• Title/Summary/Keyword: Alcohol

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Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 on Alcohol Metabolism and Liver Function in Rats

  • Kim, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Son, Jeong-Hwa;Chun, Ho-Nam;Yang, Jin-Oh;Choi, Sung-Jin;Paek, Nam-Soo;Choi, Gyoung-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Koo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.919-925
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    • 2003
  • Alcohol consumption has numerous health consequences for the human body. For example, heavy drinking on a daily basis causes liver diseases, and certain products such as acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism are more toxic than alcohol itself. Accordingly, the current study evaluated the role of Lactobacillus fermentum MG590 to enhance the removal of the toxic effect of alcohol in alcohol metabolism. The maximum activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) by L. fermentum MG590 were observed after 6 h of culture. The production of ADH and ALDH by L. fermentum MG590 was also confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Six hours after the addition of alcohol to a culture broth of L. fermentum MG590, the alcohol concentration decreased from 7.5 to 2.7%. From an in vitro evaluation based on hepatocytes, the viability of hepatocytes in a medium containing alcohol and the cytosol of L. fermentum MG590 was higher than that in a medium containing only alcohol. From an in vivo test using SD rats fed a 22% alcoholic drink, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the rats fed a medium containing L. fermentum MG590 were lower than those in the rats fed a medium containing only the alcohol drink. These results demonstrate that the ADH and ALDH produced by L. fermentum MG590 play an important role in detoxicating alcohol in vivo. Therefore, a fermentation broth of L. fermentum MG590 could be used as an effective alcohol detoxification drink.

Effects of Alanine and Glutamine on Alcohol Oxidation and Urea Nitrogen Production in Perfused Rat Liver

  • Yim, Jungeun;Chyun, Jonghee;Cha, Youngnam
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2003
  • Most of the ethyl alcohol consumed by humans is oxidized to acetaldehyde in the liver by the cytoplasmic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) system. For this ADH-catalyzed oxidation of alcohol, $NAD^+$ is required as the coenzyme and $NAD^+$becomes reduced to NADH. As the $NAD^+$becomes depleted and NADH accumulates, alcohol oxidation is reduced. For continued alcohol oxidation, the accumulated NADH must be quickly reoxidized to $NAD^+$, and it is this reoxidation of NADH to $NAD^+$that is known to be the rate-limiting step in the overall oxidation rate of alcohol The reoxidation of NADH to $NAD^+$is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, with pyruvate being utilized as the substrate. The pyruvate may be supplied from alanine as a result of amino acid metabolism via the urea cycle. Also, glutamine is thought to help with the supply of pyruvate indirectly, and to activate the urea cycle by producing $NH_3$. Thus, in the present study, we have examined the effects of alanine and glutamine on the alcohol oxidation rate. We utilized isolated perfused liver tissue in a system where media containing alanine and glutamine was circulated. Our results showed that when alanine (5.0mM) was added to the glucose-free infusion media, the alcohol oxidation rate was increased by 130%. Furthermore, when both glutamine and alanine were added together to the infusion media, the alcohol oxidation rate increased by as much as 190%, and the rate of urea nitrogen production increased by up to 200%. The addition of glutamine (5.0mM) alone to the infusion media did not accelerate the alcohol oxidation rate. The increases in the rates of alcohol oxidation and urea nitrogen production through the addition of alanine and glutamine indicate that these amino acids have contributed to the enhanced supply of pyruvate through the urea cycle. Based on these results, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of alanine and glutamine could contribute to increased alcohol detoxification through the urea cycle, by enhancing the supply of pyruvate and $NAD^+$to ensure accelerated rates of alcohol oxidation.

