The purpose of this study was to identify the current problems of school health education policies and practices in Korea, and to establish the strategies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of school health education program. The severity of adolescents's health problems including obesity, smoking, drug abuse, teen pregnancy, etc has been increased recently and coping strategies to deal with these problems became urgent. The role of school as a key setting for health education should be empathized. However, there were limitations for the effectiveness of school health education in Korea because of the lack of recognition about the importance, guiding principles of the school health education by the school health related law, life skill-focused curriculum, capacity of teachers for health education, and linkage between school and community. In order to improve the effectiveness of school health education, establishment of infrastructure, national and local health education standard, and operating principles for the school health education program should be provided. Life skill-focused health education curriculum should be developed for the effective health education. Teacher training and education also should be the essential component of school health education program. For the improvement of efficiency in school health education practices, cooperation with family and community support system would be necessary.
The hospital setting provides many opportunities for health promotion. There are many health professionals including physicians, nurses, medical technicians who have close contact with patients and their family. Health professionals are very influential to arouse the awareness about health and illness, and to motivate to change lifestyle among patients. Thus health professionals are most effective and important human resources for health education for patients to improve recovery rates and to promote health. In spite of the importance of health professionals' role in health promotion, the Korean government has provided little support for their health education for patients. Most of the health professionals have not learned about health education theories and skills, and have little attention to educate patients to change their lifestyle. Also the health professionals themselves have relatively poor lifestyle compared with advanced western countries. To improve health education for patients and their family, following strategies and policies should be considered: reinforcing curriculum for health education in college and training course, providing practical incentives for patient education, capacity building for health education and developing guideline for patient education, training health educators, networking and collaborating between community health center and hospitals, promoting the importance of health education among patients, researching and developing health education theory and practice including cost-benefit of health education.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the past and present status and roles of health education specialists in Korea, and to suggest future directions for developing health education profession. Results and conclusion: The Korean government has made various efforts for people's health. the National Health Promotion Law was enacted in Korea in 1995. As the results of Korean Association for Health Education' intensive efforts, the national certificate of health education specialist bill has been passed the National Assembly on September 29, 2003. According to The National Health Promotion Law, central and local government should recommend health promotion related corporaters, agencies and organizations to hire certified health education specialist. The first national examination for certificate of health education specialists was held in March, 2010. As the result, a total of 2,246 applicants was passed for certificate of health education specialists. It is a serious concern that community residents' knowledge level of health is very low. therefore, the role of health education specialists with the professional ability to carry out health education is essential. It is clear that the activity of health educators is essential, Then, It is necessary articles related to the appointment of health educators in the official appointment regulation or law. Thus the health education specialist must be appointed as a public officer in health centers, operaters or the health department of the government.
This research is intended to develop oral health education program that can improve quality of oral health of infants by investigating the actual condition of oral health education provided to students major in early childhood education and contents and method of oral health education that they needed. A questionnaire survey was conducted for 427 students enrolled in related departments such as the Early Childhood Education Division and the Early Childhood Education Department at five universities in Gyeongsangnam-do. Questionnaires consisted of general characteristics, awareness of oral health, presence of experience in oral health education, necessity of oral health education, preference for oral health education method, oral health education contents. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS(Statistical Package for the Social Science) Ver 20.0. 1. Presence of experience in oral health education based on the general characteristics showed statistically significant differences only concerning the 'school system' and the 'school year' (p<0.05), and subjective awareness of oral health based on the presence of oral health education experiences showed statistically significant differences concerning the 'interest in oral health' and the 'importance of oral health' (p<0.05). 2. Necessity of oral health education based on the subjective awareness of oral health showed statistically significant differences concerning the 'interest in oral health' and the 'importance of oral health' (p<0.05). 3. Necessity of oral health education based on the preference for oral health education method showed statistically significant differences concerning the 'intention to participate in oral health education' and the 'oral health education cycle' (p<0.05). 4. The most necessary information for oral health education is proper toothbrushing method 4.24, cause of tooth decay and prevention method 4.13, helpful food and poor food for tooth 3.97, toothbrush selection and storage method 3.85. Fluoride application and fissure sealant were lowest 3.38. As a result of this research, necessity of oral health education was large regardless of general characteristics, experience in oral health education, subjective awareness of oral health, and preference for oral health education. Also the more the 'interest in oral health' in 'subjective awareness of oral health', the more the 'necessity of oral health education' and 'intention to participate in oral health education'. Therefore it is necessary to develop systematic and repetitive oral health education for students major in early childhood education.
Park, Eun-Ok;Yoo, Sun-Mi;Cho, Hong-Jun;Lee, Weon-Young;June, Kyung-Ja
Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
Purposes： This review is designed to assess the current status of health education in Korea, to identify problems within the curriculum, and to suggest ways to improve health education in Korea. Results： Korean schools currently lack a regular standardized health education curriculum. Subjects related to health education are presently taught in other disciplines, such as physical education, home management, biology, and other related subjects. The Korean health education curriculum suffers from many significant problems, including a lack of educational goals for health education, absence of designated time for health education, a lack of continuity between contents, knowledge-oriented health education, and an overall disconnect with the needs of the students. Other problems include an exclusion of health education experts in the development of the curriculum, no designated times for health education within the regular curriculum, and a lack of health teachers in schools. Conclusion： To improve health education in schools, standard health education curriculum should be developed. Health education curriculum needs to be sequential, comprehensive, and skill-based. Health education needsto be a essential subject, health teachers need to be trained, and provided with technical support.
