• Title/Summary/Keyword: Aflatoxin $M_1$

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Occurrence and Countermeasures for Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Products: A Review (우유 및 유제품에서 Aflatoxin M1 발생현황과 대책)

  • Chon, Jung-Whan;Bae, Dongryeoul;Song, Kwang-Young;Jeong, Dongkwan;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2019
  • In general, milk is a nutritious food and is very helpful in improving and maintaining a person's health. However, over the past 30 years, a number of studies have reported the presence of Aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products worldwide. The contamination with Aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products has become an important issue all over the world. The presence of the mycotoxin in these products was a major concern particularly among children and infants, who are more sensitive than adults. This study reviewed recent data to summarize the current status of Aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products produced in various regions around the world, related regulations, reduction strategies, detection methods, and future research tasks. Strict regulation and superior milk-handling techniques are essential to minimize Aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and dairy products using ever-evolving analytical techniques. Furthermore, education should be imparted to ensure that Aflatoxin M1 that may exist in milk and dairy products and its effects on human health are made aware of.

Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized Market Milk in Korea

  • Hwang, Kyu-Choon;Hwang, Joo-Yea;Kim, Hyoun-Wook;Oh, Mi-Hwa
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.376-378
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    • 2012
  • Aflatoxin M1, ingested as aflatoxin B1 via contaminated feedstuff and later converted into, is a major problematic target for milk safety control among the aflatoxin class. Korean government has controlled level of AFM1 in milk at 500 ppt as maximum residue level (MRL), and more recently, government also publicized the proposal for more strict control on fungal toxins about infant and baby foods. In this study the levels of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of 42 marketed milk samples were determined with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to evaluate the status on the contamination of Aflatoxin M1. The evaluated ELISA performances of limit of detection (LOD) and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) were 5 pg/mL (ppt) and 49 ppt, respectively. In all 42 samples, AFM1 appeared above the 5 ppt, with the average of 21 ppt and the range of up to 90 ppt. Only 3 (7%) of samples showed the level of contamination above the EU MRL (50 ppt). Although there was incidence of higher level of contamination compared with previous reports, the result of this study requires more intensive study to control of AFM1 in milk and infant foods.

효소면역측정법에 의한 우유중의 Aflatoxin M$_{1}$ 분석

  • 손동화;임선희;이인원
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.630-635
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    • 1996
  • For a survey of the occurrence of aflatoxin M$_{1}$ (AFM$_{1}$) in domestic cow's milk, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, and quantitated the toxin in cow's milk. In order to produce specific antibodies AFM, conjugated to bovine serum albumin (AFM$_{1}$-BSA) and Freund's adjuvant were immunized subcutaneously to rabbits. By use of the antiserum showing the highest titer and AFB$_{1}$-HRP conjugate, we established a competitive direct ELISA (cdELISA) for AFM$_{1}$, whose detection limit was 0.003 ppb. The cross-reactivities of the antiserum against aflatoxin M$_{1}$ M$_{2}$, B$_{1}$, B$_{2}$, G$_{1}$, G$_{2}$, B$_{2a}$, and G$_{2a}$, were 100, 29.9, 25.0, 2.7, 13.0, 0.65, 0, and 0%, respectively. When the cdELISA was applied to the cow's milk spiked with AFM$_{1}$ and followed by cleanup with C$_{18}$ cartridge, the mean recovery of the assay was 104% (mean of CV, 6.4%) in the final concentration of 0.01-1 ppb (10-1, 000 ppt). When cow's milk samples gathered from markets and farms were assayed by the cdELISA, the mean concentration and SD of AFM$_{1}$ was 80.4 $\pm$ 55.0 ppt (n=64; range, 5.6-280 ppt).

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An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for $Aflatoxin\;M_1$ in Cow's Milk without a Cleanup Procedure (희석에 의한 우유 중 $Aflatoxin\;M_1$의 효소면역측정법)

  • Shon, Dong-Hwa;Lim, Sun-Hee;Lee, Yin-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1184-1187
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    • 1996
  • A simple and rapid detection system for $aflatoxin\;M_1\;(AFM_1)$ in cow's milk by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Specific antibodies against $AFM_1$, conjugated to bovine serum albumin $(AFM_1-BSA)$ were raised in rabbits and purified. The cross-reactivities of the antibodies against aflatoxin analogs were less than 29.9%. When a competitive direct ELISA (cdELISA) for $AFM_1$, established by use of the antibodies was applied to the spike test of $AFM_1$ onto uncontaminated cow's milk, the assay recovery was unstable unless cow's milk was diluted to 40% (2:3) with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In that condition of sample dilution, the mean ELISA recovery of $AFM_1$, from the cow's milk was 113% (coefficient of variation (CV) of each recovery percentage, 8.2%) in the range of $0.3{\sim}3.0\;ppb$. These results showed that the ELISA system could be a convenient tool to monitor the contamination of AFM1 more than 0.5 ppb in cow's milk (FDA allowance limit) easily.

