSC water extract powder supplemented groups, including, turmeric (Tu-EP), cactus (Ba-EP), aloe vera (Al-EP) and asparagus (As-EP). No significant differences were observed for food intake or body weight gain between the control and experimental groups. However, food efficiency ratio (FER) was the lowest in the As-EP group. The serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the NSC water powder extract supplement groups were lower than those in the control group. The serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol content in the Tu-EP group was higher than that in the other experimental groups. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol content in the As-EP group was similar to that in normal group. Furthermore, the VLDL content in the Al-EP group was lower than that in the normal group. Serum antioxidant activity by TBARS level and DPPH radical scavenging were significantly higher in the Ba-EP group than that in the control group. Hepatic total cholesterol and lipid content in the Al-EP group decreased significantly compared to that in the control group. These results suggest that the NSC water extract may reduce serum cholesterol and prevent oxidative stress by stimulating antioxidative systems in rats fed a 1% cholesterol diet.

The relationship of ready-to-eat cereal consumption with nutrition and health status in the Korean population based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012 (한국인의 시리얼 섭취실태와 영양 및 건강상태와의 관련성 연구 - 2012년도 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여 -)

  • Chung, Chin-Eun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.258-268
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) consumption with nutrition and health status. Examination of health status for this project included obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low-HDL-cholesterolemia, diabetes, anemia, and metabolic syndrome. Methods: Two groups, RTEC consumers and those who did not consume RTEC, were identified using 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Nutritional intakes and risk factors of the two groups were compared using covariates-adjusted statistical procedures. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS survey procedures, and strata, cluster, and weight were considered. Subjects of analysis of nutritional intake were between the ages of 1 and 75, and those considered in the risk factor analysis were between the ages of 19 and 75. Results: Results showed that 3.8% of the Korean population was RTEC consumers. Compared to the subjects who did not intake RTEC, RTEC consumers exhibited significantly higher intakes of calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin C. It was also discovered that the percentage of people whose intakes were less than EAR decreased with RTEC consumption. RTEC consumption showed significant association with decreased systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum triglyceride, and serum total cholesterol. Consequently, prevalence of hypertension among RTEC consumers was significantly lower than that among non-consumers, and the odds ratio for hypertension was 0.19 after adjusting the models for covariates. Conclusion: Results of this study clearly suggest an association of RTEC consumption with improved nutritional status and cardiometabolic risk profile in Korean adults. Conduct of additional studies will be necessary in order to determine the nature of these relationships.

Comparison of Health Risks according to the Obesity Types Based Upon BMI and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults: The 1998-2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (한국 성인에서 체질량지수와 허리둘레를 기준으로 분류한 비만 유형에 따른 특성 비교: 1998-2005 국민건강영양조사)

  • Lee, Yul-Eui;Park, Ji-Eun;Hwang, Ji-Yun;Kim, Wha-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.631-638
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to examine the health risks according to the obesity types based upon body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoffs. The subjects were 8,966 adults aged 40-79 years from the 1998, 2001 and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The subjects were classified into 4 types of obesity groups based on BMI and WC: BMIWC (BMI${\geq}$ 25 kg/$m^2$ and WC${\geq}$ 90 cm for males and ${\geq}$ 85 cm for females), WC (BMI < 25 kg/$m^2$ and ${\geq}$ 90 cm for males and ${\geq}$ 85 cm for females), BMI (BMI ${\geq}$ 25 kg/$m^2$ and < 90 cm for males and < 85 cm for females), normal (BMI < 25 kg/$m^2$ and < 90 cm for males and < 85 cm for females) groups. More than half (n = 5,103) of the subjects fell into the normal group and BMIWC group accounts for 58%, followed by BMI group of 27% and WC group of 16%. Mean ages of subjects were highest in WC group and lowest in BMI group. Blood levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and glucose, and blood pressures were higher and HDL-cholesterol was lower in 3 types of obesity groups (BMIWC, WC, BMI) than in the normal group. Among the 3 obesity groups, energy and fat intake was significantly higher in BMIWC than in normal group in males, however, no differences were found among the 4 groups in females. The three obesity groups had greater odds ratios for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome compared to the normal group. Among 3 obesity groups, BMIWC group had the highest odds ratios for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Especially BMIWC and WC groups showed the highest odds ratios for diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, suggesting the potential role of abdominal obesity in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Our data indicate that different types of obesity may show different degrees of health risks. The appropriate selection and use of obesity indexes may be effective for management of obesity as well as obesityrelated diseases.