Glucosylation of Salicyl Alcohol by Cell Suspension Cultures of Solanum mammosum

  • Syahrani, Achmad;Indrayanto, Gunawan;Wilkins, Alistair;Sutarjadi, Sutarjadi
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.71-74
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    • 1997
  • Cell suspension cultures of Solanum mammosum transformed inoculated salicyl alcohol into salicin $(salicyl\;alcohol\;2-0-{\beta}-D-glucopyranoside)$. The highest level of salicin (59.3 mg/flask) in the cells was formed within 3 days after inoculating with salicyl alcohol (50 mg /flask containing 50 ml medium). The glucosylation capability of salicyl alcohol by cell suspension cultures of S. mammosum was relatively higher than that reported previously.

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Search for acetaldehyde trapping agents by using alcohol dehydrogenase assay

  • Lee, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Kang-Man
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.160.3-160
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    • 2003
  • Aldehyde and active form of free oxygen produced in alcohol metabolism in liver are the cause of liver cell damage. The main system of alcohol metabolism is composed of alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH) and cytochrome P4502E1. Alcohol dehydrogenase is reversible in alcohol metabolism. To block the backward reaction and enhance alcohol oxidation, acetaldehyde trapping agents were assayed. The assay was carried out by measuring decreasing NADH at 340nm, using acetaldcehyde and NADH as substrate and coenzyme respectively. (omitted)

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Effects of Aloe on Liver Function and Lipid Metabolism in Alcohol-Consuming Rats (Aloe가 알코올을 섭취한 흰쥐의 간 기능 및 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Hye-Gyoung;Lee, Joon-Ho
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 2014
  • The effects of aloe on liver function and lipid metabolic disorders induced by alcohol consumption were studied in rats using aloe power (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%) and 10% ethanol. 35 Sprague-Dawley (male, 4 weeks old) rats were divided into five groups and fed experimental diets for six weeks. Body weights of rats tended to be lower in all alcohol supplemented groups than in the control. Food intakes and dry feces per day were significantly lower in all alcohol supplemented groups than in the control. Atherogenic indices (AI) were highest in the alcohol group and decreased in proportion with aloe amount. Serum triglyceride level was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the control, but tended to be lower in the aloe supplemented groups. In relation to liver function, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities tended to be higher in the alcohol groups than in the control, but lower in the aloe groups, especially in the alcohol+0.5% AO group. The levels of liver cholesterol were significantly lower in the alcohol group than in the control and aloe supplemented groups. In the histochemical evaluation, fat droplets appeared extensively on the liver-lobule in the alcohol group, whereas they decreased slightly in the alcohol+0.25% AO group and apparently disappeared in the alcohol +0.5% AO. On the other hand, fat droplets appeared again on the liver-lobule in the alcohol+1% AO group, but were reduced compared with the alcohol group. Regarding the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides, the level of linoleic acid (18:2) was significantly higher in the aloe supplemented group. Regarding the fatty acid composition of liver phosphatidylcholine (PC), the level of linoleic acid was higher in the alcohol group and alcohol+1% AO group than the other groups. In contrast, the level of arachidonic acid was significantly lower in the alcohol group. As a result, arachidonic / linoleic acid ratios were significantly lower in the alcohol group compared to the control group, whereas the ratios of the aloe supplemented groups were similar to that of the control group. Therefore, aloe had some beneficial effects on lipid metabolic disorders induced by alcohol and affected desaturation of fatty acids.

Nutrient Intake Status of Korean Drinkers: Analysis of Data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2011 (성인 음주자의 영양소 섭취실태: 2011 국민건강영양조사 자료 분석)

