• Title, Summary, Keyword: Electrochemical capacitors

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Electrochemical Capacitors (전기화학 커패시터)

  • Kim, Jong-Huy
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2007
  • In general, the battery and the(electric) condenser are pictured as electrical energy storage devices. Although there were lots of inventions and utilizations of morden conveniences according to enormous growth of the science and technologies after the Industrial Revolution, a speed of technology development on these devices being closely used in civilized human lives and many electric or electronic systems as a core component are relatively slower to the other fields of technologies. Nevertheless, based on a remarkable progress of the material science and technologies for the last ten years, a new type of electrical energy storage device so called as 'electrochemical capacitors' are being developed and used practically. The electrochemical capacitors exhibit their own characteristics of much enhanced capacitance over the conventional condensers and also distinctively exhibit a longer lift time and higher power capability that the nickel hydrogen batteries and secondary batteries such as lithium ion and polymer batteries does not show up so for. Hence, in this paper, it is intended to introduce a fundamental understanding and updated technology trends on the electrochemical capacitors.

Hybrid Capacitors Using Organic Electrolytes

  • Morimoto, T.;Che, Y.;Tsushima, M.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.174-177
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    • 2003
  • Electric double-layer capacitors based on charge storage at the interface between a high surface area activated carbon electrode and an electrolyte solution are characterized by their long cycle-life and high power density in comparison with batteries. However, energy density of electric double-layer capacitors obtained at present is about 6 Wh/kg at a power density of 500W/kg which is smaller as compared with that of batteries and limits the wide spread use of the capacitors. Therefore, a new capacitor that shows larger energy density than that of electric double-layer capacitors is proposed. The new capacitor is the hybrid capacitor consisting of activated carbon cathode, carbonaceous anode and an organic electrolyte. Maximum voltage applicable to the cell is over 4.2V that is larger than that of the electric double-layer capacitor. As a result, discharged energy density on the basis of stacked volume of electrode, current collector and separator is more than 18Wh/l at a power density of 500W/l.

Activated Carbons as Electrode Materials in Electric Double-Layer Capacitors I. Electrochemical Properties of Activated Carbons in Relation to their Porous Structures and Surface Oxygen Functional Groups

  • Kim, Chang-Hee;Pyun, Su-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.819-826
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    • 2003
  • This article is concerned with the overview of activated carbons as electrode materials in electric double-layer capacitors. Firstly, this article introduced various types of activated carbons with their precursors and manufacturing conditions which can be divided into two main steps of the carbonization and activation processes. Secondly, the present article gave the detailed discussion about the porous structures and examined previous works on the electrochemical behaviors of activated carbons in relation to their porous structures, along with our recent works. Finally, this article characterized the surface oxygen functional groups and presented their influence on the electrochemical properties of activated carbons by reviewing our recent results.

Investigation of a Pseudo Capacitor with Polyacrylonitrile based Gel Polymer Electrolyte

  • Harankahawa, Neminda;Weerasinghe, Sandaranghe;Vidanapathirana, Kamal;Perera, Kumudu
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2017
  • Pseudo capacitors belong to one group of super capacitors which are consisted with non carbon based electrodes. As such, conducting polymers and metal oxide materials have been employed for pseudo capacitors. Conducting polymer based pseudo capacitors have received a great attention due to their interesting features such as flexibility, low cost and ease of synthesis. Much work has been done using liquid electrolytes for those pseudo capacitors but has undergone various drawbacks. It has now been realized the use of solid polymer electrolytes as an alternative. Among them gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) are in a key place due to their high ambient temperature conductivities as well as suitable mechanical properties. In this study, composition of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based GPE was optimized and it was employed as the electrolyte in a pseudo capacitor having polypyrrole (PPy) electrodes. GPE was prepared using ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and PAN as starting materials. The maximum room temperature conductivity of the GPE was $1.92{\times}10^{-3}Scm^{-1}$ for the composition 202.5 PAN : 500 EC : 500 PC : 35 NaSCN (by weight). Performance of the pseudo capacitor was investigated using Cyclic Voltammetry technique, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique and Continuous Charge Discharge (GCD) test. The single electrode specific capacity (Cs) was found out to be 174.31 F/g using Cyclic Voltammetry technique at the scan rate of 10 mV/s and within the potential window -1.2 V to 1.2 V. The same value obtained using EIS was about 84 F/g. The discharge capacity ($C_d$) was 69.8 F/g. The capacity fade over 1000 cycles was rather a low value of 4%. The results proved the suitability of the pseudo capacitor for improving the performance further.

