• Title, Summary, Keyword: GTH II

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Effects of Activin on Testosterone-primed Immature Rainbow Trout Gonadotropin Release in vitro (Testosterone 처리한 미성숙 무지개송어 뇌하수체의 세포배양계에서 생식소자극초르몬 분비에 대한 Activin의 효과)

  • KIM Dae-Jung;HAN Chang-Hee;AIDA Katsumi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.204-210
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    • 1999
  • The present studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of activin-A on gonadotropins (GTHs) release in testosterone-treated immature rainbow trout Oncorhpynchus mykiss. The administration of testosterone elevated pituitary level of GTH II but not of GTH I. In this study using primary cultures of dispersed pituitary cells in static incubation, dose-dependent increases in GTH II release was observed in the activin-treated group at day 3 of incubation (long-term incubation), but not at day 1 of incubation (short-term incubation). Dopamine, a potent inhibitor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated GTH II release in rainbow trout, was only partially effective in decreasing actvin-induced GTH II release. Furthermore, salmon GnRH (sGnRH)-stimulated GTH II release was not potentiated by the pretreatment with activin. However, the control mechanisms of GTH I release by activin and other hormones were not observed in the all tested experiments. The results of these studies support the contention that in contrast with the usual stimulatory effects of activin on GTH release in mammals, activin exerts long-term stimulatory actions on GTH II release in rainbow trout. The control mechanism of GTH I release, however, is a question that remains to be elucidated.

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Development of a Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay for Salmon Gonadotropin II. (연어 생식소자극호르몬 II의 Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassay법 개발)

  • KIM Dae-Jung;HAN Chang-Hee;AIDA Katsumi
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 2000
  • A specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) using Avidin-Biotin complex was developed for the measurement of GTH II levels in pituitary content and pituitary cell culture medium of the rainbow trout-(Oncorhpchus mykiss). Biotin-salmon GTH II rabbit IgG (sefondary antibody) wai purified by a protein A sepharose affinity chromatography column and that was biotinylated by using Biotin-N-hydroxysuccinimide ofter (BNHS). Non-biotin salmon GTH II rabbit IgG (first antibody) was obtained only through a protein A sepharose affinity chromatography column. The assay was performed by the so-called 'sandwich' method using a microtiter plate, A dose-response curve was obtained between $0.12 to 125 ng/ml$ of salmon GTH II. The displacement curves for pituitary extraction and pituitary cell culture medium of testosterone-treated rainbow trout were Parallel to the standard curie. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were $8.2{\%} (N=5) and 12.5{\%} (N=6)$, respectively, This assay system was used to measure the amount of GTH II that accumulated in the culture medium of dispersed pituitary cells in testosterone-treated immature rainbow trout, The accumulation was increased with the amount or salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone. GTH II values determined by the present method were well correlated with those determined by radioimmunoassay. As a result, this assay system was found to be suitable for the measurement of GTH II for pituitary extraction and pituitary culture medium in many salmonid fishes.

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Dopaminergic Regulation of Gonadotropin-II Secretion in Testosterone-treated Precocious Male and Immature Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Aida, Katsumi
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2000
  • The present work examined the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopaminergic drugs on the secretion of maturational gonadotropin (GTH II) in relation to testosterone m treatment. This study provides evidence that the plasma GTH II levels are increased by T treatment in precocious males, but not in the immature animal. In addition, GnRH analogue (GnRHa) alone significantly increased the plasma GTH II secretion in immature rainbow trout treated with T, as well as in T-treated and T-untreated precocious males. However, injection with either dopamine (DA) or domperidone (DOM; DA D2 receptor antagonist) alone did not alter the basal plasma GTH 11 secretion in all experimental groups. The secretion of GTH II in the T-treated precocious males was remarkably influenced by GnRHa or combination of dopaminergic drugs. Notably, the effects of dopaminergic drugs on GnRHa-induced GTH II secretion w8s prolonged by T in precocious males. In T-treated immature animals, GnRHa-induced GTH II secretion was Increased only by a dose DOM (10$\mu$g/g body n) but not by higher dose DOM (100$\mu$/g body wt). In the T-untreated immature rainbow trout, however, plasma GTH 11 secretion was not influenced by the same treatments. Therefore, these results indicate that DA may be acting indirectly by blocking the effect of GnRH on GTH II secretion in vivo. T may act to modulate the relative contribution by the stimulatory (GnRH) and inhibitory (DA) neuroendocrine factors, which would ultimately determine the pattern of GTH II secretion.

