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Studies on the grassland Development in the Forest IV. Possibility of the grassland improvement by spring sowing and microenvironmental conditions in the forest (임간초지 개발에 관한 연구 IV. 임간지에서 춘파초지개량 가능성과 주요 미기상 조사)

  • Park, M.S.;Han, Y.C.;Seo, S.;Lee, B.S.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 1986
  • In order to study the possibility of grassland improvement by spring sowing in the forest, microenvironmental conditions, emergence, percentage of grasses and weeds, root weight and dry matter yield of grasses were investigated. Two field sites (forest grassland and full-sunlight grassland) and two sowing times (March 20 and April 10) were assigned. The condition of the forest grassland was area of pine trees with 50% shading, and the experiment was performed at the Livestock Experiment Station in Suweon, 1984. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. For germination and early growth of grasses, full-sunlight grassland was more advantageous than forest grassland. Growth after that stage, on the other hand, forest grassland was more suitable. Especially, during dry and high temperature season, temperature of soil surface and underground in the forest grassland were decreased by $6-7^{\circ}C$ and $3-4^{\circ}C$ each other, compared with those of the full-sunlight grassland. Also soil moisture content was continuously higher in the forest grassland. 2. At March 20 sowing the emergence time in the full-sunlight grassland was shortened by 8 days, compared with that of the forest grassland. In case of sowing on April 10, however, there was no difference between two grassland sites. 3. Grasses grown in the forest was more prostrate and leaves from them decayed more, compared with those of the full-sunlight grassland. 4. The percentage of grasses in the forest grassland was 80 to 85 %, on the other hand, that of the full-sunlight grassland was only 15 to 20 %. And the percentage of grasses tended to be high in the plot of early sowing time. 5. Dry root weight and root length of grasses grown in the forest were inferior to those of the full-sunlight grassland (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between two sowing times. 6. Dry matter yield of grasses was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the forest grassland than in the full-sunlight grassland, and yield was influenced by sowing time. Higher yield (4,011 kg/ha) was produced in the plot of the forest grassland with early spring sowing. 7. From above results, it is suggested that grassland improvement by spring sowing in the forest is possible, and it is desirable to sow in early spring.

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Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest XII. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on nitrate nitrogen concentration and water soluble carbohydrate content of grasses by growing season and growth stage under shading condition (임간초지 개발에 관한 연구 XII. 차광조건하에서 질소시비수준이 계절별 , 생육시기별 목초의 질산태질소함량과 수용성탄수화물함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 1992
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of nitrogen(N) fertilization levels(0. 120, 240 and 360 kg/ha/y) on seasonal nitrate nitrogen($NO_3$-N) concentration and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content of grasses grown under shading condition. The plants were sampled on 7. 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after harvesting in spring(May), summer(July) and autumn(September), 1988. respectively. Shading degree was controlled artificially ca. 45-50%, and each annual level of N was distributed 5 times equally. The $NO_3$-N concentration of grasses was very low(0.064 %) in spring, high in summer(O.l98 %) and autumn(0.234%), and NO,-N was slightly decreased with growing of grasses. Also the NO,-N concentration of grasses was increased significantly with increasing level of N. In spring, the $NO_3$-N of grasses was very safety(less than 0.1 %), regardless of plant height and N level. In summer and autumn, however, plant heights of below 40 cm(summer) and 44 cm(autumn), and N levels of over 210 kg(summer) and 140 kg(autumn) were over toxic level to animals, respectively. The WSC content of grasses was slightly decreased with grass growth. and significantly decreased with high level of N. From the above results, it is suggested that 200 kg/ha of N in this experiment is effective for forage quality. Also a little more amount of N(50-70kgltimes) in spring. and low level of N(20-30 kgltimes) in summer and autumn season may be desirable on woodland posture.

