• Title/Summary/Keyword: Calcium

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Studies on the Nutritional Effects of Locally Produced Dried Formula Milk and Fermented Milk -1. Comparative Studies on the Nutrients Content of Dried Formula Milk and Fermented Milk- (국산(國産) 조제분유(調製粉乳)와 발효유(醱酵乳)의 영양효과(營養效果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 1. 유제품(乳製品)의 영양소(營養素) 함량비교(含量比較)를 위한 연구(硏究) -)

  • Paik, Jeong-J.;Han, In-K.
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 1976
  • Chemical determination were made to analyze the concentration of nutrients including proximate composition, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids in three kinds of locally produced infantile formula milk(DFM) and one fermented milk(FM). An attempt was also made to compare the analytical values of nutrients against guaranteed values. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The analyzed value of protein and fat content in DFM-A.B.C was slightly lower than that of guaranteed values and a reverse trend was observed in the case of total carbohydrate. There were no differences in proximate composition among the three kinds of DFM. It was found that the FM contained less protein and fat than the fresh milk, but it seemed that a considerable amount of sugar was added to FM. 2. The analyzed values of vitamin $A(2{\sim}3\;times)$ and $E(4{\sim}6\;times)$ contents in DFMS were higher than those of the guaranteed values except niacin. There were a little differences in vitamin contents among DFMS analyzed. 3. In the case of minerals, the analyzed values were similar to the guaranteed values except the calcium concentration that analyzed value was much higher than guaranted value. When the DFMS were diluted to 15% by adding water to compare with the human and fresh cow milk, it was found that the diluted DFMS resembled the human milk rather than cow milk in the content of energy, carbohydrates, protein and ash. The higher contents of iron and most vitamins in the diluted DFMS than the human milk or cow milk would indicate that they were fortificated with these nutrients. When these diluted DFMS were compared with the Korean R.D.A. for infant, it was clear that they could supply sufficient amount of the nutrients required by R.D.A. except the niacin which failed to reach the recommended level. The fact that iron content of DFM-C was not sufficient while vitamin A supply was excessive by 6 fold would indicate that further studies for the improvement may be necessary. 4. There was a little difference among DFMS in amino acid composition. The similarity of the essential amino acids composition between DFMS and cow milk indicated that there was no modification of the essential amino acids. However, present data showed that the amino acid compositon of FM was similar to that of the cow milk. 5. There was no difference among DFMS in the degree of saturation of fatty acids. The similar or higher levels of essential fatty acids contents of DFMS as compared with human milk revealed that essential fatty acids were added to DFMS during the course of process. From the experimental results described above, it may be concluded that the nutritive effects of three kinds of locally produced DFMS were much alike. It was also found that macro and micro nutrient composition except amino acid composition of locally produced dried formula milk was very much similar to that of the human milk. Moreover, fortification of iron and vitamins resulted in improving their nutritive values as the single form of infantile food, but it seemed that more consideration should be given on the fortification of some nutrients.