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Isolation of cDNAs for Gonadotropin-II of Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and Its Expressions in Adult Tissues

  • Lee, Jae-Hyung;Nam, Soo-Wan;Kim, Young-Tae
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.710-716
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    • 2003
  • Gonadotropin (GTH) is a pituitary glycoprotein hormone that regulates gonadal development in vertebrates. In teleosts, two types of gonadotropins, GTH-I and GTH-II, are produced in the pituitary, and they comprised of common ${\alpha}$ and distinct ${\beta}$ subunits. In the present study, the cDNAs encoding GTH ${\alpha}\;and\;GTH-II{\beta}$ subunits were cloned and sequenced from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) pituitary cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the a subunit was 619 bp long, encoding 124 amino acids, and that of the $GTH-II{\beta}$ subunit was 538 bp long, encoding 145 amino acids. GTH subunits had well conserved cysteines, when aligned with other members of the glycoprotein family. The ${\beta}$ subunit of gonadotropin II ($GTH-II{\beta}$) had a different N-linked glycosylation site. RT-PCR analysis showed an increase of GTH II mRNA levels in association with gonadal development, and also showed that the mRNA expression of the ${\alpha}$ subunit was detected only in tissues from pituitary glands.

Actions of a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist on Gonadotropin II and Androgenic Steroid Hormone Secretion in Precocious Male Rainbow Trout

  • Kim Dae-Jung;Han Chang-Hee;Aida Katsumi
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2000
  • We used a mammalian GnRH antagonist, $[Ac-3,4-dehydro-Pro^1,\;D-p-F-Phe^2,\;D-Trp^{3.6}]$-GnRH, to examine the details of the salmon type gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and GnRH agonist analog $(Des-Gly^{10}$[d-Ala^6]-ethylamide GnRH; GnRHa) functions in the control of maturational gonadotropin (GTH II) secretion, in precocious male rainbow trout, in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. In the in vivo study, plasma GTH II levels increased by sGnRH or GnRHa treatment, but the response was more rapid and stronger in the GnRHa treatment group. The increase in GTH II was significantly suppressed by the GnRH antagonist, while the antagonist had no effect on basal GTH II levels in both groups. The GnRH antagonist showed stronger suppression of GTH II levels in the sGnRH treatment fish than in the GnRHa treatment fish. In addition, plasma androgenic steroid hormones (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) increased by the sGnRH or GnRHa treatment. The GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited the increases in plasma androgenic steroid hormone levels stimulated by the sGnRH or GnRHa, while the antagonist had no effect on basal androgenic steroid hormone levels in both groups. In the in vitro study, treatment with sGnRH or GnRHa increased GTH II release from the cultured dispersed pituitary cells, but the response was stronger in the GnRHa treatment group. The increase in GTH II release by GnRH was suppressed by adding the GnRH antagonist, dose­dependently. On the other hand, basal release of GTH II did not decrease by the GnRH antagonist treatment in both groups. These results suggest that the GnRH antagonist, $[Ac-3,4-dehydro-Pro^1,\;D-p-F-Phe^2,\;D-Trp^{3.6}]-GnRH$, used in this study is effective in blocking the action of GnRH-induced GTH II release from the pituitary gland both in vivo and in vitro.