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Studies on the Improvement of Moutainous Pasture II. Effect of existing vegetation on establishment and herbage production of oversown grasses in forest (산지초지 개량에 관한 연구 II. 임지의 선점식생이 겉뿌린 목초의 정착 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이인덕;윤익석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 1983
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of existing vegetation on seedling establishment and herbage production of oversown grasses in the Pinus rigida forest. The dominant existing vegetations were Miscanthus sinensis, Festuca ovina, and Lycopodium serratum. In establishment year, seedling stands and herbage production were not affected in Miscanthus sinensis and Festuca ovina, while in Lycopodium serratum it was affected relatively seriously. The pattern of sown species response to the existing vegetations was trend to toward simplified two or three species as Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens to advancing the time. Among sown species, Dactylis glomerata was a major dominant species in all existing vegetation area. The content of sown pasture grasses in the sward increased markedly, while the existing vegetations before seeding seriously decreased to advancing the cutting time. The above results shown that the improvement of forest pasture with a surface seeding was better in Miscanthus sinensis and Festuca ovina, but in Lycopodium serratum was found very difficult to improvement of pasture without surface treatment, also establishment method must favor the low herbage production potential.

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Studies on the Cultuer of Cool-Season Grasses in Forest (목초의 임간재배에 관한 연구)

  • 이종열
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.33-36
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    • 1985
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of crown density of trees on the growth and yield of cool-season grasses in forest. The species used in this study was orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and 4 levels of tree crown density(O=full sunlight, 25, 50 and 75%) were treated. The experiment was performed at the experimental filed of the Livestock Experiment Station in Suweon, during 1979 to 1950. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Maximum leaf area was obtained at 25% crown density of trees, followed by 0, 50 and 75%, regardless of cutting times. 2. Plant height tended to increase as the crown density of trees increased. However, there was no difference between 0% and 25% crown density of trees. 3. There was a negative correlation between plant height and leaf area of orchardgrass grown under pine trees. 4. The more dry matter yield of orchardgrass was obtained at 25% crown density of trees (p<0.05), follwed by 0, 50 and 75%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between 0% and 50% crown density of trees. Therefore it is suggested that the critical level of crown density of trees is 50% to culture of cool-season grasses in forest.

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EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EIGHT CROP RESIDUES AND TWO FOREST GRASSES IN GOATS AND SHEEP

  • Reddy, M.R.;Reddy, G.V.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 1992
  • Eight crop residues : 1, sorghum (Sorqhum bicolor) straw, 2, maize (Zea mays) straw, 3, cotton (Gossypium Sp.) straw, 4, sunflower (Helianthus Sp.) straw, 5, cotton (Gossypium Sp.) seed hulls, 6, groundnut (Archais hypogaea) hulls, 7, maize (Zea mays) cobs, 8, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) bagasse and two forest grasses 9, Heteropogan contortus dry grass and 10, Sehima nervosum dry grass were subjected to three physical processing 1, chopping (2-3 cm) 2, grinding (8 mm sieve) and 3, pelleting (10 mm die holes). The processed material was fed ad lib. Along with 250 g of concentrate mixture per head per day to 6 adult local goats and 16 adult Nellore rams in ten digestion experiments and finally assessed the nutritive value of the processed roughages by difference method. Grinding increased bulk density by 32.4 (cotton seed hulls, CSH) to 88.1% (Sehima dry grass) while pelleting of ground material increased bulk density by 53.9 (maize cobs) to 235.8% (maize straw). The average particle size ranged from $584.1/^U$ (sorghum straw) to $1467/^U$ (CSH). Modulus of uniformity ranged from 2:5:3 (sorghum straw) to 7:2:1 (CSH) while modulus of fineness ranged from 3.4 (sorghum straw) to 5.4 (CSH). Molasses absorbability was highest with cotton seed hulls and least with maize cobs. Pelleting increased DM intake of the residues except cotton seed hulls compared to grinding. Grinding of chopped material/unprocessed material increased DM intake on sorghum straw and cotton seed hulls. Sheep consumed more DM compared to goats on all the residues except sorghum and sunflower straws. Pelleting increased nutritive value of all the residues compared to grinding and chopping. However, no difference was observed in the nutritive value due to grinding and chopping. Goats performed better compared to sheep in utilizing the fibrous residues.

