Recently, the development of image processing technology, as well as hardware performance, has been continuing the research on 3D point processing technology that provides users with free viewing angle and stereoscopic effect in various fields. Point cloud technology, which is a type of representation of 3D point, has attracted attention in various fields because it can acquired/expressed point precisely. However, since Hundreds of thousands, millions of point are required to represent one 3D point cloud content, there is a disadvantage that a larger amount of storage space is required than a conventional 2D content. For this reason, the MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group), an international standardization organization, is continuing to research how to efficiently compress, store, and transmit 3D point cloud content to users. In this paper, a V-PCC bitstream generated by a V-PCC (Video-based Point Cloud Compression) encoder proposed by the MPEG-I (Immersive) group is composed of an MPU (Media Processing Unit) defined by the MMT. In addition, by extending the signaling message defined in the MMT standard, a parameter for a segmented transmission method of the 3D point cloud content by area and quality parameters considering the characteristic of the 3D point cloud content, so that the quality parameters can be selectively determined according to the user's request. Finally, in this paper, we verify the result through design/implementation of the verification platform based on the proposed technology.
Through the output of brain waves during muscle operation, this paper checks whether it is possible to find characteristic vectors of brain waves that are capable of dividing left and right movements by extracting brain waves in specific areas of muscle signal output that include the motion of the left and right muscles or the will of the user within EEG signals, where uncertainties exist considerably. A typical surface EMG and noninvasive brain wave extraction method does not exist to distinguish whether the signal is a motion through the degree of ionization by internal neurotransmitter and the magnitude of electrical conductivity. In the case of joint and motor control through normal robot control systems or electrical signals, signals that can be controlled by the transmission and feedback control of specific signals can be identified. However, the human body lacks evidence to find the exact protocols between the brain and the muscles. Therefore, in this paper, efficiency is verified by utilizing the results of application of CSP (Common Spatial Pattern) filter to verify that the left-hand and right-hand signals can be extracted through brainwave analysis when the subject's behavior is performed. In addition, we propose ways to obtain data through experimental design for verification, to verify the change in results with or without filter application, and to increase the accuracy of the classification.
The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
The Internet of Things refers to a space-of-things connection network configured to allow things with built-in sensors and communication functions to interact with people and other things, regardless of the restriction of place or time.IoT is a network developed for the purpose of services for human convenience, but the scope of its use is expanding across industries such as power transmission, energy management, and factory automation. However, the communication protocol of IoT, MQTT, is a lightweight message transmission protocol based on the push technology and has a security vulnerability, and this suggests that there are risks such as personal information infringement or industrial information leakage. To solve this problem, we designed a synchronous MQTT security channel that creates a secure channel by using the characteristic that different chaotic dynamical systems are synchronized with arbitrary values in the lightweight message transmission MQTT protocol. The communication channel we designed is a method of transmitting information to the noise channel by using characteristics such as random number similarity of chaotic signals, sensitivity to initial value, and reproducibility of signals. The encryption method synchronized with the proposed key value is a method optimized for the lightweight message transmission protocol, and if applied to the MQTT of IoT, it is believed to be effective in creating a secure channel.
MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
Architectural evidence of Gaya is insignificant than any other area. In this situation, house-shaped earthenware is particularly helpful in the study of Gaya architecture. However, house-shaped earthenware is not a building, it has just the shape of buildings. So, we have to find out architectural evidence from that. In this paper, I tried to estimate the architectural characteristics of Gaya through house-shaped earthenware in detail. I also consulted historical records, archeological results, and other scholars' papers. The results are as follows. First, house-shaped earthenware can be classified into three types according to its shape, and each type has distinct architectural structural characteristics. Second, house-shaped earthenware generally has a gambrel roof, and the characteristic of architectural design with the gable side of the gambrel roof as a front is the biggest feature of Gaya architecture. Third, various types of buildings existed according to their functions in Gaya architecture, and house-shaped earthenware was showed buildings of ancient storage, pens, and residences, which are symbols of the richness among various types of buildings.