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Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin $D_3$ Analysis of Korean People (한국인 일반인의 혈청 25-Hydroxy Vitamin $D_3$의 분석)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyung;Jung, Hyun-Mi;Kim, Yun-Kyung;Kim, So-Young;Kim, Jee-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The main function of vitamin D is the mineralization of the brain by increase of calcium and phosphorus, in case it is insufficient in children, lime deposition on cartilage cannot occur so it leads to rachitis, and in adults, it leads to osteomalacia or osteoporosis. It is also strongly believed in the academic world that vitamin D can restrict the growth of cancer cells and prevent heart diseases, which is also somewhat proven in epidemiological researches. While the right density of vitamin D is still being studied, 20-32 ng/mL is believed to be the most ideal density. Therefore, I wanted analyze how much density of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 that Koreans possess. Materials and Methods: From February 20th, 2008 to April 21st, 2009, the collection of 2800 serums, from medical examination treated subjects by Neodin Medical Institute, have been tested. The targets were tested by 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (125I Kit: Diasorin, USA), and were analyzed by dividing into many different categories (gender, age, season, region). Results: The average density of male were 20 ng/mL, female 17.08 ng/mL. Per age groups, the density of males were as follows: 10~20-18 ng/mL, 21~30-17 ng/mL, 31~40-19 ng/mL, 41~50-21 ng/mL, 51~60-22 ng/mL, 61~70-22 ng/mL, 71~80-22 ng/mL and 81~90-19.9 ng/mL. Average density of females per age groups, were as follows: 10~20-16 ng/mL, 20~30-15.26 ng/mL, 30~40-16 ng/mL, 40~50-17 ng/mL, 50~60-19 ng/mL, 60~70-19 ng/mL, 70~80-19 ng/mL, and 80~90-17 ng/mL. Per seasons, From December to May, the subjects showed the density of 15.97 ng/mL, while from June to November, it showed 21.60 ng/mL. On density of males from January to April regionally, Seoul+Gyeonggi-Do-15.52 ng/mL, Gangwon-Do-15.33 ng/mL, Choongchung-Do-18.03 ng/mL, Jeonla-Do-18.68 ng/mL, Gyungsang-Do-18.76 ng/mL and Cheju Do-21.23 ng/mL. Conclusions: The vitamin D of Koreans is has been insufficient compared to the suggested amount. Ultraviolet rays, which is the main source of vitamin D is critical, therefore it is suggested that more outdoor activities can definitely help.

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Studies on the Physico-chemical Properties and Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Jeju Volcanic Ash Soil (제주도(濟州道) 화산회토양(火山灰土壌)의 이화학적(理化学的) 특성(特性) 및 유기물(有機物) 성상(性状)에 관(関)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Cha, Kyu-Seuk;Kim, In-Tak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 1983
  • A series of laboratory experiment was conducted to find out the chemical composition, characterization of humic substances by physical and chemical methods and reaction of Na-pyrophosphate, $Ca(OH)_2$ and rice straw with albumin on the degradation of soil organic matter in the volcanic ask soils of the Jeju Island. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The contents of organic matter, available silicon, active iron and aluminum concentration in volcanic ash the soils were remarkably higher but available phosphorous was comparatively lower than the mineral soils. In volcanic ash soil, the contents of potassium, calcium and magnessium were higher in upland soil than that of forest soil. The ratios of active $Al^{{+}{+}{+}}/Fe^{{+}{+}}$, C/P and $K/Ca^+$ Mg were apparently high in volcanic ash soils while that of $SiO_2$/O.M. was high in mineral soil. 2. The carbon/nitrogen ratio in humin, humic acid content in organic matter, and carbon contents of humin in total carbon of soil organic matter were apparently higher in the volcanic ash soils than in the mineral soils, The total nitrogen and fractions of acid or alkali soluble nitrogen were remarkably high in volcanic ash soils while mineralizable nitrogen ($NH_4$-N and $NO_3$) contents were high in mineral soils. 3. The values of K600, RF and log K were also higher in volcanic ash soils than those in mineral soils, and the absorbance in the visible range were high and color was dark in the soil of which humification was progressed Extracted humic acid from volcanic ash soil was less reactive to the oxidizing chemical reagent and was persistance to the acid or alkali hydrolysises. 4. The major oxygen-containing functional groups in humic substances of volcanic ash soils were phenolic-OH alcoholic-OH and carboxyl groups while those in mineral soil were methoxyl and carbonyl groups. 5. Absorption spectra of alkaline solution of humic acid ranged from 200 nm to maxima 500 nm. Visible spectra peaks of from humic substances in the visible region were recognized at 350, 420, 450 and 480 nm. Only one single absorbance peak was observed in the visible region at 362 nm for Heugag series and two absorbance Peak were also at 360 nm and 390 nm for Yeungrag series. 6. Evolution of carbon as $Co_2$ was increased with addition of Na-pyrophosphate in Namweon and Heugag series, and "priming effects" took place on the soil organic matter decomposition by addition of rice straw with albumin in Ido series.