A Study on the Mixed-Seeding Rates of Exotic Grasses for Slope Revegetation Measures (사면(斜面) 녹화용(綠化用) 외래초종(外來草種)의 혼파조합(混播組合)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Jeon, Gi-Seong;Woo, Bo-Myeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to find out the growth characteristic of mixed-seeding in the grasses for slope revegetation measures. Seeding treatment with six combination types of five grasses used for this experiment such as orchardgrass(Dactylis glomerata 'Potomac'), perennial ryegrass(Lolium perenne 'Manhattan'), tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea 'Jaguar'), kentucky bluegrass(Poa pratensis 'Majestic') and weeping lovegrass(Eragrostis curvula). The growth of orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue were good on mixed-seeding condition in case of number of individuals, heights and coverages at this experiment. These plants will useful for revegetation measures mixed-seeding, but weeping love grass and kentucky bluegrass did not show a desirable growth in mixed-seeding condition, and these plant prefered mixed seeding to single seeding. Regeneration percents of orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue were higher than that of weeping love grass and kentucky bluegrass, and coverage kept on good condition through one year after seeding, therefore, these plants will effective for initial stage revegetation measures.

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Geographic Information System Based Floral and Faunal Assessment of Alapang Communal Forest of Benguet, Philippines

  • Lumbres, Roscinto Ian C.;Palaganas, Jennifer A.;Micosa, Sheryll C.;Besic, Elvira D.;Laruan, Kenneth A.;Yun, Chung-Weon;Lee, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.99 no.5
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    • pp.770-776
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to assess the existing flora and fauna, and to develop a spatial map of Alapang communal forest located in the province of Benguet, Philippines. A total of 52 species belonging to 27 families were identified during the inventory in this communal forest using the quadrat method while a total of 30 species belonging to 18 families were recorded using line intercept technique for the assessment of grasses, herbs, vines and other low-lying vegetation. The diversity index of the species in Alapang communal forests using the quadrat method was 2.6649 while for the line intercept technique it was 2.5446. The most dominant species in this area was found to be Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon (Benguet pine) under Family Pinaceae with an importance value of 106.74%. In the faunal assessment, four species of birds and a small mammal particularly a rodent were identified during the study. Aside from the high species diversity of this communal forest, the presence of endemic and indicator species in the area denotes that this forest was still in good condition hence must be protected. Spatial maps and database system were generated based from data gathered in the field using Geographic Information System (GIS).

Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest XIII. Effect of potassium fertilization on grass production, nutritive value and nitrate nitrogen concentration by growing senson and growth stage under shading condition (임간초지 개발에 관한 연구 X III. 차광조건하에서 칼리시비수준이 계절별 , 생육시기별 목초의 건물생산과 사료가치 및 질산태질소 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Sung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.93-98
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    • 1993
  • To determine the effects of potassium($K_2O$) fertilization level(0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha/year) on the growth, dry matter(DM) yield, nutritive value and nitrate nitrogen($NO_3$-N) concentration of grasses grown under shading condition, this experiment was carried out in Grassland Div., LES, 1989. The plants were sampled on different growing seasons (spring, summer and autumn) and growth stages (grazing and soiling), respectively. Shade was controlled artificially ca. 45-50%, and the level of nitrogen fertilization was 200 kg/ha/year in all treatments. Higher DM was produced in spring 1, 453 kg at grazing and 2, 364 kg/ha at soiling stage, and DM production was increased with increasing level of $K_2O$. In this experiment, the optimum amount of $K_2O$ fertilizer was 200 kg/ha. The neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, DM digestibility, and relative feed value of grasses were not affected by $K_2O$ fertilization, regardless of growing season and growth stage. The $NO_3$-N concentration of grasses grown in spring was very low (ca. 1.0%), regardless of growth stage and $K_2O$ level. However, $NO_3$-N concentration was very high in summer and autumn season, also $NO_3$-N was decreased significantly with increasing level of $K_2O$ fertilization (P<0.05). Application of $K_2O$ fertilizer, therefore, is thoughs to be desirable for reducing $NO_3$-N concentration of grasses, especially in summer and autumn season. So annual split fertilization of $K_2O$ could be recommended on woodland pasture.

