• Title, Summary, Keyword: GnRH

Search Result 362, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Localization of gonadotropin Releasing Hormone(mGnRH, sGnRH and cGnRH II) in the Brain of three species of Frog, R. nigromaculata, R. dybowskii and R. rugosa (참개구리, 북방산개구리, 옴개구리 뇌에서 3가지 생식소 자극 호르몬 분비 호르몬(mGnRH, sGnRH, cGnRH II )의 분포)

  • 김정우;최완성
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.161-173
    • /
    • 1994
  • 면역효소법을 이용하여 3종의 한국산 개구리 참개구리(Rono nigromaculuto), 옴개구리(R. rugosa), 북방산개구리(R. 겨대bowskii)의 뇌에서 GnRH 뉴우런의 분포 부위와 GnRH의 종류 등을 연구하였다. 1차 항체로는 anti-rat GnRH, anti-salmon GnRH anti-chicken 11 GnRH 항체를 사용하였다. 3종의 개구리에서 mGnRH cGnRH 11와 sGnRH가 이둔 동정되었으나 3가지 항체에 대한 각 종의 면역 반응성은 종에 따라 달리 나타났다 mGnRH는 옴개구리와 참개구리에서, sGnRH는 북방산개구리에서 강한 면역 반응을 나타냈으며 cGnRH 11는 3종의 개구리에서 중간 정도의 면역 반응을 나타냈다. 각각의 GnRH의 상대적인 양에는 차이가 있으나 일부 경우를 제외하고는 뇌의 동일한 지역에 분포하였다. 참개구리에서는 GnRH가 중격 내측핵(NMS), Broca band 핵(NDB)에 집단으로 분포하였다. 북방산개구리에서는 GnRH가 중격 내측핵, Broca bnad 핵에서 등쪽에서 배쪽으로 길게 선상으로 가장 협소하게 분포하였으며, 번식기와 직전(1월-3월)에만 면역 반응을 나타냈다. 옴개구리의 뇌에서 가장 광범위한 지역, 즉 종뇌의 중격 내측핵, Broca band 핵, 아래 교차 지역(SCA)과 간뇌에 GnRH 신경세포가 분포하였으며. 제3뇌실 맥락얼기에서 mGnRH 신경세포가 처음으로 동정되었다. 3종에서 공통적으로 중격 내측핵과 Broca band 핵에서 유래한 신경섬유는 복측 시상하부를 거쳐 정중융기에 이르렀다. 이러한 결과는 GnRH가 뇌하수체에서 생식소 자극 호르몬의 분비 조절에 밀접한 관계가 있음을 뜻한다.

  • PDF

Actions of a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist on Gonadotropin II and Androgenic Steroid Hormone Secretion in Precocious Male Rainbow Trout

  • Kim Dae-Jung;Han Chang-Hee;Aida Katsumi
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.37-43
    • /
    • 2000
  • We used a mammalian GnRH antagonist, $[Ac-3,4-dehydro-Pro^1,\;D-p-F-Phe^2,\;D-Trp^{3.6}]$-GnRH, to examine the details of the salmon type gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and GnRH agonist analog $(Des-Gly^{10}$[d-Ala^6]-ethylamide GnRH; GnRHa) functions in the control of maturational gonadotropin (GTH II) secretion, in precocious male rainbow trout, in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. In the in vivo study, plasma GTH II levels increased by sGnRH or GnRHa treatment, but the response was more rapid and stronger in the GnRHa treatment group. The increase in GTH II was significantly suppressed by the GnRH antagonist, while the antagonist had no effect on basal GTH II levels in both groups. The GnRH antagonist showed stronger suppression of GTH II levels in the sGnRH treatment fish than in the GnRHa treatment fish. In addition, plasma androgenic steroid hormones (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) increased by the sGnRH or GnRHa treatment. The GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited the increases in plasma androgenic steroid hormone levels stimulated by the sGnRH or GnRHa, while the antagonist had no effect on basal androgenic steroid hormone levels in both groups. In the in vitro study, treatment with sGnRH or GnRHa increased GTH II release from the cultured dispersed pituitary cells, but the response was stronger in the GnRHa treatment group. The increase in GTH II release by GnRH was suppressed by adding the GnRH antagonist, dose­dependently. On the other hand, basal release of GTH II did not decrease by the GnRH antagonist treatment in both groups. These results suggest that the GnRH antagonist, $[Ac-3,4-dehydro-Pro^1,\;D-p-F-Phe^2,\;D-Trp^{3.6}]-GnRH$, used in this study is effective in blocking the action of GnRH-induced GTH II release from the pituitary gland both in vivo and in vitro.