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Sex- and age group-specific associations between intakes of dairy foods and pulses and bone health in Koreans aged 50 years and older: Based on 2008~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (50세 이상 한국인의 성·연령군별 우유류와 두류 섭취량과 골 건강과의 관련성 : 2008~2011 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Seo, Hyun-Bi;Choi, Young-Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.165-178
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was performed to examine associations of intakes of milk and dairy products, pulses, and soy foods with bone health in Koreans aged 50 yr and older. Methods: A total of 3,201 men and 3,581 women aged 50 yr and older who participated in the 2008~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were grouped by sex and age groups of 50~64 yr and 65 yr and older. Subjects within each sex and age group were divided into three bone health groups: normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups based on bone mineral density. Intakes of nutrients and foods derived from 24-hour recall data were compared among three bone health groups. Associations between intake frequencies of foods, including milk, yogurt, tofu, or soy milk, and osteoporosis risk were evaluated based on confounding risk factor-adjusted logistic regression. Results: Calcium intake was in the order of normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in men (p < 0.01) and women (p < 0.05) aged 50~64 yr as well as in men aged 65 yr and older (p < 0.001). In women aged 50~64 yr, intake of milk and dairy products was lower in the osteoporosis group (p < 0.01) as compared with the osteopenia group. Intake of pulses or tofu was not significantly different among bone health groups. Odds ratio (OR) for milk intake frequency (${\geq}2$ times/week) compared to intake frequency less than 1 time/month was 0.45 (95% CI 0.24~0.85, p for trend = 0.022) in men aged 65 yr and older. The OR for yogurt intake frequency (1 time/month~1 time/week) was 0.47 (95% CI 0.30~0.73, p for trend = 0.019) in women aged 50~64 yr. Intake frequency of tofu or soy milk was not associated with reduced risk of osteoporosis in all groups. Conclusion: Dairy food intake was significantly associated with bone health, and its effect was sex- and age group-specific, whereas soy food intake was not. Dietary intervention to prevent osteoporosis would be effective for women aged 50~64 yr old and for men aged 65 yr and older.

A Comparative Study on the Chemical Methods for the Determination of Available Phosphorus in Korean Soils (한국토양(韓國土壤)의 유효인산량(有效燐酸量) 검정(檢定)을 위한 화학적(化學的) 방법(方法)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Lim, Sun-Uk;Chung, Jong-Bae;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.62-72
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    • 1986
  • At present, the definition and chemical analysis method of available soil phosphorus for plants have not been standardized because of the complexity of crop and soil characteristics in Korea and many analysis methods have been suggested with different extraction conditions. Suitable analytical method of available soil P should be established by the trial of various methods based on crop nutrition and soil conditions. To establish the most suitable analysis method of available soiIP, a pot experiment with young maize was conducted over 44 different upland soils collected over the land of Korea. The amount of uptaken P by the plant was determined by ten different chemical methods for the available soil P. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Total phosphorus content in the sample soils ranged ranged $533{\sim}4917\;ppm$, and showed significant positive correlation with the content of organic matter. 2. The P content was relatively low in the acid sulfate soil and very high in the volcanic ash soil although both types of soil contained high level of orgic matter. 3. The amount of extractable P determined by ten different methods were varied more or less, and the ratios of the extractable P to the total soil P were in the range of $1{\sim}48%$. 4. The relative values to the amount of extractable soil P by different methods were in the order of $H_2O(5\;min.)\;1.0\;<\;H_2O(60min.)\;2.27\;<\;NH_4HCO_3\;5.57\;<\;NaHCO_3\;7.42\;<\;Double\;lactate\;9.71\;<\;Bray\;No.1\;12.53\;<\;Lancaster\;17.63\;<\;Nelson\;25.96\;<\;AcOH\;27.6\;<\;CAL-method\;50.27$ 5. The amount of extractable P determined by all of applied methods was very low in acid sulfate soil, volcanic ash soil and coarse textured soil. 6. Soil pH and total soil P generally showed significant positive correlation with the chemically extracted P, and soil organic matter was negatively correlated with the determined by Nelson-and CAL-method. Olsen method which showed significant correlation with exchangeable calcium seemed to be recommendable for calcareous soils. 7. Total amount of uptaken P by Young maize through continuos twice cropping was 4.05% of total soil P in average, and the uptake in the second cropping was twice as much as that of the first cropping. 8. Three determination methods, i.e. Soltanpour-, Double lactate and Bray No. 1-method seemed to be more suitable than Lancaster method which is widely practiced at present in Korea. However, further study should be carried out with other crops and soils to most adequate chemical method for determination of available soil P.

