### A COMPARISON STUDY OF EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE EQUITY-LINKED SECURITIES

• YOO, MINHYUN;JEONG, DARAE;SEO, SEUNGSUK;KIM, JUNSEOK
• Honam Mathematical Journal
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• v.37 no.4
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• pp.441-455
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• 2015
• In this paper, we perform a comparison study of explicit and implicit numerical methods for the equity-linked securities (ELS). The option prices of the two-asset ELS are typically computed using an implicit finite diffrence method because an explicit finite diffrence scheme has a restriction for time steps. Nowadays, the three-asset ELS is getting popularity in the real world financial market. In practical applications of the finite diffrence methods in computational finance, we typically use relatively large space steps and small time steps. Therefore, we can use an accurate and effient explicit finite diffrence method because the implementation is simple and the computation is fast. The computational results demonstrate that if we use a large space step, then the explicit scheme is better than the implicit one. On the other hand, if the space step size is small, then the implicit scheme is more effient than the explicit one.

### MOBILE PLATFORM FOR PRICING OF EQUITY-LINKED SECURITIES

• JIAN, WANG;BAN, JUNGYUP;HAN, JUNHEE;LEE, SEONGJIN;JEONG, DARAE
• Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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• v.21 no.3
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• pp.181-202
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• 2017
• In this paper, we develop a mobile platform for pricing equity linked securities(ELS) using Monte Carlo simulation. Mobile phone or smartphone is an important part of most people's lives and has become an everyday item at the present day. Moreover, importance of technologies for anytime and anywhere is increasing daily. Thus, we construct a mobile computing environment for pricing ELS instead of desktops or laptop computers. We provide a detailed Java programming code and a process manual to easily follow up all processes of this paper.

### FAST ANDROID IMPLIMENTATION OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION FOR PRICING EQUITY-LINKED SECURITIES

• JANG, HANBYEOL;KIM, HYUNDONG;JO, SUBEOM;KIM, HANRIM;LEE, SERI;LEE, JUWON;KIM, JUNSEOK
• Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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• v.24 no.1
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• pp.79-84
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• 2020
• In this article, we implement a recently developed fast Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for pricing equity-linked securities (ELS), which is most commonly issued autocallable structured financial derivative in South Korea, on the mobile platform. The fast MCS is based on Brownian bridge technique. Although mobile platform devices are easy to carry around, mobile platform devices are slow in computation compared to desktop computers. Therefore, it is essential to use a fast algorithm for pricing ELS on the mobile platform. The computational results demonstrate the practicability of Android application implementation for pricing ELS.

### A Case Study on the Risk of Stepdown ELS (스텝다운형 주가연계증권의 위험률 고찰)

• Kim, Hee-Sun;Yeo, In-Kwon
• The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
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• v.24 no.6
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• pp.1021-1031
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• 2011
• Equity linked securities are indirect investments where the return of investment depends on the performance of the underlying equities. In this paper, we review the profit structure of typical equity linked securities through a profit diagram and investigate which characteristics of time series at the investment affect the early repayment of the stepdown ELS based on KOSPI 200 and HSI. We also compare VaRs using the empirical distribution function for risk management.

### ANDROID APPLICATION FOR PRICING TWO-AND THREE-ASSET EQUITY-LINKED SECURITIES

• JANG, HANBYEOL;HAN, HYUNSOO;PARK, HAYEON;LEE, WONJIN;LYU, JISANG;PARK, JINTAE;KIM, HYUNDONG;LEE, CHAEYOUNG;KIM, SANGKWON;CHOI, YONGHO;KIM, JUNSEOK
• Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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• v.23 no.3
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• pp.237-251
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• 2019
• We extend the previous work [J. Korean Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 21(3) 181] to two-and three-asset equity-linked securities (ELS). In the real finance market, two-or three-asset ELS is more popular than one-asset ELS. Therefore, we need to develop mobile platform for pricing the two-and three-asset ELS. The mobile implementation of the ELS pricing will be very useful in practice.

### A risk analysis of step-down equity-linked securities based on regime-switching copula

• Nguyen, Manh Duc;Ko, Bangwon;Kwon, Hyuk-Sung
• Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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• v.27 no.1
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• pp.79-95
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• 2020
• The globalization of financial markets has broadened investment opportunities. International investors' investment portfolios consist of financial instruments from various countries; consequently, the risks associated with economic dependence among countries should be carefully considered. Step-down equity-linked securities (ELS) are a structured financial product that have recently become popular among Korean investors. Payoffs are based on two or three stock indices from different regions; therefore, dependence between the indices should be reflected in the risk analysis. In this study, we consider a regime-switching copula model to describe the joint behavior of two stock indices- the Eurostoxx50 and the Hang Seng China Enterprises Index (HSCEI). These indices are commonly used as underlying assets of step-down ELS. Using historical data, we analyze the risk associated with step-down ELS through the probabilities of early redemption. A regime-switching copula model can accommodate complicated dependence. Thus, it should be considered in the risk analysis of step-down ELS.

### Pricing an Equity-Linked Security with Non-Guaranteed Principal

• Cho, Jae-Koang;Lee, Hang-Suck
• Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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• v.14 no.2
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• pp.413-429
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• 2007
• Equity-linked securities (ELS) provide their customers with the return linked to the underlying equity (or equities). Equity-linked products in Korea have recently gained popularity due to relatively low interest rates. This paper discusses an equity-linked security whose principal is not guaranteed. The payoff of the ELS depends on the returns of two underlying assets. This paper presents numerical prices of the proposed product by using Monte-Carlo simulation method. It assumes that the log-returns of two stocks follow either Brownian motion or variance gamma process. Finally, the comparison of the two approaches is discussed.

### A Study of Investment effectiveness about Equity Linked Securities(ELS) ; focused on Step-down type ELS (주가연계증권(ELS)의 투자효과에 관한 연구 : 스텝다운형 ELS를 중심으로)

• Jung, Heeseog;Kim, Sunje
• Journal of Service Research and Studies
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• v.8 no.1
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• pp.103-122
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• 2018
• The purpose of this study is to present the direction of ELS investment by analyzing the actual investment return of the ELS commodities and analyzing the investment effect of ELS that investors have felt unsatisfactory at financial marketing service. The research method is based on the step-down type ELS. We calculated the probability of achieving early redemption condition and maturity repayment condition, early redemption estimated yield, and maturity repayment estimated yield. As the study result, the probability of achieving 100% of the early redemption condition was 74.5%, and the probability of the early redemption condition 95% was 83.0%, 90% was 89.5%, 85% was 92.5%, and 80% was 96.5% respectively. In the case of the lowest 75%, the probability of holding to maturity is analyzed to be 2.5%, and the probability of early redemption is high. The probability of the stock price growth within 65% of the maturity repayment condition was 98.5% and the probability of the stock price growth within 60%~45% of the maturity repayment condition was 100%. 65% of maturity repayment condition was analyzed as 1.5% risk of principal loss, and the probability of achieving the committed yield of maturity was high. As a key measure of ELS investment, it is advantageous to select a commodity with a low rate of maturity repayment and a high rate of early redemption.