  • PDF

Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone on in vitro Gonadotropin Release in Testosterone-Treated Immature Rainbow Trout

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Kim, Yi-Cheong;Aida, Katsumi
    • Animal cells and systems
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.429-437
    • /
    • 2009
  • The control mechanism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on gonadotropin (GTH) release was studied using cultured pituitary cell or cultured whole pituitary obtained from Testosterone (T) treated and control immature rainbow trout. The release of FSH was not changed by salmon type GnRH (sGnRH), chiken-II type (cGnRH-II), GnRH analogue ([des-$Gly^{10}D-Ala^6$] GnRH ethylamide) and GnRH antagonist ([Ac-3, 4-dehydro-$Pro^1$, D-p-F-$Phe^2$, D-$Trp^{3,6}$] GnRH) in cultured pituitary cells of T-treated and control fish. Indeed, FSH release was not also altered by sGnRH in cultured whole pituitary. All tested drugs had no effect on the release of LH in both culture systems of control fish. The levels of LH, in contrast, such as the pituitary content, basal release and responsiveness to GnRH were increased by T administration in both culture systems. In addition, the release of LH in response to sGnRH or cGnRH-II induced in a dose-dependent manner from cultured pituitary cells of T-treated fish, but which is not significantly different between in both GnRH at the concentration examined. Indeed, LH release was also increased by sGnRH in cultured whole pituitary of T-treated fish. GnRH antagonist suppressed the release of LH by sGnRH ($10^{-8}\;M$) and GnRH analogue ($10^{-8}\;M$) stimulation in a dose-dependent manner from cultured pituitary cells of T-treated fish, and which were totally inhibited by $10^{-7}\;M$ GnRH antagonist. These results indicate that the sensitivity of pituitary cells to GnRH is elevated probably through the T treatment, and that GnRH is involved in the regulation of LH release. GnRH-stimulated LH release is inhibited by GnRH antagonist in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of gonadal steroids on FSH levels are less clear.

Evolutionary Viewpoint on GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in Chordata - Amino Acid and Nucleic Acid Sequences

  • Choi, Donchan
    • Development and Reproduction
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.119-132
    • /
    • 2018
  • GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a supreme hormone regulating reproductive activity in most animals. The sequences of amino acid and nucleic acid of GnRH reported up to now are examined from the evolutionary framework of Chordata. All identified GnRH are classified into GnRH1, GnRH2, or GnRH3. In all three forms of GnRH both N-terminal and C-terminal are conserved, which allows for effective binding to their receptors. The three amino acids in the middle of GnRH1 sequence have altered diversely from the primitive Chordata, which is indicative of the adaptation process to the ambient environment. GnRH2 and GnRH3 sequences are well conserved. There are more diverse modifications in the nucleic acids than in amino acid sequence of GnRH1. These variations can result from meiosis, mutation, or epigenetics and indicate that GnRH is the product of natural selection.

Expression of the Second Isoform of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (Chicken GnRH-II Type) in the First Trimester Human Placenta (임신초기 사람의 태반조직에서 GnRH-II mRNA와 Peptide의 발현)

  • Cheon, Kang-Woo;Hong, Sung-Ran;Lee, Hyoung-Song;Kang, Inn-Soo
    • Development and Reproduction
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.81-88
    • /
    • 2001
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been known to play a role in the regulation of hCG secretion by human placenta. Recently, a gene encoding the second f개m of GnRH (GnRH-II) was identified in human. Herein, we demonstrate that GnRH-II is expressed in human placenta and assess GnRH-II expression by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in human placenta during the first trimester. We found that two altematively spliced transcripts of GnW-II mRNA were expressed in human placental tissues of first trimester and the shorter variant had a 21-bp deletion in GnRH-associated peptide (GAP). Immunoreactive GnRH-II was localized in both cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic cytoplasm. The immunostaining intensity was stronger in cytotrophoblast. Villous stromal cells also showed GnRH-II immunoreactiyiry. The results of our study report that the second isoform of GnRH (GnRH-II) is expressed in the first trimester human placenta and we suggest that GnRH-II may also play a regulatory role in maintenance of early pregnancy and hCG secretion in human placenta.

  • PDF

Expression and Cellular Localization of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)-like Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Rat Gonad (흰쥐 생식소에서 GnRH-like mRNA의 발현과 세포내 분포)

  • Park, Wan-Sung;Lee, Sung-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Sup;Cho, Sa-Sun;Young Namkung;Yoon, Yong-Dal;Paik, Sang-Ho;Cho, Wan-Kyoo;Kim, Kyungjin
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
    • /
    • v.33 no.4
    • /
    • pp.435-445
    • /
    • 1990
  • Gonadotropin releasing horrnone (GnRH) is known to be extrahypothalamically localized with a broad range including gonad. It remains, however, unknown whether GnRH is locally synthesized in the gonad. The present srudy aims to identity expression and cellular localization of GnRH-Iike mRNA and immunoreactive GnRH in the rat gonad. GnRH radioimmunoassay and chromatographic extracts on G-50 sephadex column showed that rat gonadal extracts contained a substantial amount of immunoreactive GnRH similar to the hypothalamic and synthetic GnRH. Although a wide distribution of immunostainable GnRH-like molecule with different cell types in the rat ovary was observed, the major cell population hybridized with GnRH probe appears to be granulosa. theca cells and corpus luteum. Immunoreactive GnRH-Iike peptides were distributed m various regions of testis, including spermatogenic cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. In situ hybridization revealed that positive signals of GnRH-Iike mRNA were predominandy present in Sertoli cells within some seminiferous tubules, but absent in the outside of seminiferous tubules in the testis. This study clearly demonstrated that GnRH-Iike molecule present in the rat gonad may be resulted from the local synthetic machinery of GnRH supporting the notion that this peptide may act as autocrine and/or paracrine role in intra-gonadal communication.