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Physiological and Ecological Studies on the Low Temperature Damages of Rice (Oryza sativia L.) (수도의 저온장해에 관한 생리 생태학적 연구)

  • 오윤진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 1981
  • Experiments were conducted to investigate rice varietal response to low water and air temperatures at different growth stages from 1975 to 1980 in a phytotron in Suweon and in a cold water nursery in Chooncheon. Germination ability, seedling growth, sterility of laspikelets, panicle exertion, discoloration of leaves, and delay of heading of recently developed indica/japonica cross(I/J), japonica, and indica varieties at low air temperature or cold water were compared to those at normal temperature or natural conditions. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Practically acceptable germination rate of 70% was obtained in 10 days after initiation of germination test at 15\circ_C for japonica varieties, but 15 days for IxJ varieties. Varietal differences in germination ability at suboptimal temperature was greatest at 16\circ_C for 6 days. 2. Cold injury of rice seedlings was most severe at the 3.0-and 3.5-leaf stage and it was reduced as growth stage advanced. A significant positive correlation was observed between cold injury at 3-leaf stage and 6-leaf stage. 3. At day/night temperatures of 15/10\circ_C seedlings of both japonica and I/J varieties were dead in 42 days. At 20/15\circ_C japonica varieties produced tillers actively, but tillering of I/J varieties was retarded a little. At 25/15\circ_C, both japonica and I/J varieties produced tillers most actively. Increase in plant height was proportional to the increase in all varieties. 4. In I/J varieties the number of differentiated panicle rachis branches and spikelets was reduced at a day-night temperature of 20-15\circ_C compared to 25-20 or 30-25\circ_C, but not in japonica varieties although panicle exertion was retarded at 20-15\circ_C. The number of spikelets was not correlated with the number of primary rachis branches, but positively correlated with that of secondary rachis branches. 5. Heading of rice varieties treated with 15\circ_C air temperature at meiotic stage was delayed compared to that at tillering stage by 1-3 days and heading was delayed as duration of low temperature treatment increased. 6. At cold water treatment of 17\circ_C from tillering to heading stage, heading of japonica, I/J, and cold tolerant indica varieties was delayed 2-6, 3-9, and 4-5 days, respectively, Growth stage sensitive to delay of heading delay at water treatment were tillering stage, meiotic stage, and booting tage in that order, delay of heading was greater in indica corssed japonica(Suweon 264), japonica(Suweon 235), and cold tolerant indica(Lengkwang) varieties in that order. Delay of heading due to cold water treatment was positively correlated with culm length reduction and spikelet sterility. 7. Elongation of culms and exertion of panicles of rice varieties treated with low air temperature 17\circ_C. Culm length reduction rate of tall varieties was lower than that of short statured varieties at low temperature. Panicle exertion was most severaly retarded with low temperature treatment at heading stage. Generally, retardation of panicle exertion of 1/1 varieties was more severe than that of japonica varieties at low temperature. There was a positive correlation between panicle exertion and culm length at low temperature. 8. The number of panicles was increased with cold water treatment at tillering stage, but reduced at meiotic stage. As time of cold water treatment was conducted at earlier growth stage, culm length was shorter and panicle exertion poorer. 9. Sterility of all rice varieties was negligible at 17\circ_C for three days but 30.3-85.2% of strility was observed for nine-day treatment at 17\circ_C. Among the tested varieties, sterility of Suweon 264 and Milyang 42 was highest and that of Suweon 290 and Suweon 287 was lowest. The most sensitive growth stage to low temperature induced sterility was from 15 to 5 days before heading. There was positive correlation between sterility of rice plants treated with low temperature at meiotic and heading stage. 10. Percentage of spikelet sterility was greatest at cold water treatment at meiotic stage (auricle distance -15~-10cm) and it was higher in 1/1 (Suweon 264, Joseng tongil), japonica (Nongbaek, Towada), and cold tolerance indica(Lengkwang) varieties in the order. Level of cold water and position of young-ear affected on the sterility of varieties at meiotic stage; percentage of spikelet sterility of variety, Lengkwang, of which young-ear was located above the cold water level was high, but that of short statured variety, Suweon 264, of which young-ear was located in the cold water was lower. 11. Percentage of ripened grains was not reducted at 15\circ_C air temperature for three days at full heading stage in all varieties. However, at six-day low temperature treatment Suweon 287, Suweon 264 showed percentage of ripended grains lower than 60%, but at nine-day low temperature treatment all varieties showed percentage of ripened grains lower than 60%. Low temperature treatment of 17\circ_C from 10 days after heading for 20 days did not affect on the ripening of all varieties. 12. Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in whole plants was higher at average air temperature of 25\circ_C, but concentration of the elements was lower compared to those at 19\circ_C. However, both total uptake and concentration of manganese were higher at 19\circ_C compared to 25\circ_C. 13. Higher application of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, and compost increased yield of rice due to increased number of panicles and spike let fertility in cold water irrigated paddy.

