• Title, Summary, Keyword: Gamma analysis

Search Result 2,124, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

A Copper Shield for the Reduction of X-γ True Coincidence Summing in Gamma-ray Spectrometry

  • Byun, Jong-In
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.43 no.4
    • /
    • pp.137-142
    • /
    • 2018
  • Background: Gamma-ray detectors having a thin window of a material with low atomic number can increase the true coincidence summing effects for radionuclides emitting X-rays or gamma-rays. This effect can make efficiency calibration or spectrum analysis more complicated. In this study, a Cu shield was tested as an X-ray filter to neglect the true coincidence summing effect by X-rays and gamma-rays in gamma-ray spectrometry, in order to simplify gamma-ray energy spectrum analysis. Materials and Methods: A Cu shield was designed and applied to an n-type high-purity germanium detector having an $X-{\gamma}$ summing effect during efficiency calibration. This was tested using a commercial, certified mixed gamma-ray source. The feasibility of a Cu shield was evaluated by comparing efficiency calibration results with and without the shield. Results and Discussion: In this study, the thickness of a Cu shield needed to avoid true coincidence summing effects due to $X-{\gamma}$ was tested and determined to be 1 mm, considering the detection efficiency desired for higher energy. As a result, the accuracy of the detection efficiency calibration was improved by more than 13% by reducing $X-{\gamma}$ summing. Conclusion: The $X-{\gamma}$ summing effect should be considered, along with ${\gamma}-{\gamma}$ summing, when a detection efficiency calibration is implemented and appropriate shielding material can be useful for simplifying analysis of the gamma-ray energy spectra.

Stochastic Simulation of Monthly Streamflow by Gamma Distribution Model (Gamma 분포모델에 의한 하천유량의 Simulation에 관한 연구)

  • 이중석;이순택
    • Water for future
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.41-50
    • /
    • 1980
  • The prupose of this study are the theoretical examination of Gamma distribution function and its application to hydraulic engineering, that is studying the simulation of monthly streamflow by the Gamma distribtution function model(Gamma Model) based on Monte Carlo technique. In the analysis, monthly streamflow data in the Nak Dong River, the Han River, and the Keum River were used and the data were changed to modular coefficient in order to make the analysis convenient. At first, the fitness of monthly streamflow to 2-Parameter Gamma distribution was tested by Chi-square and Kolmogrov-Smironov test, by which it was found the monthly streamflow were fit well to this Gamma distribution function. Then, the Gamma Model based on the Gamma distribution and Monte Carlo Method was used in the simulation of monthly streamflow, and simulateddata showed that all their stastical characteristics were preserved well in the simulation. Consequently, it can be concluded that the Gamma Model is suitable for the simulation of monthly streamflow series directly by using the Mote Carlo technique.

  • PDF

Analysis of External Gamma Exposure

  • Han, Moon-Hee;Hwang, Won-Tae;Kim, Eun-Han;Suh, Kyung-Suk;Park, Young-Gil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.566-570
    • /
    • 1997
  • The effect of average gamma energy on the external radiation dose has been analyzed. Cloud- and groundshine have been calculated according to the average gamma energy. Monte Carlo integration method was used for the calculation of cloudshine and Romberg quadrature method was adopted for groundshine. The analysis shows that the external gamma exposure is strong]y dependent on the gamma energy and the distribution of radiation sources.

  • PDF

Genetic Variation Analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) Plants Induced by Acute and Chronic Gamma Irradiation (감마선 완·급조사에 따른 애기장대의 유전적 유연관계 분석)

  • Goh, Eun Jeong;Kim, Jin-Baek;Ha, Bo-Keun;Kim, Sang Hoon;Kang, Si-Yong;Kim, Dong Sub
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
    • /
    • v.5 no.4
    • /
    • pp.347-352
    • /
    • 2011
  • In order to identify the genetic relationship analysis by acute and chronic gamma irradiation, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma-rays using gamma-irradiator (3,000 Ci; Nordion, Canada) and gamma-phytotron (400 Ci; Nordion, Canada) for acute and chronic irradiation, respectively. Genetic relationship among two acute gamma-irradiated plants (A1 and A24) and three chronic gamma-irradiated plants (C1W, C2W, C3W) were analyzed using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique compared with each non-irradiated plant. A total of 28 EcoRI and MseI primer combinations were used to screen 8 treatments by the ABI3130 capillary electrophoresis system. Amplified products by 28 primer sets showed 1,679 bands with an average of 51 bands per primer combination. Out of the total bands scored, 1,164 fragments were polymorphic bands, with different alleles existing among the treatments. The cluster analysis was performed using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic) in the computer program NTSYS-pc. In clustery analysis, acute gamma-irradiation showed higher genetic variation compared with chronic gamma-irradiation.

