• Title, Summary, Keyword: GoldSim

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Understanding and Their Application of GoldSim Transport Pathways to Mass Trasport Simulation (질량 이동 모사 프로그램 개발을 위한 골드심 이동 패쓰웨이의 이해와 활용)

  • Lee, Youn-Myoung;Jeong, Jongtae
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.135-151
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    • 2014
  • It is very important to properly understand such "Transport Pathways" elements as "Pipe" and "Cell" pathways in commercial GoldSim Transport Module (GTM) for developing higer quality models and programs for performance assessment of complex radioactive waste repositories. With an illustrative case under an earthquake scenario, by which an increasement in the groundwater flow rate occurs though the geological medium, ways of avoiding possible modeling errors in the nuclide transport modeling in the radioactive waste repository system for its safety assessment by utilizing such pathways are discussed and a proper usage of the pathways is proposed.

Sintering Characteristics of Au and Ag Nanoparticles Prepared by Inert Gas Condensation (불활성 증발 응축방법으로 제조된 금과 은 나노입자의 소결특성)

  • Lee, Seung-Hyun;Min, Dong-Ryoul;Lee, Kwang-Min
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the sintering characteristics of gold and silver nanoparticles. In this study, gold and silver nanoparticles were prepared by using Inert Gas Cndensation (IGC). The sintering temperatures for gold and silver nanoparticles were $100{\sim}1000^{\circ}C\;and\'100{\sim}500^{\circ}C$, respectively. The sintering characteristics of gold and silver nanoparticles prepared by IGC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Gold and silver nanoparticles with the size of $1{\sim}100\;nm\;and\;10{\sim}100\;nm$, respectively, were obtained. The size of sintered gold and silver nanoparticles increased with an increase in the sintering temperature. XRD data showed that silver nanoparticles were similar with polycrystal single-phase.

Preparation of Polymer Composites Containing Gold Nanonetworks Using an Amphiphilic Poly(oxyethylene) Brush

  • Cha, Sang-Ho;Kim, Jong-Uk;Lee, Jong-Chan
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.711-716
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    • 2008
  • We synthesized gold nanonetwork using the amphiphilic polymer brush, poly(oxyethylene) containing decyltri(oxyethylene)thiomethyl ($C_{10}H_{21}(OCH_2CH_2)_3SCH_2-$) side groups, as a stabilizer and/or a template. When tetrabutylammonium borohydride solution in THF was added to a mixture solution of the polymer and $LiAuCl_4$ in THF, 0-D gold nanomaterials were obtained. However, when an aqueous solution of sodium borohydride was added, gold nanonetworks were synthesized. The composites composed of polymer/0-D gold nanomaterials and polymer/gold nanonetworks showed electrical conductivities of ${\sim}10^{-9}$ and ${\sim}10^{-3}S/cm$, respectively, which indicated that the gold nanonetworks increased the electrical conductivity.

A Study on the Gold Film Coated on the Ancient Gilt Bronze (고대 금동유물의 금도금(金鍍金) 피막(被膜)에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, S.K.;Kang, S.G.
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.60-79
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    • 1992
  • In relation to the scientific conservation treatment of ancient gilt bronze, the gold film coated on the bronze excavated from Hwangnam Great Tomb of Old Silla Kingdom(A. D. 5C) was studied in the view of coating technology and metallurgy of bronze. The uniform and dense gold film containing $2.44\sim12.40%$ of Hg with the thickness of $5.99\sim12.97{\mu}m$ was found to be coated on the bronze objects by amalgam coating method. On silver objects, the film with the thickness of $19.96{\mu}m$ was coated also continously and uniformly with gold by the same method. The bronze objects was fabricated by forging technique and contained almost $4.7\sim11.5%$ of Pb. Its microstructure was $\alpha-phase$ solid solution including Pb segregation in the matrix. The amount of $0.4\sim2.0%$ Zn was added in the bronze for the purpose of easy fabricating of Cu alloy. Based on the data studied, the gold film on bronze sample was reproduced by amalgam coating method and compared with the ancient gold film.