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Studies on the Physical and Chemical Denatures of Cocoon Bave Sericin throughout Silk Filature Processes (제사과정 전후에서의 견사세리신의 물리화학적 성질변화에 관한 연구)

  • 남중희
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.21-48
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    • 1974
  • The studies were carried out to disclose the physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction obtained from silk cocoon shells and its characteristics of swelling and solubility. The following results were obtained. 1. The physical and chemical properties of sericin fraction. 1) In contrast to the easy water soluble sericin, the hard soluble sericin contains fewer amino acids include of polar side radical while the hard soluble amino acid sach as alanine and leucine were detected. 2) The easy soluble amino acids were found mainly on the outer part of the fibroin, but the hard soluble amino acids were located in the near parts to the fibroin. 3) The swelling and solubility of the sericin could be hardly assayed by the analysis of the amino acid composition, and could be considered to tee closely related to the compound of the sericin crystal and secondary structure. 4) The X-ray patterns of the cocoon filament were ring shape, but they disappeared by the degumming treatment. 5) The sericin of tussah silkworm (A. pernyi), showed stronger circular patterns in the meridian than the regular silkworm (Bombyx mori). 6) There was no pattern difference between Fraction A and B. 7) X-ray diffraction patterns of the Sericin 1, ll and 111 were similar except interference of 8.85A (side chain spacing). 8) The amino acids above 150 in molecular weight such as Cys. Tyr. Phe. His. and Arg. were not found quantitatively by the 60 minutes-hydrolysis (6N-HCI). 9) The X-ray Pattern of 4.6A had a tendency to disappear with hot-water, ether, and alcohol treatment. 10) The partial hydrolysis of sericin showed a cirucular interference (2A) on the meridian. 11) The sericin pellet after hydrolysis was considered to be peptides composed with specific amino acids. 12) The decomposing temperature of Sericin 111 was higher than that of Sericin I and II. 13) Thermogram of the inner portioned sericin of the cocoon shell had double endothermic peaks at 165$^{\circ}C$, and 245$^{\circ}C$, and its decomposing temperature was higher than that of other portioned sericin. 14) The infrared spectroscopic properties among sericin I, II, III and sericin extracted from each layer portion of the cocoon shell were similar. II. The characteristics of seriein swelling and solubility related with silk processing. 1) Fifteen minutes was required to dehydrate the free moisture of cocoon shells with centrifugal force controlled at 13${\times}$10$^4$ dyne/g at 3,000 R.P.M. B) It took 30 minutes for the sericin to show positive reaction with the Folin-Ciocaltue reagent at room temperature. 3) The measurable wave length of the visible radiation was 500-750m${\mu}$, and the highest absorbance was observed at the wave length of 650m${\mu}$. 4) The colorimetric analysis should be conducted at 650mu for low concentration (10$\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$), and at 500m${\mu}$ for the higher concentration to obtain an exact analysis. 5) The absorbing curves of sericin and egg albumin at different wave lengths were similar, but the absorbance of the former was slightly higher than that of the latter. 6) The quantity of the sericin measured by the colorimetric analysis, turned out to be less than by the Kjeldahl method. 7) Both temperature and duration in the cocoon cooking process has much effect on the swelling and solubility of the cocoon shells, but the temperature was more influential than the duration of the treatment. 8) The factorial relation between the temperature and the duration of treatment of the cocoon cooking to check for siricin swelling and solubility showed that the treatment duration should be gradually increased to reach optimum swelling and solubility of sericin with low temperature(70$^{\circ}C$) . High temperature, however, showed more sharp increase. 9) The more increased temperature in the drying of fresh cocoons, the less the sericin swelling and solubility were obtained. 