  • Kim, Hyung-Tae;Chun, Sung-Soo;Joung, Sun-Hee;Yun, Mi-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.343-355
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed the dietary habits and nutrient intake status of adult drinkers in Korea. Alcohol drinking patterns were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 4,968 persons, 91.5% were drinkers. Classification of their drinking patterns by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score showed 64.5% of the drinkers were normal drinkers, 22.4% problem drinkers and 13.2% alcohol-dependent drinkers. Overall, 47% of the drinkers were considered alcohol-dependent in the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS4). Significant differences were found between those who abstained from alcohol (86.8%) and alcohol-dependent drinkers (68.9%); when asked about breakfast habits 73.4% of non-drinkers often had family meals, while only 55.4% of the alcohol-dependent drinkers had family meals. Dietary energy, alcohol energy, and total energy intake significantly increased for the alcohol-dependents (P<0.001). In addition, the intake of eight nutrients (protein, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, calcium, phosphorous and iron), significantly increased in the following order (least to highest): abstainers, normal drinkers, drinkers with a moderate addiction to alcohol and alcohol-dependent drinkers (P <0.05). Nutrient Adequacy Ratios (NAR) of all nutrients, except vitamin C, and the Mean nutrient Adequacy Ratio (MAR) significantly increased in the following order (least to highest): abstainers, normal drinkers, drinkers with a moderate addiction to alcohol and alcohol-dependent drinkers (P<0.05). The intake of vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, and niacin per 1,000 kcal, according to drinking pattern, decreased in the order of abstainers, normal drinkers, drinkers with a moderate addiction to alcohol, and alcohol-dependent drinkers (P<0.001). The above results show that the nutrient intake of normal drinkers, drinkers with a moderate addiction to alcohol, and alcohol-dependent drinkers are higher than abstainers. However, overall intake of vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, and niacin per 1,000 kcal was low. Therefore it is necessary to increase vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, and niacin intake for drinkers.

The Study on the Focus Group of Adolescent Alcohol Use (청소년 음주 예방을 위한 포커스집단 연구)

  • Lee, Si-Yeon;Choi, Youn-Jung;Kwon, Hyun-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.319-346
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    • 2006
  • This study examines the current alcohol use situation among adolescents and provides information relevant to development of adequate prevention programs for adolescent alcohol use in Korea. In this study, we used focus group research method and analyzed the outcome with constant comparison method. We classified 4 major categories of adolescent alcohol use situation such as the factors on enhancing alcohol use, the factors on delaying alcohol use, the occasions significantly related to alcohol use and the first alcohol use experience of adolescent. And we found out 16 minor categories and 93 concepts under the major categories. The results from the study revealed that the factors on enhancing alcohol use were associated with adolescents' psychological reasons, their positive perceptions on alcohol, family factors, peer influences, teacher's influences and social and cultural aspects on alcohol in general. The factors on delaying alcohol use were associated with health conditions, their negative perceptions on alcohol, parental monitoring, economic reasons and their limited access to purchase alcohol. The occasions significantly related to adolescent alcohol use were family events, school events and peer gatherings. In addition, the first adolescent alcohol use experience was strongly associated with the peer influences and significant adults' offer of alcohol. Findings suggest recommendations for prevention and intervention programs for adolescent alcohol use in Korea.