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( Studies on the Grassland Development in the Forest II. Effect of fertilizer ievel on qrowth and dry matter yield of grass-clover mixtures grown under pine trees (임간초지 개발에 관한 연구 II. 임간혼파초지에서 3요소 시비수준이 목초의 생육과 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Y.C.;Park, M.S.;Seo, S.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 1985
  • For better grassland development in the forest, this field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of thirteen different fertilizer levels of nitrogen(N), phosphorus ($P_2O_5$) and potassium ($K_2O$) on the botanical composition, growth and dry matter yield of grass-clover mixtures grown under trees with 40-50% of shading level. This experiment was arranged as a randomized block design with replications, and performed on the experimental field in the suburban forest of Suweon in 1984. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Plant height and cover degree of grasses found to be high with 28 and 42kg N fertilizer per 10a, while those were the lowest with zero and N-zero fertilizer levels. The degree of bare land after the fourth cut was also high in the low N level. 2. A significant higher degree of leaf green and chlorophyll content of leaf blade was observed in the plot of 28 and 42 kg N per 10a when compared with low N fertilizer plot. However, leaf decay and plant type of grasses tended to be a little poor as the high N was applied. 3. the regrowth plant length and dry weight of grasses after the first cut increased significantly with 28 and 42 kg N fertilizer. However, those showed slightly increased regrowth in the plot of zero and N-zero fertilizer levels. 4. The dry matter yield of grasses was higher with 28 and 42 kg N than that of low N fertilizer level. Higher yields were obtained in the plot of standard ($N-P_2O_5-K_2O$=28-20-24 kg/10a), 50% increase of $N,P_2O_5K_2O$ and N-50% increase, although there were no significant differences among three fertilizer levels. 5. Growth, botanical composition, regrowth and yield of grasses grown under pine trees were significantly influenced by N fertilizer level, regardless of $P_2O_5\;and\;K_2O$. The fertilizer level of $N-P_2O_5-K_2O$ was 28-20-24 kg per 10a for more forage production in the forest. Considering economic yield in this study, however, the optimum fertilizer level of N, $P_2O_5\;and\;K_2O$ was suppose to be 21-28, 10-15, and 12-18kg per 10a, respectively.

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Development of Revegetation Method Using Forest Topsoils for Ecological Restoration of the Slopes(I) (산림표층토를 활용한 비탈면 생태복원녹화에 관한 연구(I))

  • Nam, Sang-Jun;Yeo, Hwan-Joo;Choi, Jae Yong;Kim, Namchoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.110-119
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    • 2004
  • This research was conducted to develop spraying cultivation method using forest topsoils in order to restore the disturbed slopes. In November the researcher collected a depth of 5 cm of topsoils from a well developed forest, after the fallen leaves were cleared. The essential results of the research are as follows: In the case of using the forest topsoils, during the early stages of planting, time is necessary for the desired vegetation to reach a similar state to the vegetation being restored. The best possible effect is obtained through a method utilizing forest topsoil(30%)+loam silt soil(70%)+seeding with grasses and native plants including trees, shrubs, and herbs. Several plants such as Pinus densiftora, Potentilla fragarioides, Miscanthus sinensis, Erigeron canadensis seemed to be naturally emerged from the topsoils From this experiment, it was recommended that environment potential within topsoil should be comprehended. Also, topsoil deposit and gathering methods should be experimented properly.