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Application of Competitive ELISA Method for Estimation of Urinary Aflatoxin M1 Level (ELISA 방법을 이용한 요중 아플라톡신 M1 측정)

  • Kim, Yong-Dae;Kim, Heon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.306-310
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    • 2013
  • We compared the efficacy of the competitive ELISA method for measuring the level of urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) with that of the HPLC-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) method. The recovery rate of AFM1 with the ELISA method was 105% (73-124%), and the coefficient of variation of the analysis was 6.85%. The ELISA method showed a 0.20 pg/ml and 0.62 pg/ml limit of detection and limit of quantitation, respectively. In correlation analysis, the two methods showed a very strong and statistically significant correlation (R=0.96, p<0.01). However, in spite of the strong correlation, the ELISA method tended to overestimate the urinary AFM1 concentration compared to the HPLC-FLD method. These results suggest that the competitive ELISA method may be a useful technique for measuring the AFM1 level in high-throughput urine samples, but it needs to be corrected with a regression equation from regression analysis with the HPLC-FLD method.

STUDY ON AFLATOXINS IN SOME FOODSTUFFS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD IN EGYPT

  • EL-GOHARY, A.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.571-575
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    • 1995
  • A total of 455 food samples representing 22 different food types were collected from several localities at Alexandria province in Egypt. Aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1 were detected in 5 out of 455 (1.1%) of these food samples. From the same samples 206 fungal isolates were obtained. Thirty two of these isolates (15.5%) were found to be aflatoxin producers. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant isolate, while Aspergillus parasaticus was also isolated from a few other food samples. Among locally consumed foodstuffs. Peanut (7.5%) and Milk powder (6.6%) were found to be a suitable substrates for aflatoxin production. The hygienic and public health significance of the isolated aflatoxigenic strains were discussed.

In-field evaluation of clinoptilolite feeding efficacy on the reduction of milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cattle

  • Katsoulos, Panagiotis D.;Karatzia, Maria A.;Boscos, Constantinos;Wolf, Petra;Karatzias, Harilaos
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.7
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    • pp.24.1-24.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with high adsorption capacity for polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxins. The efficacy of clinoptilolite in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxicosis has been proven in monogastric animals, but there is no such evidence for ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, whether the dietary administration of clinoptilolite in dairy cows could reduce the concentration of aflatoxin M1 ($AFM_1$) in bulk-tank milk, in farms with higher than or close to $0.05{\mu}g/kg$ of milk (European maximum allowed residual level). An objective of the present study was also to investigate the effect of particle size of clinoptilolite on aflatoxin binding. Methods: Fifteen commercial Greek dairy herds with AFM1 concentrations in bulk tank milk ${\geq}0.05{\mu}g/kg$ were selected. Bulk tank milk AFM1 was determined prior to the onset and on day 7 of the experiment. Clinoptilolite was added in the total mixed rations of all farms at the rate of 200 g per animal per day, throughout this period. Two different particle sizes of clinoptilolite were used; less than 0.15 mm in 9 farms (LC group) and less than 0.8 mm in 6 farms (HC group). Results: Clinoptilolite administration significantly reduced $AFM_1$ concentrations in milk in all farms tested at an average rate of 56.2 % (SD: 15.11). The mean milk $AFM_1$ concentration recorded on Day 7 was significantly (P < 0.001) lower compared to that of Day 0 ($0.036{\pm}0.0061$ vs. $0.078{\pm}0.0074{\mu}g/kg$). In LC group farms the reduction of milk $AFM_1$ concentration was significantly higher than HC group farms ($0.046{\pm}0.0074$ vs. $0.036{\pm}0.0061{\mu}g/kg$, P = 0.002). As indicated by the Pearson correlation, there was a significant and strong linear correlation among the milk $AFM_1$ concentrations on Days 0 and 7 (R = 0.95, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Dietary administration of clinoptilolite, especially of smallest particle size, at the rate of 200 g per cow per day can effectively reduce milk $AFM_1$ concentration in dairy cattle and can be used as a preventive measure for the amelioration of the risks associated with the presence of aflatoxins in the milk of dairy cows.

