• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cholera toxin

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Improved Purification Process for Cholera Toxin and its Application to the Quantification of Residual Toxin in Cholera Vaccines

  • Jang, Hyun;Kim, Hyo-Seung;Kim, Jeong-Ah;Seo, Jin-Ho;Carbis, Rodney
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.108-112
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    • 2009
  • A simplified method for the purification of cholera toxin was developed. The 569B strain of Vibrio cholerae, a recognized hyper-producer of cholera toxin, was propagated in a bioreactor under conditions that promote the production of the toxin. The toxin was separated from the bacterial cells using 0.2-${\mu}m$ crossflow microfiltration, the clarified toxin was passed through the membrane into the permeate, and the bacterial cells were retained in the retentate. The 0.2-${\mu}m$ permeate was then concentrated 3-fold and diafiltered against 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, using 30-kDa crossflow ultrafiltration. The concentrated toxin was loaded onto a cation exchange column, the toxin was bound to the column, and most of the impurities were passed unimpeded through the column. The toxin was eluted with a salt gradient of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 1.0 M NaCl. The peak containing the toxin was assayed for cholera toxin and protein and the purity was determined to be 92%. The toxin peak had a low endotoxin level of $3.1\;EU/{\mu}g$ of toxin. The purified toxin was used to prepare antiserum against whole toxin, which was used in a $G_{M1}$ ganglioside-binding ELISA to determine residual levels of toxin in an oral inactivated whole-cell cholera vaccine. The $G_{M1}$ ganglioside-binding ELISA was shown to be very sensitive and capable of detecting as little as 1 ng/ml of cholera toxin.

Effects of Forskolin and Cholera Toxin on the Maturation of Mouse Oocytes In Vitro (Forskolin과 Cholera Toxin이 배양중인 생쥐 난자의 성숙에 미치는 영향)

  • 김찬성;조완규
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 1986
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the known adenylate cyclase activators, forskolin and cholera toxin, would affect the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the production of cAMP in mouse oocytes in vitro. To do this, in vitro oocyte culture method and adenylate cyclase assay were employed. In response to different concentrations of forskolin (20 to 80 $\\mu$g/ml) added to a culture medium, the percentage of GVBD significantly decreased (56 to 31%) in a dose-dependent manner as compared to that of control (63%). This inhibitory phenomenon by forskolin was reversible since the rate of GVBD was returned to the control level when the oocytes were transferred to a control medium following exposure to forskolin (80 $\\mu$g/ml). Treatment of cholera toxin (10 to 1, 000 ng/ml) was, however, ineffective in suppressing GVBD. When forskolin (10 to 80 $\\mu$g/ml) was added to the mouse oocyte extracts, cAMP production significantly increased by 5 to 18 fold, whereas cholera toxin (10 to 1, 000 ng/ml) was no longer effective. In addition, treatment of guanidyl-imidodiphosphate (GppNHp, 100 $\\mu$M), which is an activator of the regulatory unit of adenylate cycleas, with forskolin did not exhibit any changes in cAMP production as compared to that induced by forskolin alone. Neither cholera toxin nor cholera toxin plus GppNHp (100 $\\mu$M) exhibited any differences in mouse oocytes. From the above results, the suppression of GVBD by forskolin may be mediated by a high level of intracellular cAMP in mouse oocytes. It appears that the changes in intracellular cAMP level may an important role in the mouse oocyte maturation.

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Epidemiology, management, and prevention of cholera (콜레라의 역학과 치료 및 예방)

  • Bae, In-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Medical Association
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2017
  • Cholera is an acute secretory form of diarrhea caused by a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) after ingestion of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. Although cholera is very common in Africa and Asia as a whole, the incidence of cholera has been very low in recent years in Korea. Dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities due to massive watery diarrhea can lead to death, and the mortality rates in untreated patients with severe cholera can exceed 70%. Effective rehydration therapy is the cornerstone of the management of patients with cholera and can reduce the mortality rate to less than 0.2%. Antibiotics reduce the volume and duration of diarrhea, but are recommended for patients with severe disease because of the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant V. cholerae across the globe. Two oral cholera vaccines are available, and the World Health Organization recommends that these oral vaccines be considered in integrated prevention programs in endemic countries at risk for outbreaks.