  • PDF

Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Release and Subunit mRNA by GnRH and Ovarian Steroids in Cultured Anterior Pituitary Cells (흰쥐 뇌하수체전엽 배양세포에서 GnRH 및 난소호르몬에 의한 $LH{\beta}$ subunit 유전자 발현 조절에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Mee;Park, Il-Sun;Ryu, Kyung-Za
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.19-28
    • /
    • 1994
  • The effects of gonadoropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ovarian steroid hormones on the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and its subunit mRNA levels were investigated in anterior pituitary cells in culture. LH concentration was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay and mRNA levels of u and $LH{\beta}$ subunits by RNA slot blot hybridization assay. GnRH stimulated LH release in a dose-dependent manner from cultured pituitary cells. However, the basal LH release in the absence of GnRH was not changed during the course of 24h culture, strongly suggesting that release of LH is directly controlled by GnRH. The treatment of the pituitary cells with GnRH increased $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner, reaching the maximum with $2\;{\times}\;10^{-10}M$ GnRH while no significant increase in ${\alpha}$ subunit mRNA levels was observed after GnRH treatment. Estradiol did not augment GnRH-induced LH release while progesterone augmented GnRH-induced LH release in a dose-dependent manner at the level of pituitary. However, estradiol and progesterone increased basal and GnRH-induced $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of estrogen antagonist, LYI17018 blocked the effect of estradiol on GnRH-induced $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner while progesterone antagonist, Ru486 tended to block the effect of progesterone on GnRH-induced $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA levels. It is therefore suggested that GnRH Playa a major role in LH release and subunit biosynthesis by influencing the steady state $LH{\beta}$ subunit mRNA loves and ovarian steroid hormones modulate subunit biosynthesis via directly acting on pituitary gonadotropes.

  • PDF

Multiple Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Systems in Vertebrates

  • Parkhar, lshwar S.
    • Animal cells and systems
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 1999
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was originally isolated as a hypothalamic peptide that regulates reproduction by stimulating the release of gonadotropins. Using comparative animal models has led to the discovery that GnRH has a more ancient evolutionary origin. Durinq evolution GnRH peptide underwent gene duplication and structural changes to give rise to multiple molecular forms of GnRHs. Mammalian GnRH initially considered to be the sole molecular form, is now grouped as a family of peptides along with GnRH variants determined from representatives in all classes of vertebrates. Vertebrate species including primates and humanshave more than one GnRH variant in individual brains; a unique GnRH form in the forebrain and chicken IIGnRH in the midbrain. Furthermore, several species of bony fish have three molecular variants of GnRH: salmon GnRH sea-bream GnRH and chicken II GnRH. Also, it has been shown that in addition to the olfactory placodes and the midbrain, there is a third embryonic source of GnRH neurons from the basal diencephalon in birds and fish, which might be true for other vertebrates. Therefore, comparative animal models like fish with discrete sites of expression of three molecular variants of GnRH in individual brains, could provide insight into novel functions of GnRH variants, conservation of gene regulation, and mechanisms governing reproduction in vertebrates.

  • PDF

Immunohistochemical Identification of the Two Forms of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones (sGnRH, cGnRH-II) in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax sp.) Brain (면역조직화학법을 이용한 점농어 (Lateolabrax sp.) 뇌에서 두 종류 (sGnRH, cGnRH-II) 의 생식소자극호르몬 분비호르몬의 동정)

  • KIM Jung-Woo;LEE Won-Kyo;YANG Seok-Woo;JEONG Kwan-Sik;CHO Yong-Chul;RHO Yong-Gil;BANG In-Chul;KIM Kwang-Soo;KIM Sang-Koo;YOO Myung-Sik;KWON Hyuk-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.3
    • /
    • pp.266-270
    • /
    • 1999
  • Two forms of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) are identified in the brain of adult mature spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax sp.) by immunohistochemical methods. Salmon GnRH immunoreactive (sGnRH-ir) cell bodies were distributed in the olfactory bulb, ventral telencephalon and preoptic region. Immunoreactive fibers were observed in the vicinity of the brain including the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the optic nerve, the optic tectum, the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata and rostral spinal cord. In most cases, these fibers did not form well defined bundles. However, there was a clear continuum of immunoreactive fibers, extending from the olfactory bulbs to the pituitary. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were only found in olfactory bulbs. However, the distribution of cGnRH-II-ir fibers was basically similar to that of sGnRH-ir fibers except for the absence of their continuity between the olfactory bulbs and the pituitary. These data suggest that sGnRH and cGnRH-II are endogenous peptides and indicate the presence of multiple neuroendocrine functions in the brain of the spotted sea bass. It seems that sGnRH not only regulates GTH secretion but also functions as a neurotransmitter, whereas cGnRH-II functions only as a neurotransmitter.

  • PDF