10) In a specific cooking duration, the heavier the cocoon shell is, the less the swelling and solubility were obtained. 11) It was considered that there are differences in swelling or solubility between the filaments of each cocoon layer. 12) Sericin swelling or solubility in the cocoon filament was decreased by the wax extraction.. 13) The ionic surface active agent accelerated the swelling and solubility of the sericin at the range of pH 6-7. 14) In the same conditions as above, the cation agent was absorbed into the sericin. 15) In case of the increase of Ca ang Mg in the reeling water, its pH value drifted toward the acidity. 16) A buffering action was observed between the sericin and the water hardness constituents in the reeling water. 17) The effect of calcium on the swelling and solubility of the sericin was more moderate than that of magnecium. 18) The solute of the water hardness constituents increased the electric conductivity in the reeling water.

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A Study on the Dietary Behaviors, Physical Development and Nutrient Intakes in Preschool Children (학령 전 아동의 식습관, 신체 발달 및 영양 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • Yu, Kyeong-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.23-37
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the health status of preschool children using the questionnaires about dietary behaviors and anthropometric indices. And also nutritional status was investigated using questionnaires for 24-hr recall method. The study was conducted in 145 children aged 3 to 6 years and questionnaires for dietary behaviors and dietary intakes were performed by mothers of children in Ulsan. Just nine percent of children were graded as good in terms of having healthy eating habits, this means that the nutrition education for the dietary behaviors should be more focused on preschool children. With regard to the frequency of food intake, children consumed green & yellow vegetables less frequently, meanwhile consumed high protein source food (meat, egg and bean) and milk and its product more frequently. Children almost never consumed fried foods as often as 1-2 times a weak. In assessment of the health status, children have the highest prevalence of colds and allergy, but lower prevalence of clinical symptoms due to the nutritional deficiency. The mean height was $103.6\;{\pm}\;6.4\;cm$ and significantly different among age (p < 0.05), but was not significantly different between sex. The mean weight was $17.8\;{\pm}\;3.0\;kg$ and significantly different in 5, 6years old among age. By the WLI criteria, 11.1% of children were underweight and 17.4% of children were overweight or obese. By the Rohrer index criteria, any children were not underweight and 86.8% of children were overweight or obese. By the Kaup index criteria, 2.8% of children were underweight and 29.2% of children were overweight or obese. And Obesity Index criteria, 2.1% of children were underweight and 20.8% of children were overweight or obese. The results of obesity rate by all criteria except Rohrer index indicated similar level, were significantly high in age 3 with all criteria, and decreased with age increased. The energy intake of children was lower than EER (Estimated Energy Requirements) of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) by as much as 85.7%. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) was 62.6:21.5:15.7 as carbohydrate:protein:lipid, so children consumed protein more, but consumed lipid less compared with those of KDRIs. Vitamin A intake was 133% of recommended intakes (RI) and calcium intake which was identified as the nutrient most likely to be lacking in diets was 98.9% of RI. The intakes of all minerals and vitamins except folate were higher than KDRIs. 33.3% of children were distributed in insufficiency of energy intake, 42.7% of children were distributed in insufficiency of lipid intake. These results indicate that the need of developing of nutrition education program and further concern of a public health center, university and children care center about dietary life for preschool children.