MODULATION OF INSULIN-STIMULATED DNA SYNTHESIS BY CHOLERA TOXIN IN BOVINE MAMMARY FIBROBLASTS

  • Yuh, I.S.;Park, C.K.;Han, J.Y.;Sheffield, L.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.483-489
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    • 1993
  • Bovine fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and then treated with control, insulin (I, $1{\mu}g/ml$), cholera toxin (CT, 0.1-100 ng/ml) or CT (0.1-100 ng/ml) + I ($1{\mu}g/ml$). Cholera toxin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, significantly decreased insulin induced DNA synthesis (p<0.05). The modulation of DNA synthesis apparently involves events occurring in early stage of cell growth, at least between the first 4 and 8 hour of CT treatment. Insulin induced collagen as well as noncollagen synthesis in cell layer, however, these syntheses were reduced by addition of cholera toxin (p<0.05) but were not completely reduced. It is not clear whether the reduction of insulin-induced cell layer collagen or noncollagen proteins by CT is involved in the inhibitory effect on insulin-induced DNA synthesis. However, we could rule out the hypothesis that insulin-induced DNA synthesis is reduced by CT-induced cellular differentiation.

CTX Prophages in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains

  • Kim, Eun Jin;Lee, Dokyung;Moon, Se Hoon;Lee, Chan Hee;Kim, Dong Wook
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.725-731
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    • 2014
  • The classical biotype strains of the Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup harbor the biotype-specific cholera-toxin encoding phage (CTX) $CTX^{cla}$, and the El Tor biotype strains contain CTX-1. Although the classical biotype strains have become extinct, a remnant of classical CTX phage is transferred to the El Tor biotype strains. The prototype El Tor strains, which produce the biotype-specific cholera toxin, are now being replaced by atypical El Tor variant strains producing classical biotype cholera toxin. The genome sequences of the CTX phages in atypical El Tor strains indicate that the CTX phages in atypical El Tor strains are a mosaic of $CTX^{cla}$ and CTX-1. Before the emergence of atypical El Tor stains in the early 1990s, unusual pre-seventh pandemic strains were isolated in the US Gulf Coast between 1973 and 1986. These strains have characteristics of atypical El Tor strains since they are El Tor biotype strains containing $CTX^{cla}$, yet the genome sequence of this CTX phage indicates that it is different from $CTX^{cla}$ and is therefore classified separately as $CTX^{US\;Gulf}$.

앱시스산에 의해 기공이 닫히는 신호전달과정에서 G-단백질의 분할

  • 이영숙
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 1994
  • 식물 호르몬의 하나인 앱시스산이 식물의 기공을 닫게 하는 과정 중에 phospholipase C가 활성화되어 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate(P3)의 양이 증가함이 보고되었다 (Cot and Crain. 1994). 그러나 아직까지 공변세포에서 phospholipase C의 활성을 조절하는 G-단백질에 대한 보고는 없었다. 그러므로 앱시스산에 의한 기공닫힘과정에 G-단백질이 수반되는지를 조사하고자, G-단백질 활성의 저해제인 pertussis toxin과 촉진제인 cholera toxin을 처리하여 보았다. 닭의장풀(Commelina communis L.)의 잎 뒷면으로부터 얻은 온전한 표피층과 잠두(Vicia faba L)의 잎을 부분 분해하여 공변세포만을 남긴 표피층에 pertussis toxin을 처리하였을 때, 앱시스산에 의한 기공닫힘이 부분적으로 억제됨을 관찰하였다. 그러나 cholera toxin의 경우는 아무런 영향이 없었다. 공변세포만을 지닌 표피층에 pertussis toxin을 전처리한 후 앱시스산을 가했을 때, 앱시스산에 의한 IP3 양의 증가 양상이 억제됨을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과들로부터 앱시스산에 의한 기공닫힘과정에는 pertussis toxin-sensitive, phospholipase C-linked G-protein이 관여하고 있음을 알 수 있었다.

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Stimulatory Effects of cyclic AMP on Vitellogenin Induction by Estradiol-17$\beta$ in the Primary Culture of Hepatocytes in the Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

  • Yeo In-Kyu
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 1998
  • Effects of cyclic (c) AMP and G-protein related reagents (3-isobutyl-l-methyxanthine (IBMX), Forskolin (FSK), cholera toxin (CTX), and pertussis toxin (PTX≫ on estradiol-17$\beta$ induced vitellogenin (VTG) induction were examined in primary hepatocyte cultures in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The addition of IBMX, FSK, or CTX to the incubation medium markedly increased VTG production, while PTX was not effective in stimulating the production. It is well known that cAMP regulates phosphorylation and dephosphorylation through mediation of protein kinase A. These results suggest that VTG production is highly dependent on cAMP state in hepatocytes because of its highly phosphorylated nature.