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A-KRS GoldSim Model Verification: A Comparison Study of Performance Assessment Model (KAERI A-KRS 골드심 성능평가 모델 비교 검증 연구)

  • Lee, Youn-Myoung;Jeong, Jongtae
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 2013
  • The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed a performance assessment model implementing the A-KRS concept, which was constructed with the GoldSim. In the A-KRS concept, spent nuclear fuel produced from pressurized-water-reactor operations would be pyroprocessed to reduce waste volume and radioactivity. The wastes to be disposed of in a geologic repository are comprised of metal and ceramic waste forms. In this study, results of simulations conducted to establish credibility and build confidence for the A-KRS model are presented. Specifically, release rates and breakthrough times simulated using the A-KRS model were compared to corresponding results from the U.S. NRC SOAR model. In addition, the A-KRS model results were compared to published release rates from the SKB repository performance assessment. This comparison of the A-KRS model results to other independent performance assessments is expected to form part of a suite of model verification and validation activities to provide confidence that the A-KRS model has been implemented appropriately.

Hydrothermal Gold Mineralization of the Sambo Deposit in the Muan Area, Korea (무안 지역, 삼보 광상의 금광화작용)

  • Pak, Sang-Joon;Choi, Seon-Gyu
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.275-286
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    • 2008
  • The Sambo gold deposit located nearby the Cretaceous Hampyeong basin is composed of gold quartz fine vein(the Jija vein) within Cretaceous rhyolite showing $N10{\sim}20W$ trends as well as $N5{\sim}10E$ trending quartz veins(the Pungja, Gwangsan and Pungjaji veins) in Precambrian gneiss. The gold vein typically displays the intermittent and irregular fine veins within rhyolite. Electrum is disseminated in wallrock along the fine cracks as well as coexists with hematite replacing pyrite. Ore-forming fluids from the mineralized vein($H_2O/-NaCl$ system, Th; $340{\sim}200^{\circ}C$, Salinity <2.7 eq. wt.% NaCl) and NE-trending veins($H_2O-NaCl/-CO_2$ system, Th; $400{\sim}190^{\circ}C$, salinity <7.9 eq. wt.% NaCl) are featured by dissimilar physicochemical conditions but their fluid evolution trends(boiling and mixing) are similar with each other. Gold veins of the Sambo deposit filled along NNW-trending tension crack are related to pull-apart basin evolution. Selective gold mineralization of the deposit reflect to dissimilarity between two ore-forming fluid sources. Consequently, gold veining of the Sambo deposit formed at shallow-crustal level and could be categorized into epithermal-type gold deposit related to tensional fractures filling triggered by Cretaceous geodynamics.

Hydrothermal Cold-silver Mineralization of the Gajok Deposit in the Hongcheon Mining District, Korea (홍천 광화대, 가족 광상의 금.은 광화작용)

  • Pak, Sang-Joon;Choi, Seon-Gyu
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2008
  • The Cretaceous Gajok gold-silver deposit within porphyry granite is located nearby the Cretaceous Pungam basin at the northeastern area in Republic of Korea. The Gajok gold-silver deposit is distinctively composed of a multiple-complex hydrothermal veins with comb, crustiform chalcedony quartz and vug textures, implying it was formed relatively shallower depth. The hypogene open-space filling veins could be divided into 5 paragenetic sequences, increasing tendency of Ag-rich electrum and Ag-phases with increasing paragenetic time. Electrum with high gold contents (${\sim}50$ atomic % Au) as well as sphalerite with high FeS contents (${\sim}6$ mole % FeS) are representative ore minerals in the middle stage. The late stage is characterized by silver-phase such like native silver and/or argentite, coexisting with Ag-rich electrum ($10{\sim}30$ atomic % Au) and Fe-poor sphalerite (< 1 mole % FeS). The ore-forming fluids evolution started at relatively high temperature and salinity (${\sim}360^{\circ}C$, ${\sim}7\;wt.%$ eq. NaCl) and were evolved by dilution and mixing mechanisms on the basis of fluid inclusion study. The gold-silver mineralization proceeded from ore-forming fluids containing greater amounts of less-evolved meteoric waters(${\delta}^{18}O$; $-0.6{\sim}-6.7\;%o$). These results imply that gold-silver mineralization of the Cretaceous Gaiok deposit formed at shallow-crustal level and could be categorized into low-sulfidation epithermal type, related to Cretaceous igneous activity.