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Effect of Testosterone on the mRNA Levels of Gonadotropin Subunits in the Immature Rainbow Trout Pituitary

  • Kim Dae-Jung;Aida Katsumi
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 2000
  • In order to clarify the role of gonadal sex steroids in the synthesis of gonadotropin (GTH) subunits in immature rainbow trout, we examined in vitro and in vivo effects of testosterone (T) on the pituitary mRNA levels of GTH I $\beta$, GTH II$\beta$ and a subunits by Northern blot analysis and on the pituitary content levels of GTH I$\beta$ and GTH II$\beta$by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The mRNA levels of the a subunit in T-treated fish were not changed more dramatically than those in control fish both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, the mRNA levels of GTH I$\beta$ in T-treated fish were shown to be slightly lower than those in the control fish under these experimental conditions, but no differences were observed in pituitary GTH I$\beta$ contents. In contrast, the mRNA levels and pituitary contents of GTH II$\beta$ subunit were strongly increased by T both in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrate that the expressions of GTH I$\beta$ and II$\beta$ subunit genes in immatue rainbow trout pituitary are subjected to differential regulation by T.

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Variations of Gonadotropin Subunits mRNA Levels at Different Stages of Ovarian Development in Masu Salmon, Oncorhynchus masou

  • Kim Dae-Jung;Han Chang-Hee;Aida Katsumi
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 1999
  • The variations of gene expression and pituitary contents of GTH subunits during the ovarian development of masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, were investigated. The pituitary GTHs contents was measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs) using purified GTH subunits and their antibodies. Pituitary contents of GTH $I\beta$ gradually increased from April through August, and reached the maximum in October. On the other hand, pituitary contents of GTH $II\beta$ remained low until August, but they rapidly increased in October. Total RNAs were prepared from pooled pituitaries and the GTH subunits mRNA in pituitaries was quantified by Northern blot hybridization using masu salmon cDNA probes for each GTH subunit. GTH $I\beta$ mRNA level increased with the progression of ovarian maturity. However, GTH $II\beta$ mRNA was detected only at a more advanced stage, and were extremly high at ovulation. A high levels for GTH a mRNA was detected only at ovulation stage. The synchronous increase in pituitary contents and mRNA levels suggested that ovarian maturity in masu salmon was regulated by both GTH I and GTH II.

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Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone on in vitro Gonadotropin Release in Testosterone-Treated Immature Rainbow Trout

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Kim, Yi-Cheong;Aida, Katsumi
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.429-437
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    • 2009
  • The control mechanism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on gonadotropin (GTH) release was studied using cultured pituitary cell or cultured whole pituitary obtained from Testosterone (T) treated and control immature rainbow trout. The release of FSH was not changed by salmon type GnRH (sGnRH), chiken-II type (cGnRH-II), GnRH analogue ([des-$Gly^{10}D-Ala^6$] GnRH ethylamide) and GnRH antagonist ([Ac-3, 4-dehydro-$Pro^1$, D-p-F-$Phe^2$, D-$Trp^{3,6}$] GnRH) in cultured pituitary cells of T-treated and control fish. Indeed, FSH release was not also altered by sGnRH in cultured whole pituitary. All tested drugs had no effect on the release of LH in both culture systems of control fish. The levels of LH, in contrast, such as the pituitary content, basal release and responsiveness to GnRH were increased by T administration in both culture systems. In addition, the release of LH in response to sGnRH or cGnRH-II induced in a dose-dependent manner from cultured pituitary cells of T-treated fish, but which is not significantly different between in both GnRH at the concentration examined. Indeed, LH release was also increased by sGnRH in cultured whole pituitary of T-treated fish. GnRH antagonist suppressed the release of LH by sGnRH ($10^{-8}\;M$) and GnRH analogue ($10^{-8}\;M$) stimulation in a dose-dependent manner from cultured pituitary cells of T-treated fish, and which were totally inhibited by $10^{-7}\;M$ GnRH antagonist. These results indicate that the sensitivity of pituitary cells to GnRH is elevated probably through the T treatment, and that GnRH is involved in the regulation of LH release. GnRH-stimulated LH release is inhibited by GnRH antagonist in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of gonadal steroids on FSH levels are less clear.