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Differential Modulatory Effects of Cholera Toxin and Pertussis Toxin on Pain Behavior Induced by TNF-${\alpha}$, Interleukin-1${\beta}$ and Interferon-${\gamma}$ Injected Intrathecally

  • Kwon, Min-Soo;Shim, Eon-Jeong;Seo, Young-Jun;Choi, Seong-Soo;Lee, Jin-Young;Lee, Han-Kyu;Suh, Hong-Won
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.582-586
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    • 2005
  • The present study was designed to characterize the possible roles of spinally located cholera toxin (CTX)- and pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins in pro- inflammatory cy tokine induced pain behaviors. Intrathecal injection of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-${\alpha}$; 100 pg), interleukin-1${\beta}$ (IL-1${\beta}$ 100 pg) and interferon-${\gamma}$ (INF-${\gamma}$; 100 pg) showed pain behavior. Intrathecal pretreatment with CTX (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg) attenuated pain behavior induced by TNF-${\alpha}$ and INF-${\gamma}$ administered intrathecally. But intrathecal pretreatment with CTX (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5${\mu}g$) did not attenuate pain behavior induced by IL-1${\beta}$. On the other hand, intrathecal pretreatment with PTX further increased the pain behavior induced by TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-1${\beta}$ administered intrathecally, especially at the dose of 0.5 ${\mu}g$. But intrathecal pretreatment with PTX did not affect pain behavior induced by INF-${\gamma}$. Our results suggest that, at the spinal cord level, CTX- and PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to play important roles in modulating pain behavior induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines administered spinally. Furthermore, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-1${\beta}$ arid INF-${\gamma}$ administered spinally appear to produce pain behavior by different mechanisms.

Molecular Biological Characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolated from Diarrheal patients in the Gyeongbuk province. (최근 경북지역 설사환자 검체에서 분리된 Vibrio cholerae O1의 분자생물학적 특성)

  • 이상조;이복권;이건주;이희무
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.334-341
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate the cause of cholera outbreak in Gyeongbuk province in 2001.90 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Inaba were isolated from diarrheal patients. By multiplex-PCR, all of the isolated strains revealed positive for detection ctxA, hlyA and tcpA genes. There were DNA sequence difference of the cholera-toxin subunit A gene and subunit B gene between isolated V. cholerae O1 and the strain of GenBank. In analysis of PFGE patterns, all of the isolated strains were showed the same DNA fragments. We also collected plankton samples in the east coast of Gyeongbuk to isolate V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 from August to October 2002. The samples were examined to detect the rfb gene and cholera-toxin gene by multiplex-PCR. The cholera-toxin gene was detected and then we tried to isolate V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139, but they were not isolated.

Expression of Cholera Toxin B Subunit and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Silkworm

  • Gong, Zhao-Hui;Jin, Hui-Qing;Jin, Yong-Feng;Zhang, Yao-Zhou
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.717-724
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    • 2005
  • The nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) can significantly increase the ability of proteins to induce immunological tolerance after oral administration, when it was conjugated to various proteins. Recombinant CTB offers great potential for treatment of autoimmune disease. Here we firstly investigated the feasibility of silkworm baculovirus expression vector system for the cost-effective production of CTB under the control of a strong polyhedrin promoter. Higher expression was achieved via introducing the partial non-coding and coding sequences (ATAAAT and ATGCCGAAT) of polyhedrin to the 5' end of the native CTB gene, with the maximal accumulation being approximately 54.4 mg/L of hemolymph. The silkworm bioreactor produced this protein vaccine as the glycoslated pentameric form, which retained the GM1-ganglioside binding affinity and the native antigenicity of CTB. Further studies revealed that mixing with silkworm-derived CTB increases the tolerogenic potential of insulin. In the nonconjugated form, an insulin : CTB ratio of 100 : 1 was optimal for the prominent reduction in pancreatic islet inflammation. The data presented here demonstrate that the silkworm bioreactor is an ideal production and delivery system for an oral protein vaccine designed to develop immunological tolerance against autoimmune diabetes and CTB functions as an effective mucosal adjuvant for oral tolerance induction.