Gold Mineralization of the Sepola District in Mali, Africa: Occurrence Characteristics of Gold and Fluid Inclusion Study (아프리카 말리 세폴라 지역의 금광화작용:금의 산출특성 및 유체포유물연구)

  • Heo, Chul-Ho
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2009
  • The geology of Sepola district in Mali is consisted of Birrimian group with metasedimentary rocks of lower Proterozoic and volcanoclastics, and later intrusive igneous rocks. Ore diposit in this district has the characteristics of vein- and disseminated-type gold deposit which was formed by infilling the secondary fracture zones related to the large-scale fault zone of NW direction within Birrimian group. It is confirmed as promising that Barani district has the gold grade of 0.53${\sim}$9.21 g/t with the extension of 1.3 km and width of 1 to 20.1 m. The ore mineralogy is simple with electrum, pyrite and galena. Fineness of gold grain ranges from 848 to 915(average 891) indicating mesothermal to hypothermal environment. Fluid inclusions are classified as liquid-rich type I. gas-rich type II and liquid-$CO_2$ bearing type III. Primary and pseudosecondary inclusions homogenize from 236 to 393$^{\circ}C$ with salinity of 0.0 to 8.6 wt% NaCl. Secondary inclusions homogenize from 103 to 184$^{\circ}C$ with salinity of 0.7 to 8.6 wt.%. From the relationship between homogeniztion temperature and salinity, it may be thought that auriferous fluid experienced dilution and cooling through inflow of meteoric water after fluid unmixing derived from pressure decrease in the temperature range of 400 to 250$^{\circ}C$. From the massive occurrence of quartz vein, simple mineralogy with paucity of sulfide, and presence of liquid-$CO_2$ bearing with high homogenization temperature, it is thought that gold mineralization in Sepola district correspods to the mesothermal to hypothermal ore deposit.

Development of Two-Dimensional Near-field Integrated Performance Assessment Model for Near-surface LILW Disposal (중·저준위 방사성폐기물 천층처분시설 근계영역의 2차원 통합성능평가 모델 개발)

  • Bang, Je Heon;Park, Joo-Wan;Jung, Kang Il
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.315-334
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    • 2014
  • Wolsong Low- and Intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal center has two different types of disposal facilities and interacts with the neighboring Wolsong nuclear power plant. These situations impose a high level of complexity which requires in-depth understanding of phenomena in the safety assessment of the disposal facility. In this context, multidimensional radionuclide transport model and hydraulic performance assessment model should be developed to identify more realistic performance of the complex system and reduce unnecessary conservatism in the conventional performance assessment models developed for the $1^{st}$ stage underground disposal. In addition, the advanced performance assessment model is required to calculate many cases to treat uncertainties or study parameter importance. To fulfill the requirements, this study introduces the development of two-dimensional integrated near-field performance assessment model combining near-field hydraulic performance assessment model and radionuclide transport model for the $2^{nd}$ stage near-surface disposal. The hydraulic and radionuclide transport behaviors were evaluated by PORFLOW and GoldSim. GoldSim radionuclide transport model was verified through benchmark calculations with PORFLOW radionuclide transport model. GoldSim model was shown to be computationally efficient and provided the better understanding of the radionuclide transport behavior than conventional model.

Chemical Variations of Electrum from Gold and/or Silver Deposits in the Southeast Korea (한국 동남부지역 금·은 광상산 에렉트럼의 화학조성)

  • Choi, Seon-Gyu;Park, Maeng-Eon;Choi, Sang-Hoon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.325-333
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    • 1994
  • Gold and/or silver mineralization in the southeast province, Korea, occurred in hydrothermal quartz vein that fills fracture zones in Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Gyeongsang basin or granites and Precambrian gneiss. Most of the gold-silver-bearing veins in the province occur in Hapcheon, Suncheon and Haman-Gunbuk area where they are associated with Cretaceous Bulgugsa granites. On the basis of the Ag/Au ratio on amounts produced and ore grades, mode of occurrence, and associated mineral assemblages, hydrothermal Au-Ag deposits in southeast province, Korea, can be classified as follows: pyrite-type gold deposit (Group IIB, Samjeong and Sangchon deposits), antimony-type gold-silver deposit (Group IV, Gisan and Geochang deposits), and antimony-type silver deposit (Group V, Sanggo, Seweon, Seongju and Gahoe deposits). All of the gold-silver deposits in the province are generally characteristics of the gold-silver or silver-dominant type deposit which contains more silver-bearing minerals than those deposits in central Korea. The gold-silver mineralization in the deposits consist of two generation; the early characterized by gold precipitation and the late represented by silver-rich (as silver-bearing sulfosalts minerals) mineralization. All but one deposit (Samjeong deposit) having relatively lower Au content in electrum values between ${\approx}20$ and ${\approx}50$ atomic %. The mineralogical data on electrum-sphalerite and/or arsenopyrite geothermometry and fluid inclusion data indicate that the gold and silver mineralizations were occurred at temperatures of $190{\sim}280^{\circ}C$ and $150{\sim}180^{\circ}C$, respectively. These suggest that the gold-silver mineralization in the province occurred in the lower temperature and pressure conditions as epithermal-type hydrothermal vein deposit.

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