Synthesis and Characterization of Phase Pure NiO Nanoparticles via the Combustion Route using Different Organic Fuels for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

  • Srikesh, G.;Nesaraj, A. Samson
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 2015
  • Transition metal oxide nanocrystalline materials are playing major role in energy storage application in this scenario. Nickel oxide is one of the best antiferromagnetic materials which is used as electrodes in energy storage devices such as, fuel cells, batteries, electrochemical capacitors, etc. In this research work, nickel oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion route in presence of organic fuels such as, glycine, glucose and and urea. The prepared nickel oxide nanoparticles were calcined at 600℃ for 3 h to get phase pure materials. The calcined nanoparticles were preliminarily characterized by XRD, particle size analysis, SEM and EDAX. To prepare nickel oxide electrode materials for application in supercapacitors, the calcined NiO nanoparticles were mixed with di-methyl-acetamide and few drops of nafion solution for 12 to 16 h. The above slurry was coated in the graphite sheet and dried at 50℃ for 2 to 4 h in a hot air oven to remove organic solvent. The dried sample was subjected to electrochemical studies, such as cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance analysis and chrono-coulometry studies in KOH electrolyte medium. From the above studies, it was found that nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared by combustion synthesis using glucose as a fuel exhibited resulted in low particle diameter (42.23 nm). All the nickel oxide electrodes have shown better good capacitance values suitable for electrochemical capacitor applications.

Preparation of nano composite metal-oxide electrode and its application for superrcapacitor (나노복합산화물 전극의 제조 및 수퍼커패시터로써의 응용)

  • Kim, Hong-Il;Lee, Ju-Won;Kim, Sang-Gil;Yuk, Gyung-Chang;Park, Soo-Gil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.801-804
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    • 2002
  • Electrochemical capacitors are becoming attractive energy storage systems particularly for applications involving high power requirements such as hybrid systems consisting of batteries and electrochemical capacitors for electric vehicle propulsion. Both of amorphous cobalt oxide and manganese dioxide were prepared by sol-gel process reported in our previous work. Nanostructured supramolecular oligomer of 1,5-diaminoanthraquinone(DAAQ) coated metal oxides were successfully prepared by electrochemical oxidation from an acidic non-aqueous medium. We established process parameters of the technique for the formation of nano-structured materials. Furthermore, improved the capacitive properties of the nano structured metal oxide electrodes using controlled solution chemistry. $CoO_2$ and $MnO_2$-based composite electrode showed relatively good electrochemical behaviors in acidic electrolyte system with respect to specific capacity and scan rate dependency.

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Electrochemical Characterization of Electric Double Layer Capacitors Assembled with Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquid Electrolytes

  • Cho, Jinhyun;Shin, Won-Kyung;Kim, Dong-Won;Kim, Young Rae;Lee, Byung Jun;Kim, Sang-Gil
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2016
  • We present the electrochemical performance of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) assembled with pyrrolidinium (Pyr)-based ionic liquid electrolytes at 55 ℃. Cations with various alkyl chain lengths were employed in Pyr-based ionic liquids to investigate the effect of cation structure on the cycling stability of EDLCs. The EDLCs exhibited initial specific capacitances ranging from 122.4 to 131.6 F g−1 based on activated carbon material at 55 ℃. Cycling data and XPS results demonstrate that Pyr-based ionic liquid with longer alkyl chain is more effective for enhancing the cycling stability of EDLC by suppressing the reductive decomposition of pyrrolidinium cations during cycling at high temperatures.

Polymeric Gel Electrolytes for Electric Double Layer Capacitors (전기이중층 캐패시터에 관한 폴리머 겔 전해액)

  • Morita, Masayuki;Qiao, Jin-Li
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.141-144
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    • 2003
  • Proton conducting polymeric gels as the electrolytes of electrochemical capacitors have been prepared by two different methods: 1) swelling a polymethacrylate-based polymer matrix in aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic acids, and 2) polymerizing complexes of anhydrous acids and prepolymers with organic plasticizer. The FT-IR spectra strongly suggest that the carbonyl groups in the polymer matrix interact with protons from the doped acids. High ionic (proton) conductivity in the range of $6\times10^{-4}-4\times10^{-2}\;S\;cm^{-1}$ was obtained at room temperature for the aqueous gels. The non-aqueous polymer complexes showed rather low ionic conductivity, but it was about $10^{-3}\;S\;cm^{-1}\;at\;70^{\circ}C$ for the $H_3PO_4$ doped polymer electrolyte. The mechanisms of ion (proton) conduction in the polymeric systems are discussed.