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A Study on Alcohol Expectancy of Elementary Schoolchild (초등학생들의 음주기대에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Mi-Suk;Park, Young-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.3
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    • pp.15-33
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    • 2002
  • Researchers' common findings is that there are positive or negative effect of alcohol expectancy on drinking behavior. Therefore we would effectively prevent troublesome drinking of the youth and university students by inquiring and controlling critical factors affecting alcohol expectancy. The purposes of this thesis are, first, to empirically test factors affecting the alcohol expectancy level of elementary schoolchild(potential drinker).; second, to suggest the necessity for development of pre-alcohol prevention programs. On the basis of previous research, eighteen factors included in four categories(general characters, environmental characters, alcohol knowledge, drinking experience) affecting alcohol expectancy level were found out. 623 subjects used in this study were drawn from 8 elementary schools in Daegu, Korea. The empirical results suggested that the alcohol expectancy level of elementary schoolchildren was negative in general. And it was proved that 9 factors were significantly correlated with alcohol expectancy level. To put it concretely(see Fig.), (1) It was proved that schoolchildren with bad environment(live in oneself, displeased drinking feeling) rather than good environment(live with parents, nice drinking feeling) for drinking had more negative alcohol expectancy. (2) Korean traditional culture that partakes of sacrificial food and drink have an influence on the first drinking of most elementary schoolchildren. And it was proved that schoolchildren with this drinking experience rather than any other motives had less negative alcohol expectancy. (3) It was proved that schoolchildren adapting themselves rather than being difficult in school life had more negative alcohol expectancy. And the more knowledge about alcohol or drinking schoolchildren had, the more they had negative alcohol expectancy (4) It was proved that schoolchildren having drinking experience or drinking at present rather than having no drinking experience or not-drinking at present had less negative alcohol expectancy. (5) It was proved that schoolchildren having strong drinking intention rather than having weak or no drinking intention in the future had more positive alcohol expectancy. Based on previous results, guideline for development of pre-alcohol prevention programs can be represented: discriminated programs development on educatee, drinking education programs development increasing the power of self-control about alcohol and drinking, social education or continuing education programs development on drinking, open preschool education to substantially prevent drinking or alcoholism etc. The findings, however, should be interpreted with caution, because this study has several limitations in measurement and sampling as follows. First, selection bias because of limited selection of sampling. It is because the subjects are drawn from only 8 elementary schools in Daegu. Second, less refined measurement ; Therefore, it is necessary to develop more detailed measures on alcohol knowledge, alcohol expectancy level especially. Further researches should be suggested and encouraged with more refined methodologies.

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Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Determination of Alcohol Homologues in the Korean Folk Sojues (Distilled Liquor) (기체크로마토그래피 및 질량분석법에 의한 민속 소주중의 알코올 동족체 분석)

  • Lee, Dong Seon;Park, Hye Seong;Kim, Geon;Lee, Taek Su;No, Bong Su
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.38 no.9
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    • pp.640-652
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    • 1994
  • This work is undertaken to determine alcohol homologues so-called fusel oil that may be present in the Korean folk sojues (distilled liquor) made from grains and to describe sample preparation and analytical method by GC-FID-MS. Solid phase extraction method for sample preparation by using porous styrene divinyl benzene polymer (Porapak Q) was compared with steam distillation and solvent extraction method. Retention behaviors of homologous series of alcohols were also studied. Log values of retention time, molecular weight, boiling point, and capacity factor of alcohols showed linear correlations to the carbon number of an alcohol, to the oven temperature, and to the dielectric constant. Components such as methyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, isopentyl alcohol, and phenethyl alcohol have been identified. The more amount of isopentyl alcohol than other alcohols are contained in the Korean folk sojues, while that of n-propyl alcohol are contained in Chinese kaoliangchiew. Degree of similarity or dissimilarity and classification of the individual samples were discussed using multivariate statistical analysis(principal components analysis) based on GC data.

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Concentration Dependent Effects of Alcohol on Vasoconstriction (저농도 및 고농도의 알코올의 투여와 혈관수축성의 조절)

  • Je, Hyun-Dong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.180-185
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    • 2012
  • The aim of present study was to investigate the possible influence and related mechanism of alcohol on the arterial contraction. Vascular contraction involves the activation of thick or thin filament pathway. However, there are no reports addressing the question whether this pathway is involved in alcohol-induced regulation. We hypothesized that alcohol plays a role in vascular contraction evoked by a vasoconstrictor in rat aortae regardless of endothelial function. Denuded arterial rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded using a computerized data acquisition system. Interestingly, alcohol at a low concentration (3% v/v) inhibited thromboxane $A_2$ or phorbol ester-induced contraction with endothelial function but at a high concentration (10%) didn't inhibit and rather increased the contraction in the denuded muscle. Therefore, alcohol at a low concentration decreases the contraction and alcohol at a high concentration increases the contraction suggesting that additional pathways different from endothelial nitric oxide synthesis might be involved in the regulation of contractility. In conclusion, alcohol has some effect on the regulation of contractility regardless of endothelial function.