Studies on the chemical composition of citrus fruits in Korea(I) -The chemical composition of main varieties- (한국산(韓國産) 감귤류(柑橘類)의 화학성분(化學成分)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(I) -주요(主要) 감귤품종별(柑橘品種別) 화학성분함량(化學成分含量)에 관(關)하여-)

  • Yang, C.B.;Park, H.;Kim, Z.U.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.8
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 1967
  • Citrus fruits of ten varieties grown in Chaeju island and a few other fruits for the comparison were analyzed to determined the contents of crude fat, crude fiber, total carbohydrates, macroelements and ash. Acids and sugars in fruit juices were also determined and the characteristic of neutralization of fruit juices were investigated. 1. The per cent of edible part of citrus fruits having the range of 48.5(Daingwoochi) to 72(Onju) were lower than that of other fruits. It was lower by about 8 per cent than that of the same variety produced in U.S.A. It was shown that the amount of rind per fruit might be increased in the citrus fruit grown in the low annual temperature. 2. The content of crude protein were around 1% and higher than other's. The contents of crude fat were below 0.1% in three varieties and over 0.1 in others. The contents of crude fiber were between 0.3 to 0.8% and the fruits with the high content of crude protein were inclined to have the high content of crude fiber and it was also shown that the low annual temperature was inclined to increase the amount of crude fiber per fruit. 3. The amount of total acid were from 19.5 m.e per 100 g of fresh fruit in Byongkyul to 44.2 m.e in Daingwoochi. The high percentage of titrable acid was over 90 in two sour varieties, Daingwoochi and Hakyul having pH below 3 and the high content of total acid. These two varieties were above 10 in the ratio of total acid in the edible part to the total acid in the rind(total acid in edible part/total acid in the rind). The content of combined acid was lower than that of titrable acid in the edible part and vice versa in the rind. 4. Navel was highest as 12.82% in the total sugar content and the lowest content was 4.9% of Hakyul. The contents of reducing sugar in the citrus fruits were about half of that in other fruits. The ratio of total sugar to titrable acid (sugar/acid: the grade of sweet taste) were lower than foreign products . 5. From the titration curves of fruit juices the characteristic of neutralization of juices could be grouped in three types, and other values, that is, pH, the content of total acid, the percentage of combined acid, the ratio of total acids in edible part and rind, the content of sugar, and the grade of sweet taste were also devided into the same three categories. 6. The contents of macroelements were different along to the each part of fruit. The content, in the seed were high and the ones in the rind were low. The contents of each element were in the order of $K_2O>N>P_2O_5{\gtrless}CaO{\gtrless}MgO$ in the edible part, $K_2O>N>CaO>P_2O_5{\gtrless}MgO$ in the rind, $N>K_2O>P_2O_5>CaO>MgO$ in the seed. The content of potassium was especially high in Marumeru and Hakyul and the content of calcium in citrus fruit was higher than others.