Effects of Ethylacetate Fraction of Plantago asiatica L. on Hypercholesterolemia Induced by High Cholesterol Diet in Rats (질경이(Plantago asiatica L.) 에틸아세테이트분획이 흰쥐의 고콜레스테롤혈증에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee Jae-Joon;Lee Jeong-Hwa;Jeong Chang-Ju;Choi Hyun-Sook;Lee Myung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.624-630
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    • 2005
  • Plantain was extracted with ethanol and fractionated systemically with n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and water to study inhibitory effect on cholesterol synthesis in vitro. To screen the effect, inhibitory activities on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined using the five fractions of Plantain. The HMG-CoA reductase activity was inhibited most by ehylacetate fraction among the fractions, although the all five fractions had the effect To see the hypocholesterolemic effect of the ethylacetate fraction of Plantanin (PAE) in vivo, male Sprague-Dawley rats were received 5 types of diets for 6 weeks: normal diet group (NOR), high cholesterol diet group($1\%$ cholesterol and $0.25\%$ sodium cholate, CON), normal diet and PAE 70 mg/kg administered group(S1), high cholesterol diet and PAE 140 mg/kg administrated group(S2), and high cholesterol diet and PAE 140 mg/kg administered group(S3). Body weight gains of the CON were significantly increased compared to those of S1, S2 and S3. Activities of serum AST and ALT were tended to be increased in CON compared with NOR and reduced by the PAE administration. Concentrations of serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and the atherogenic index were tended to be decreased in the PAE administered groups compared with the CON. HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased in the CON and markedly increased by the PAE administered groups. Taten together, it is suggested that the ethylacetate fraction of Plantanin exerts antiatherosclerotic effect by reducing serum cholesterol concentrations in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

Effects of a Web-Based Nutrition Counseling on Food Intake and Serum Lipids in Hyperlipidemic Patients (웹기반 영양상담이 고지혈증 환자의 식사섭취 및 혈청 지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Suck;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1302-1310
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a web-based nutrition counseling could lead to beneficial outcomes in food intake and serum lipids of patients with hyperlipidemia. Forty hyperlipidemic patients, twenty of them were hypercholesterolemia and the other twenty were hypertriglyceridemia, participated in a web-based nutrition counseling program. At the first nutrition counseling, the patients were counselled through interview and then follow up nutrition counseling was accomplished four times during eight weeks through a web-based internet program. Various markers of disease risk including anthropometric indices, food intakes and serum lipid levels were measured before and after the web-based nutrition counseling. After nutrition counseling, body mass index significantly decreased in both groups and waist to hip ratio significantly decreased in male hypercholesterolemic patients (p<0.05). Total-cholesterol decreased from 262.2 mg/dL to 234.9 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol decreased from 186.8 mg/dL to 160.5 mg/dL in hypercholesterolemic patients, triglyceride decreased from 288.6 mg/dL to 211.9 mg/dL and total-cholesterol decreased from 217.2 mg/dL to 198.7 mg/dL in hypertriglyceridemic patients after nutrition counseling. Anthropometric value and nutrient intakes were improved after nutrition counseling. Energy, fat and saturated fatty acid intakes decreased significantly in both groups (p<0.05). Therefore, this study shows that the web-based nutrition counseling is effective in improving food habit and influences positively in serum lipid levels of the patients. In addition, these results indicate that internet presents us with potential as a new medium for nutrition counseling in informationized society.

Antimutagenic Effects of Korean Bamboo Trees and Inhibitory Effect of Hepatic Toxicity of Bamboo Extracts Coated Rice (한국산 대나무의 항돌연변이 효과 및 대나무 코팅쌀의 간 독성 억제효과)