The Purpose of this study was to define the School Health Education Concepts, to establish the learning objectives and contents for school health education, and to diagnose the phenomenal aspects related to current school health Education in Korea. The results of its diagnosis indicated that the Education Ministry had never had any open opportunities for the teachers to get health education licence, and. universities had never issued health education teacher′s licence to the perspective students in Korea. Under such condition, there was "Korean nursing teacher′s association" for school health education, which had lectures, for two to three years, in order to learn how to develop, teach and evaluate the school health program. Currently, School boards in cities recommended that all nursing teachers should teach school health education in classes for six hours in a week without any fixed health program. Also, There was only "Korean Society for Health Education" for the purpose of dealing with school health education, which had been publishing annual journal. This study demonstrated how to develop school health education curriculum, which composed of the methods for needs assessment and PRECEDE Model(Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Causes in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation).
The National Health Promotion Act passed in 1995 was a milestone for initiating a national and local health promotion program in Korea. And since then local governments and health centers have been developing and providing health promotion programs for the community population. To apply the effectiveness of community health promotion program, it is important to understand the key issue related to health education and the role of health education personnel. The purpose of this study was to define the responsibility and competency of health education specialist, and to develop the activity areas of health promotion program in Korea. Those who provide the service for health promotion and health education should be properly qualified and professionally trained. However, the skills and responsibilities of those who are in charge of providing health education program have not yet been clearly defined in Korea because the areas of health promotion and health education are composed of multi-academic fields. In case of United States, health education specialist is being developed through professional preparation in colleges and graduate schools, and certified through the examination. Also health education specialist is in charge of the planing, implementing and evaluation of health education program in school, hospital, health center, workplace and health food company. Therefore it is important to develop the programs to train and certify health education specialist. Also to extend the activity areas, the government should support continuously program development for health promotion and health education personnel.
Objectives: This study was conducted to describe child perceived health knowledge, health education needs, and health behaviors by sex as a representative general characteristic and examined their associations for students' better health behavior changes. Methods: The survey participants were 410 fourth to sixth grade students in two elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. A total of 12 classes in two elementary schools were randomly selected and all students of the selected classes participated in the self-administered survey. The questionnaire contained the items of perceived health knowledge, health education needs (health topics which they want to know more), health behavior, and general characteristics. Results: Perceived health knowledge, health education needs, and health behaviors were, generally, better among girls than boys. Sexual differences were not large in perceived health knowledge, health education needs, health behaviors. Perceived health knowledge had significant positive correlation with health behaviors both in boys and girls(p <.01). The correlation between perceived health knowledge and health behaviors(r =.36) was two fold greater than correlation between health education needs and health behaviors(r =.18) among boys; where as the two correlations were similar to each other among girls. The significant factors were perceived health knowledge, sex, grade, and health education needs in order, and the four factors described health behaviors in 21.0%. The higher perceived health knowledge, girls, lower grade, and more health education needs was associated with the better health behaviors. Conclusions: There was significant sexual difference of the relationship between health knowledge, health education needs, and health behaviors among children. Perceived health knowledge was more important factor to improve health behaviors among boys while perceived health knowledge and health education needs had equal importance on health behaviors among girls. Therefore, knowledge building should be an essential part of health education class goals for building better health behaviors.
Objectives: To investigate the status of health education in elementary schools. Methods: 620 school nurses were surveyed by questionnaires from September to December in 2003. Results: 1) Among the school nurses under inquiry of planning of health education, 3.3% and 9.3% of them did not prepare for teaching plan. 2) The average time for health education by a school nurse was 96.8 hours a year, and handouts for health education were distributed 10.6 times. Among the contents of health education, sex education took the largest portion of health education with 24.6 hours a year. 3) With regard to the contents of health education covered by school nurses, sex education ranked first with 90.2%, next came drug abuse with 78.4%, dental health, CDC, disease control, healthy life and smoking, body structure and function and growth and development safety, alcohol, nutrition and environmental health followed them. 4) The main contents of education were CDC, dental health sex, healthy life and disease control for 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade students, sex, CDC, disease control and safety for 4th grade students, and sex, CDC, drug abuse and smoking for 5th and 6th grade students. 5) 72.6% of school nurses used class room for health education, 20.0% and 7.4% of them used grade and others such as broadcast, respectively. 6) 42.1% of school nurses used blackboard, 37.0% and 18.6% of them used visual media and handout as a teaching aids for health education. 7) 31.6% of school nurses replied that education time was insufficient 9.5% and 15.9% of them replied the contents of health education were inadequate and methods of health education were inappropriate, respectively. Conclusions: For the successful school health education, it would be in need of sufficient time for health education by opening health education course and of modify the various working conditions of school nurses, and those of effective educational materials and media for health education.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to expand of workplace by analyzing the duty and workplace of health education specialist and by presenting professional duty for health education specialist. Methods: 22 papers related to health education experts were finally selected from 1993 to 2017(25 years). The selected literature analyzed the title, researchers, the publishing agency, the publication year, the main contents, and duty and workplace of the health education specialist. Results: The studies on health education specialists comprised 5 cases (22.7%) between 1993 and 1999, 3 cases (13.6%) between 2000 and 2009, 14 cases (63.6%) between 2010 and 2017. Health education specialists core duty were diagnosing health education needs, planning health education programs, developing health education methods and materials, performing and managing health education programs, evaluating and conducting research on health education programs, and health communication. The workplace were 11 for medical institutions (55.0%), 9 for healthcare organizations (45.0%) and 8 for schools (40.0%). Conclusions: In addition to the basic core duty, professional and differentiated duty capabilities such as managing the target, generating health information, encouraging involvement of the target, and mobile health care should be developed.
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