Microbiological Safety Concerns with Dairy Products from Farmstead Plants (목장형 유가공업의 미생물학적 안전성에 대한 고찰)

  • Lee, Jeeyeon;Yoon, Yohan
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2017
  • The consumption of natural cheese in Korea has dramatically increased since 1997. However, most of the cheeses consumed in Korea are imported. Thus, surplus milk has accumulated in Korea. To solve this problem, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs established a policy to create a farmstead dairy industry. Although the law governing the industry was established in 2016, food safety guidelines have not been prepared. Milk and cheese are prone to contamination with mycotoxins such as aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A, antibiotic residues such as penicillin and tetracycline, and pathogenic bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus. L. monocytogenes infections have a very high mortality rate; hence, special attention should be paid to preventing contamination of milk and cheese with this organism. To ensure the microbiological safety of farmstead dairy products, the HACCP model has been used. However, this model is not suitable for current processing environments of farmstead dairy products because of the small size of the operations. In addition, scientific data on the microbiological safety of farmstead dairy product are limited and are urgently needed.

The Study on the Detection of Aflatoxins in the Fermentation Products and Cereals (TLC법에 의한 장류 및 공류중의 Aflatoxin검출에 관한 연구)

  • 한양일;김광호;오영복
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.46-50
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    • 1978
  • Aflatoxin, a mixture of the at least four toxic and carcinogenic metabolites, is known to be produced by only a few fungi. The toxins were designated aflatoxins because they were produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus(A. flavus). However, at least four other toxins and other species of the genus A. niger, A. parasiticus A. ruber and wentii have been reported to produce aflatoxins. And also the identical compounds may also be produced by molds, the Pencillium. At least four different species of Penicilliurn have been reported to produce aflatoxins (P. citrinurn, P. frequentans, P. puberulurn. and P. variable). So it is now known that the problem of Aflatoxin is not restricted to the single species A. flavus, even though that is a very common mold. Also additional aflatoxins have been discorvered. For sereral years, only four aflatoxins were known: $B_1, B_2, G_1$ and $G_2$, so designated by reason of their fluorescence and chromatographic charateristics. It is now known that there are really two new toxic materials in the milk. During the past year(1966) they were christened aflatoxin $M_1$ and $M_2$, since they were first found in milk. The two other and most recently discorvered aflatoxins were isolated late in 1966 from cultures of A. flavus, and were designated aflatoxin $B_2a$ and aflatoxin $G_2a$. In order to obtain a breaf information about extent of contamination of foodstuffs by aflatoxin which is known to produce eight different mold, aflatoxin detection of cereals and fermented foods on sale, such as polished rice, barley, wheat, wheat flour, lentil, red bean, soy bean, noodle, kochuj ang and Dwenjang (fermented soy bean paste) and chong Kuk, were carried out. The results of this investigation were summarized as follows: The hexane:$CHCl_3$ extracts of polished rice, barley wheat, wheat flour, lentil, red bean, noodle and kochujang yielded fluorescent spots on thin layer plates. However their Rfvalues were different from those of authentic aflatoxins. The fluorescent substances of the extract from soy bean, Dwenjang and chong kuk showed very similar Rf values to those of the standard aflatoxins. By two dimensional thin layer chromatography and comparison of ultra violet absorption spectra, it was found that these fluorescent substances were not aflatoxins. To conclude, aflatoxins themselves were not detected directly in those samples tested.

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Desmutagenic Effect of Water Extract from Artemisia capillaris THUNB on the Mutagenicity of Benzo[a]pyrene (Benzo[a]pyrene의 변이원성에대한 인진쑥 물 추출물의 항돌연변이 효과)

  • 안병용
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.331-336
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    • 2000
  • The antimutagenic activity of the extract of Artemisia capillaris THUNB on the mutagenicity induced by benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] in the presense of S9 mixture was studied using bacterial mutagenic assay system. Samples harvested in summer and autumn were extracted using ethanol and hot water. Among these extracts the water extract of summer sample had the strongest inhibitory effect against the mutagenenicity of B(a)P, The water extract of Artemisia capillaris THUNB was separated again into ethanol soluble and insoluble parts. The ethanol insoluble part(El) of water extract exhibited higher inhibition effects than the ethanol soluble part against the mutagenic activity of B(a)P. El showed dose-dependent activity on the mutagenicity of B(a)P in SOS Chromotest and Ames test. The 50% inbibition concentraction $(IC_{50}$ of El were $200{\mu}g/assay$ $600{\mu}g/plate$ and $800{\mu}b/plate$ in E. coil PQ37 S. typhimurium TA100 and TA98 respectively. El were showed desmutagenic effect but had no effect on the DNA repair system for B(a)P-induced mutagenesis. HPLC analysis showed that the formation of aflatoxin M1 by cytochrome P-450 1A1 known as playing an impotant role on B(a) P-induced mutagenicity was highly inhibited by El. Therefore we encluded that B(a)P-induced mutagencity can be reduced possible due to the interference of el with cytochrome P-450 1A1-dependent bioactivation.

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