The γ-Benzenehexachloride Degradation Using Transgenic Tobacco Plant (담배 형질전환 식물체를 이용한 γ-Benzenehexachloride의 분해)

  • Lee, Jeong-Kyung;Park, Soon-Ki;Chung, Il-Kyung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.30 no.1
    • /
    • pp.103-108
    • /
    • 2003
  • LinA gene involving in the ${\gamma}$-benzenehexachloride degradation have been cloned from Sphingmonas paucimobilis UT26. This linA gene which catalyzes the first dechlorination step of ${\gamma}$-benzenehexachloride is known to play a key role in the ${\gamma}$-benzenehexachloride degradation pathway in UT26. In this study, the linA gene was designed to clean-up the ${\gamma}$-benzenehexachloride and its derivatives contaminated in soil, water and air using transgenic tobacco plants. The linA transgene was introduced into the chromosome of tobacco using leaf-disk transformation approach as revealed by Southern blot analysis. In addition, mRNA and protein produced by linA gene was expressed at a high level in the leaf tissue as demonstrated by both northern blot analysis and Western bolt analysis with polyclonal antibody against S. paucimobilis UT26. in vitro analysis using GC-MS showed that transgenic tobacco plant produced the linA protein which effectively degraded ${\gamma}$-benzenehexachloride into ${\gamma}$- pentachlorocyclohexene and 1,2,4-trichlobenzene compounds which are less toxic.

Formation of Solidification and Eutectic Microstructures with Solidification Rates in the Single Crystal Superalloy CMSX 10 (단결정 초내열합금에서 응고속도에 따른 응고 및 공정조직의 형성 거동)

  • Lee, Je-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
    • /
    • v.18 no.11
    • /
    • pp.577-582
    • /
    • 2008
  • Directional solidification experiments were carried out at $1-300\;{\mu}m/sec$ solidification rates in the single crystal superalloy, CMSX 10. The solid/liquid interface morphology changed from planar to dendritic, and the dendrite spacing became finer as the solidification rate increased. The pool size of the ${\gamma}/{\gamma}'$ eutectic, formed between dendrites, reduced as the solidification rate increased. The phase formation temperatures, such as the solidus, liquidus and eutectic, were estimated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The morphology of the ${\gamma}/{\gamma}'$ phase, known to be eutectic, showed ${\gamma}'$ cells with a $\gamma$ intercellular network, and this ${\gamma}/{\gamma}'$ was composed of coarse and fine ${\gamma}/{\gamma}'$ regions. In this study, it is suggested that the ${\gamma}/{\gamma}'$ phase was a coupled peritectic.The solidification procedure of the ${\gamma}/{\gamma}'$ between dendrites is also discussed.

Lack of Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Genetic Polymorphisms on Breast Cancer Risk: a Case-Control Study and Pooled Analysis

  • Park, Boyoung;Shin, Aesun;Kim, Kyee-Zu;Lee, Yeon-Su;Hwang, Jung-Ah;Kim, Yeonju;Sung, Joohon;Yoo, Keun-Young;Lee, Eun-Sook
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.21
    • /
    • pp.9093-9099
    • /
    • 2014
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) gene may harbor targets for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene are associated with the susceptibility of breast cancer. We performed a candidate gene association study between $PPAR{\gamma}$ polymorphisms and breast cancer and a meta-analysis on the association of breast cancer with selected $PPAR{\gamma}$ variants. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene were analyzed among 456 breast cancer patients and 461 controls from the National Cancer Center in Korea. Association between the polymorphisms and breast cancer risk were assessed using the Cochrane-Armitage test for trend and a multivariate logistic regression model. Two SNPs, rs3856806 and rs1801282, had been previously analyzed, thus enabling us to perform pooled analyses on their associations with breast cancer susceptibility. Our findings from the candidate gene association study showed no association between the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. A meta-analysis combining existing studies and our current study also refuted an association of the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene with breast cancer. Our findings suggest that the $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene may not harbor variants that alter breast cancer susceptibility, although a moderate sample size might have precluded a decisive conclusion.

Quantitative Evaluation of Patient Positioning Error Using CBCT 3D Gamma Density Analysis in Radiotherapy

  • Lee, Soon Sung;Min, Chul Kee;Cho, Gyu Suk;Han, Soorim;Kim, Kum Bae;Jung, Haijo;Choi, Sang Hyoun
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.28 no.4
    • /
    • pp.149-155
    • /
    • 2017
  • Radiotherapy patients should maintain their treatment position as patient setup is very important for accurate treatment. In this study, we evaluated patient setup error quantitatively according to Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Gamma Density Analysis using Mobius CBCT. The adjusted setup error to the $QUASAR^{TM}$ phantom was moved artificially in the superior and lateral direction, and then we acquired the CBCT image according to the phantom setup error. To analyze the treatment setup error quantitatively, we compared values suggested in the CBCT system with the Mobius CBCT. This allowed us to evaluate the setup error using CBCT Gamma Density Analysis by comparing the planning CT with the CBCT. In addition, we acquired the 3D-gamma density passing rate according to the gamma density criteria and phantom setup error. When the movement was adjusted to only the phantom body or 3 cm diameter target inserted in the phantom, the CBCT system had a difference of approximately 1 mm, while Mobius CBCT had a difference of under 0.5 mm compared to the real setup error. When the phantom body and target moved 20 mm in the Mobius CBCT, there are 17.9 mm and 13.5 mm differences in the lateral and superior directions, respectively. The CBCT gamma density passing rate was reduced according to the increase in setup error, and the gamma density criteria of 0.1 g/cc/3 mm has 10% lower passing rate than the other density criteria. Mobius CBCT had a 2 mm setup error compared with the actual setup error. However, the difference was greater than 10 mm when the phantom body moved 20 mm with the target. Therefore, we should pay close attention when the patient's anatomy changes.