The flood prevention capacity of drainage facilities in urban areas has weakened because of the increase in impervious surface areas downtown owing to rapid urbanization as well as localized heavy rains caused by climate change. Detention can be installed in trunk sewers and linked to existing drainage facilities for the efficient drainage of runoff in various urban areas with increasing stormwater discharge and changing runoff patterns. In this study, the concept of detention in trunk sewers, which are storage facilities linked to existing sewer pipes, was applied. By selecting a virtual watershed with a different watershed shape, the relationship between the characteristic factors of detention in the trunk sewer and the design parameters was analyzed. The effect of reducing stormwater runoff according to the installation location and capacity of the reservoir was examined. The relationship between the installation location and the capacity of the detention trunk sewer in the Dowon district of the city of Yeosu, South Korea was verified. The effects of the existing water runoff reduction facility and the detention trunk sewer were also compared and analyzed. As a result of analyzing the effects of reducing internal inundation, it was found that the inundation area decreased by approximately 66.5% depending on the installation location of the detention trunk sewer. The detention trunk sewer proposed in this paper could effectively reduce internal inundation in urban areas.
The pedestrian space on the roads shows virtually different images, depending on the local uniqueness that exists in the roadsides, to the one walking. This sort of characteristics of the region originated from the physical special structures of the roadside building the form of the place. Thus, because of the structural difference of the roadside, Pedestrian sense the difference of regions through other images. Research focused on issues of the local roadside sidewalk spaces as what roadside structure is the type that brings out the unique images of the region, and what facets are pursued additionally here, is needed. A roadside of a prosperous region filled with many Pedestrians is selected as the range for the experiment in order to analyze the structure and image of the pedestrian space. Among the roads of the selected region, the structure of the pedestrian space on the roads with more than four lanes was evaluated. As result of the analysis, the images of 10 pedestrian space could be classified into two groups by the difference in proportions of the Df/H(the width of the sidewalk and the height of the roadside building) and the D/H(the width of the road and the height of the roadside building). In order to observe the images of the pedestrian space classified into two groups, the adjectives used to describe the image of scenery were researched, enabling one to induce the images of the two groups form them. One of the images is the image of prosperities, and the other is the image of pleasantness. In addition, as result to the evaluation focused on the characteristic of the roadside buildings in the selected area, it could be divided into two groups, i.e., the commercial region and the business region. The image of prosperities was sensed on the sidewalks of the commercial region, while the image of pleasantness was seen on that of the business region. This study enabled the acknowledgment that in a pedestrian space on a road structure with more than four lanes, the Pedestrian sense different images, depending on the proportional difference in the width of the sidewalk & the height of the roadside building, and the width of the road & the height of the roadside building. This result is expected to be a good reference when a road structure reflecting the uniqueness of its region is to be designed, and especially when the structure of a pedestrian space is to be created.
Kim, Bag-Jin;Choi, Jung-Youl;Chun, Dae-Sung;Eom, Mac;Kang, Yun-Suk;Park, Yong-Gul
Proceedings of the KSR Conference
Domestic or international existing researches regarding rail damage factors are focused on laying, vehicle conditions, driving speed and driving habits and overlook characteristics of track structure (elasticity, maintenance etc). Also in ballast track, as there is no special lateral spring stiffness of track also called as ballast lateral resistance in concrete track, generally, existing study shows concrete track has 2 time shorter life cycle for rail replacement than ballast track due to abrasion. As a result of domestic concrete track design and operation performance review, concrete track elasticity is lower than track elasticity of ballast track resulting higher damage on rail and tracks. Generally, concrete track has advantage in track elasticity adjustment than ballast track and in case of Europe, in concrete track design, it is recommended to have same or higher performance range of vertical elastic stiffness of ballast track but domestically or internationally review on lateral spring stiffness of track is very minimal. Therefore, through analysis of service line track on site measurement and analysis on performance of maintenance, in this research, dynamic characteristic behaviors of commonly used ballast and concrete track are studied to infer elasticity of service line track and experimentally prove effects of track lateral spring stiffness that influence curved rail damage as well as correlation between track elasticity by track system and rail damage to propose importance of appropriate elastic stiffness level for concrete and ballast track.
Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
Construction business, which is complex and long-term business, requires accurate estimation and verification in construction costs and payment procedure from project planning to the completion of construction phase. And more importantly, it is necessary to investigate and determine the risk factors related to construction costs during the entire process including design planning, construction drawings, and quantity calculating. But, currently, it is not seem to be adequate to cope with the risk and increased construction costs against the operational budget in terms of actual costs when screening and estimating the bidding cost of public apartment. Therefore, this study selected and analyzed 40 sites' report of construction completion account from 2004 to 2010 focused on the adequacy on the modification of contract and design planning and on the complication of the budget in the beginning of the project. This study deducted various risk causes and results by analyzing actual costs according to year, architectural area, region, construction cost and sale/lease classification. We could find out construction risk according to annual variation of government policy and economy, and also deducted risk items by construction characteristic according to region and architectural area. Study result, we first found out the problems of lowest price award system according to the construction costs. The weight of the cost increase risk was analyzed that subcontract and material costs are very high. Roof and tile work were analyzed highly in subcontract cost risk and reinforcing bar and cement were analyzed highly in material cost risk, among direct construction cost. Finally, this study results could be used in comparing the categories of the construction costs made by specific construction process, belonging to the construction costs, with the operational budget made in the beginning of the project that can enable to grasp unpredictable risks over the construction costs and making quantitative analysis for it through analyzing the range of fluctuation and variations led by the fluctuations in the actual construction costs.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
This study explored the architectural nature, the thought reflected in the place and the 'meaning-landscape' characteristic of a place, to where a retired scholar had lived. The object of the study is the Maechun-Byulup Toesu-jeong wonlim, which consists of a summer house and a garden forest. The results of the study are as following. Toesu-jeong wonlim is located at Daejeong-ri, Sannae-myeon, Namwon-si. It had been built by Maechun Park Chi-Gi in 1870 for his residence after retirement. It is a villa type pavilion and a garden forest which have Banseondaegi(伴仙臺記), Banseondae-10-yeong, Toesu-jeong(退修亭) Sangryangmun, a writing dedicated when putting up the ridge beam of a wooden house), Toesu-jeong Wonwun Byeongsoseo, hanging boards and tablets with poems written on them. In the Toesu-jeong wonlim, there are various 'meaning-landscapes' such as the Maechun-Byulup, Banseondae, Yabakdam and Simjinam together with engraved calligraphy related to the landscaping culture. It is also possible to find the remains of beautiful engraving on the stones and woods at Goksoo Yoogeo(曲水流渠) that suggest the banquets they had while discussing the elegant tastes and appreciating the landscape. The Toesu-jeong wonlim consists of the Toesu-jeong area(a pavilion), the Gwanseon-jae area(a shrine) area and the Gyejeong area(a garden with a brook) area. The pedantic 'meaning-landscape' elements, as the residence of retired scholar who spent his remaining life with elegant tastes, and the expertise of Maechun Park Chi-Gi, as a landscaping architect who built a villa and a garden forest in the motif of a Taoist hermit, can be extracted through the Banseondae-10yeong. The Banseondae-10yeong is the first Toesu-jeong poem and consisting of the Samseon-dae, Sejin-dae, Samcheong-dam, Yabak-dam, Samseo, Takgeum-dam, flat stones, caves, stone sculptures and harvest. The existing vegetation and plants in the Toesu-jeong wonlim are; natural pine forest in the rear garden, zelkova trees, wild cherry trees, apricot trees and pine trees bent to the waterfront direction. Except some ornament-species and shielding-species such as the poplars, most of current trees and vegetation keep the shape of the original Toesu-jeong wonlim landscape.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
A 'flowered-wall,' which are also called a 'flower plant patterned wall,' or a 'flower patterned wall,' is a wall of a building or a fence with various patterns on it. A flowered-wall can be an external mean to look into the owner's authority and values while internally it possesses the symbolic meaning of wishing the well-being and peace of the household. In the research area of the flowered-wall, the walls located in the palace were well researched in various studies across architecture, horticulture, and art design, however, the walls belonging to the local regional traditional folk houses and temples have been involved in little to no research in the landscape architectural area. Taking notice of this perspective this study researched and analyzed the cases of the flowered-walls of the traditional folk houses and the temples that belonged to the national and municipal cultural properties of Jeollabuk-do Province from the landscape architectural perspective. The whole samples were examined and it was shown that there were 9 traditional folk houses with flowered-walls. Among the temples there were 7 cases. Therefore the research focusing on tracing the shape and symbolic meaning of the flowered-walls in the 16 cultural properties located in the Jeollabuk-do Province which consisted of traditional folk houses and temples resulted in the following. Flowered-walls displayed hierarchical differentiation revolving around the main space and its spacial characteristic. This differentiation is variously displayed across the flowered-wall, gable, crack plastering, and chimney. In the case of the folk houses the symbols have the meaning of the prosperity of the household and progeny, exorcism, longevity, number of fortune, harmony, and peace etc that prays for practical wishes such as long life and good health with the prosperity of their descendants. Meanwhile in the temples, symbols indicating an easy passage into eternity, perpetuation of the Buddha-nature, and three marks of existence are applied, differentiating from the folk houses by the appliance of the religious values in the patterns. In conclusion this research resulted in the rightful illumination on the local landscape culture, the possibility of expressing the Korean sentiment through flowered-walls in the contemporary space, the reassessment of flowered-walls, and the provision of basic data for a plan to success the cultural heritage.
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