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Food Components of Wild and Cultured Fresh Water Fishes (천연 및 양식산 담수어의 식품성분)

  • KIM Kyung-Sam;LEE Eung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.195-211
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    • 1986
  • The object of this study is to obtain fundamental data on cultured fishes produced in Korea to improve their food components. For this purpose, the food components of cultured fresh water fishes such as eel, Anguilla japonica, snakehead, Channa argus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were investigated and compared with those of the wild ones. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Common characteristics in the proximate composition were that wild fish was higher in crude protein content and lower in crude lipid content than those of cultured one. 2. Among the 9 kinds of minerals analyzed in all the samples, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were absolutely predominant being more than $99.52\%$. These four elements in feedstuff also occupied $99.68{\sim}99.92%$ of total minerals. 3. The neutral lipids of wild and cultured eel, snakehead and common carp occupied $55.7{\sim}95.8%$ of lipid fractions, while the content of the phospholipids in snakehead was particularly higher than those of others. 4. The neutral lipids of wild and cultured eel, snakehead and common carp mainly consisted of triglycerides ($85{\sim}95%$), and a little quantity of diglycerides, monoglycerides, free sterol ester and hydrocarbon were also identified in the neutral lipid. 5. The phospolipids of eel and common carp were mainly occupied by phosphatidyl choline ($71.3{\sim}83.9%$), followed by phosphatidyl ethanolamine ($12.1{\sim}23.5%$) and phosphatidyl serine ($7.5{\sim}13.8%$). The phospholipids of snakhead consisted of phosphatidyl choline ($50.7{\sim}64.5%$), phosphatidyl ethanolamine ($28.0{\sim}35.5%$) and phosphatidyl serine ($7.5{\sim}13.8%$). Generally, phosphatidyl choline content was higher in wild fish than in cultured one, while phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine contents were higher in cultured one. 6. The major fatty acids in total lipid of wild eel, snakehead and common carp were $C_{16:0}\;and\;C_{20:5}$, while those in cultured ones were $C_{18:1},\;C_{18:2}\;and\;C_{22:6}$. The fatty acid composition of neutral lipids showed similar tendency to that of total lipid, and the main fatty acids in phospholipids of cultured fishes were $C_{18:1}\;and\;C_{18:2}$. In glycolipids, $C_{20:5}\;and\;C_{22:6}$ were higher in wild fishes, while $C_{18:2}$ were higher in cultured ones. 7. Total amino acids contents of wild and cultured eel were nearly the same, being $16.65\%$ ana $15.99\%$ respectively. The major amino acids of wild and cultured fish were glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid and lysine in order. In snakehead, the contents of aspartic acid and proline in cultured fish were higher than those in wild one, while the contents of glutamic acid, alanine, glycine were higher in the wild one. Total amino acid content of cultured common carp was $21.7\%$ compared with $17.08\%$ in wild one. The contents of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, proline and alanine occupied higher quantities in cultured common carp compared with those in wild one while the other amino acids revealed no significant difference. 8. Aspartic acid in free amino acids of cultured eel held $1.0\%$ of total free amino acids, while that in wild eel held $2.9\%$. Histidine, arginine and tyrosine content of cultured fish were two times higher than those of wild one. But free amino acid composition of samples seemed to be no marked differences according to cultured places. The contents of arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine and phenylalanine of snakehead ware higher in wild one than in cultured one, while the contents of lysine, histidine, glycine, and alanine ware higher in cultured one. In free amino acids content of wild common carp, histidine, glycine and lysine occupied $76.9\%$ of total free amino acids. Lysine, histidine, aspartic acid, alanine, valine and leucine were higher in wild one compared with those of cultured one, while glycine and tyrosine contents were higher in cultured fish.

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