The Control Mechanism of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Dopamine on Gonadotropin Release from Cultured Pituitary Cells of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at Different Reproductive Stages

  • Kim, Dae-Jung;Suzuki, Yuzuru;Aida, Katsumi
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.379-388
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    • 2011
  • The mechanism by which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopamine (DA) control gonadotropin (GTH) release was studied in male and female rainbow trout using cultured pituitary cells obtained at different reproductive stages. The mechanisms of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release by GnRH and DA could not be determined yet. However, basal and salmon-type GnRH (sGnRH)- or chicken-II-type GnRH (cGnRH-II)- induced luteinizing hormone (LH) release increased with gonadal maturation in both sexes. LH release activity was higher after sGnRH stimulation than cGnRH-II stimulation at maturing stages in both sexes. The GnRH antagonist ([Ac-3, 4-dehydro-$Pro^1$, D-p-F-$Phe^2$, D-$Trp^{3,6}$] GnRH) suppressed LH release by sGnRH stimulation in a dose-dependent manner, although the effect was weak in maturing fish. The role of DA as a GTH-release inhibitory factor differs during the reproductive cycle: the inhibition of sGnRH-stimulated LH release by DA was stronger in immature fish than in maturing, ovulating, or spermiated fish. DA did not completely inhibit sGnRH-stimulated LH release, and DA alone did not alter basal LH release. Relatively high doses ($10^{-6}$ or $10^{-5}M$) of domperidone (DOM, a DA D2 antagonist) increased LH release, which did not change with reproductive stage in either sex. The potency of DOM to enhance sGnRH-stimulated LH release was higher in maturing and ovulated fish than in immature fish. These data suggest that LH release from the pituitary gland is controlled by dual neuroendocrine mechanisms by GnRH and DA in rainbow trout, as has been reported in other teleosts. The mechanism of control of FSH release, however, remains unknown.

Immunohistochemical Identification of the Two Forms of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormones (sGnRH, cGnRH-II) in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax sp.) Brain (면역조직화학법을 이용한 점농어 (Lateolabrax sp.) 뇌에서 두 종류 (sGnRH, cGnRH-II) 의 생식소자극호르몬 분비호르몬의 동정)

  • KIM Jung-Woo;LEE Won-Kyo;YANG Seok-Woo;JEONG Kwan-Sik;CHO Yong-Chul;RHO Yong-Gil;BANG In-Chul;KIM Kwang-Soo;KIM Sang-Koo;YOO Myung-Sik;KWON Hyuk-Bang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.266-270
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    • 1999
  • Two forms of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) are identified in the brain of adult mature spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax sp.) by immunohistochemical methods. Salmon GnRH immunoreactive (sGnRH-ir) cell bodies were distributed in the olfactory bulb, ventral telencephalon and preoptic region. Immunoreactive fibers were observed in the vicinity of the brain including the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the optic nerve, the optic tectum, the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata and rostral spinal cord. In most cases, these fibers did not form well defined bundles. However, there was a clear continuum of immunoreactive fibers, extending from the olfactory bulbs to the pituitary. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were only found in olfactory bulbs. However, the distribution of cGnRH-II-ir fibers was basically similar to that of sGnRH-ir fibers except for the absence of their continuity between the olfactory bulbs and the pituitary. These data suggest that sGnRH and cGnRH-II are endogenous peptides and indicate the presence of multiple neuroendocrine functions in the brain of the spotted sea bass. It seems that sGnRH not only regulates GTH secretion but also functions as a neurotransmitter, whereas cGnRH-II functions only as a neurotransmitter.

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