Association between Pax8-PPARγ1 Rearrangement and Follicular Thyroid Cancer: a Meta-Analysis

  • Li, Hang-Yu;Xie, Zhi-Hao;Xu, Cong-Hui;Pu, Mei-Ling;Chen, Zi-Yan;Yu, Miao;Wang, Heng-Shu;Zhou, Chen-Ming;Pu, Chao-Yu;Liu, Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.9
    • /
    • pp.4247-4250
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: Pax8 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 gene (Pax8-$PPAR{\gamma}1$) are important factors in tumors. Several studies have suggested that follicular thyroid cancer may arise from Pax8- $PPAR{\gamma}1$ rearrangement. In order to have a better understanding of the association between Pax8-$PPAR{\gamma}1$ rearrangement and follicular thyroid cancer, we conducted the presenmt meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: The information was extracted from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Statistic analysis was performed with Stata12.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. We also performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results: Nine studies including 198 follicular thyroid cancer patients and 268 controls were considered eligible. The frequency of Pax8-$PPAR{\gamma}1$ rearrangement was significantly higher in the follicular thyroid cancer group than in the control group, with a pooled OR of 6.63 (95%CI=3.50-12.7). In addition, through subgroup analysis, the OR between Pax8-$PPAR{\gamma}1$ rearrangement and follicular thyroid cancer was 6.04 (95%CI = 3.18-11.5) when using benign tumor tissues as controls. The OR for the method subgroup was 9.99 (95% CI =4.86-20.5) in the RT-PCR. Conclusions: The final results demonstrated that Pax8-$PPAR{\gamma}1$ rearrangement has significant association with follicular thyroid cancer.

Study on the analysis of disproportionate data and hypothesis testing (불균형 자료 분석과 가설 검정에 관한 연구)

  • 장석환;송규문;김장한
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.243-254
    • /
    • 1992
  • In the present study two sets of unbalanced two-way cross-classification data with and without empty cell(s) were used to evaluate empirically the various sums of squares in the analysis of variance table. Searle(1977) and Searle et.al.(1981) developed a method of computing R($\alpha$\mid$\mu, \beta$) and R($\beta$\mid$\mu, \alpha$) by the use of partitioned matrix of X'X for the model of no interaction, interchanging the columns of X in order of $\alpha, \mu, \beta$ and accordingly the elements in b. An alternative way of computing R($\alpha$\mid$\mu, \beta$), R($\beta$\mid$\mu, \alpha$) and R($\gamma$\mid$\mu, \alpha, \beta$) without interchanging the columns of X has been found by means of,$(X'X)^-$ derived, using $W_2 = Z_2Z_2-Z_2Z_1(Z_1Z_1)^-Z_1Z_2$. It is true that $R(\alpha$\mid$\mu,\beta,\gamma)\Sigma = SSA_W and R(\beta$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\gamma)\Sigma = SSB_W$ where $SSA_W$ and means analysis and $R(\gamma$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\beta) = R(\gamma$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\beta)\Sigma$ for the data without empty cell, but not for the data with empty cell(s). It is also noticed that for the datd with empty cells under W - restrictions $R(\alpha$\mid$\mu,\beta,\gamma)_W = R(\mu,\alpha,\beta,\gamma)_W - R(\mu,\alpha,\beta,\gamma)_W = R(\alpha$\mid$\mu) and R(\beta$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\gamma)_W = R(\mu,\alpha,\beta,\gamma)_W - R(\mu,\alpha,\beta,\gamma)_W = R(\beta$\mid$\mu) but R(\gamma$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\beta)_W = R(\mu,\alpha,\beta,\gamma)_W - R(\mu,\alpha,\beta,\gamma)_W \neq R(\gamma$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\beta)$. The hypotheses $H_o : K' b = 0$ commonly tested were examined in the relation with the corresponding sums of squares for $R(\alpha$\mid$\mu), R(\beta$\mid$\mu), R(\alpha$\mid$\mu,\beta), R(\beta$\mid$\mu,\alpha), R(\alpha$\mid$\mu,\beta,\gamma), R(\beta$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\gamma), and R(\gamma$\mid$\mu,\alpha,\beta)$ under the restrictions.

  • PDF