  • Lee, Min-Ja;Kim, Eun-Young;Jeong, Keun-Ok;Park, Kun-Young;Moon, Gap-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1279-1285
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    • 2004
  • To evaluate the antimutagenic effect and hepato protective of bamboo trees and bamboo byproduct, hot-water extracts from four kinds of bamboo [wang-dae (Phyllostachys bambusoides S. et Z.), som-dae (Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis), maengjong-juk (Phyllostachys pubescens) and o-juk (Phyllostachys nigra Munro)] and maengjong-juk extract coated rice were evaluated for antimutagenicity by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA100. Bamboo extracts showed strong antimutagenic activity in the Ames test which MNNG was used as mutagen in the absence and presence of S9 mix. Maengjong-juk extract coated rice diet suppressed the loss of body weight significantly. Food intake was increased in maengjong-juk extract coated rice supplemented group but showed no significant differences between control and maengjong-juk extract coated rice diet groups. Food efficiency of maengjong-juk extract coated rice supplemented group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Liver weight was significantly increased by maengjong-juk extract coated rice diet administration. Plasma GOT & GPT activities of rabbit were significantly suppressed in maengjong-juk extract coated rice supplemented group. These results suggest that bamboo trees extracts and maengjong-juk extract coated rice are bioavailable resource on treatment of cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia.

Effect of Pimpinella brachycarpa Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet (참나물이 고콜레스테롤식이를 섭취한 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Choo, Myung-Hee;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.1151-1158
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Pimpinella brachycarpa (PB) on serum and liver lipid metabolism in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1% cholesterol and 0.25% sodium cholate to induce hypercholesterolemia. PB ethanol extract (200 mg/kg/day or 400 mg/kg/day) was also administered orally to rats with high cholesterol diet for 6 weeks. We divided 40 rats into five groups; normal diet group (NC), high cholesterol diet group (HC), normal diet and PB ethanol extract (200 mg/kg) administered group (NC-PB), high cholesterol diet and PB ethanol extract (200 mg/kg) administered group (HC-PBL), and high cholesterol diet and PB ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) administered group (HC-PBH). The growth rate and liver weight of the high cholesterol diet group was higher than those of the normal diet group, whereas those of the groups administered PB ethanol extract were gradually decreased. There was a signigicant increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the high cholesterol diet group. The administration of PB ethanol extract decreased serum ALT, AST and ALP activities in a dose-dependent manners. The high cholesterol diet group showed increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, and decreased atherogenic index, HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid levels as compared with the normal diet group. PB ethanol extract administrated groups showed increased HDL-C/T-C, HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid levels, and decreased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels as compared with the high cholesterol diet group. There were no differences in the concentrations of serum triglyceride, phopholipid, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and free cholesterol between normal diet groups. The hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol and triglyceride were also lower in PB ethanol extract administrated groups than in the high cholesterol diet group. These results suggest that ethanol extract of PB exerts hypocholesterolemic effect by reducing serum and liver cholesterol contents.

Effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens Extract on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diet (매생이 추출물이 고콜레스테롤 식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeong-Hwa;Lee, Yu-Mi;Lee, Jae-Joon;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.402-409
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF) extract on serum and liver lipid metabolism in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 1% cholesterol and 0.25% sodium cholate to induce hypercholesterolemia and were divided into six groups. Experimental groups were administered with following diets; normal diet group (NC), high cholesterol diet group (HC), normal diet and CF extract (200 mg/kg) administered group (NC-CFL), normal diet and CF extract (400 mg/kg) administered group (NC-CFH), high cholesterol diet and CF extract (200 mg/kg) adwlinistered group (HC-CFL), and high cholesterol diet and CF extract (400 mg/kg) administered group (HC-CFH). The body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio were increased by high cholesterol diet, but gradually decreased to the corresponding level of the normal diet group by administered CF extract. The serum total cholesterol concentration of normal diet group was significantly higher than those of NC-CFL group and NC-CFH group. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride and the atherogenic index .were tended to decrease in the CF extract administered groups compared with the high cholesterol diet group. However, HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations in serum decreased in the high cholesterol diet group and markedly increased by the CF extract administered groups. There were no differences in the concentrations of serum triglyceride, phopholipid, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and free cholesterol in normal diet groups. Concentrations of total cholesterol and triglyceride in liver and kidney were also markedly decreased in the CF administered groups. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of adipose tissue in the CF administered groups were also decreased compared with the high cholesterol diet group. In addition, there were no differences in the concentrations of liver, kidney and adipose tissue total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol in normal diet groups. The activities of heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and total-extractable LPL in adipose tissue were increased in the high cholesterol diet group compared with the CF extract administered groups, but those of the NC -CFL group and NC-CFH group were similar to the normal diet group. Taken together, it is suggested that the extract of CF have an antiatherosclerotic effect by reducing cholesterol level of serum and liver. Furthermore, the extract of CF decreased LPL activity and triglyceride concentration, resulting in less lipid storage.