• Title, Summary, Keyword: 유효선량

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A Study on the Presentation of Entrance Surface Dose Model using Semiconductor Dosimeter, General Dosimeter, Glass Dosimeter: Focusing on Comparative Analysis of Effective Dose and Disease Risk through PCXMC 2.0 based on Monte Carlo Simulation (반도체 선량계, 일반 선량계, 유리 선량계를 이용한 입사표면선량 모델 제시에 관한 연구: 몬테카를로 시뮬레이션 기반의 PCXMC 2.0을 통한 유효선량과 발병 위험도의 비교분석을 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Jun-Ho;Lee, Kyung-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2018
  • One of the purposes of radiation protection is to minimize stochastic effects. PCXMC 2.0 is a Monte Carlo Simulation based program and makes it possible to predict effective dose and the probability of cancer development through entrance surface dose. Therefore, it is especially important to measure entrance surface dose through dosimeter. The purpose of this study is to measure entrance surface dose through semiconductor dosimeter, general dosimeter, glass dosimeter, and to compare and analyze the effective dose and probability of disease of critical organs. As an experimental method, the entrance surface dose of skull, chest, abdomen was measured per dosimeter and the effective dose and the probability of cancer development of critical organs per area was evaluated by PCXMC 2.0. As a result, the entrance surface dose per area was different in the order of a general dosimeter, a semiconductor dosimeter, and a glass dosimeter even under the same condition. Base on this analysis, the effective dose and probability of developing cancer of critical organs were also different in the order of a general dosimeter, a semiconductor dosimeter, and a glass dosimeter. In conclusion, it was found that the effective dose and the risk of diseases differ according to the dosimeter used, even under the same conditions, and through this study it was found that it is important to present an accurate entrance surface dose model according to each dosimeter.

Evaluation of Effective and Organ Dose Using PCXMC Program in DUKE Phantom and Added Filter for Computed Radiography System (CR 환경에서의 흉부촬영 시 Duke Phantom과 부가여과를 이용한 유효선량 및 장기선량 평가)

  • Kang, Byung-Sam;Park, Min-Joo;Kim, Seung-Chul
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2014
  • By using a Chest Phantom(DUKE Phantom) focusing on dose reduction of diagnostic radiation field with the most use of artificial radiation, and attempt to reduce radiation dose studies technical radiation. Publisher of the main user of the X-ray Radiological technologists, Examine the effect of reducing the radiation dose to apply additional filtering of the X-ray generator. In order to understand the organ dose and effective dose by using the PC-Based Monte Carlo Program(PCXMC) Program, the patient receives, was carried out this research. In this experiment, by applying a complex filter using a copper and Al(aluminum,13) and filtered single of using only aluminum with the condition set, and measures the number of the disk of copper indicated by DUKE Phantom. The combination of the composite filtration and filtration of a single number of the disk of the copper is the same, with the PCXMC 2.0. Program looking combination of additional filtration fewest absorbed dose was calculated effective dose and organ dose. Although depends on the use mAs, The 80 kVp AP projection conditions, it is possible to reduce the effective amount of about 84 % from about 30 % to a maximum at least. The 120 kVp PA projection conditions, it is possible to reduce the effective amount of about 71 % from about 41 % to a maximum of at least. The organ dose, dose reduction rate was different in each organ, but it showed a decrease of dose rate of 30 % to up 100 % at least. Additional filtration was used on the imaging conditions throughout the study. There was no change in terms of video quality at low doses. It was found that using the DUKE Phantom and PCXMC 2.0 Program were suitable to calculate the effect of reducing the effective dose and organ dose.

Effective Doses in the Radial Gamma Radiation Field near a Point Source: Gender Difference and Deviation from the Personal Dose Equivalent (점선원 감마선장에서 유효선량의 성별차 및 개연선량당량과의 차이)

  • Chang, Jai-Kwon;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.299-307
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    • 1997
  • The individual dose equivalent, $H_p$, effective dose, E, and gender specific effective dose, $E^m$ and E$^f$, were evaluated using the male and female phantoms of MIRD type located in the radial gamma radiation field near a point source. The point sources were placed at the distances of 15, 40 and 100 cm in front of the body at different heights. Two radionuclides, $^{137}Cs$ and $^{131}I$, were selected for the illustrative examples. In terms of the gender specific effective doses, $E^f$ is higher than $E^m$ with a few exceptions, e.g. the case where the point source is at the height of reproductive organs, but the differences from the sex- averaged values are not significant enough to justify use of gender specific dose conversion factors for the radial gamma field. The ratios $H_p$/E were in the range of 1 to 3 depending on the source and dosimeter positions when the dosimeter is worn on the front surface of the torso covering from chest to lower abdomen, but varied from 0.34 to 6.5 in extreme cases. When it is assumed that the typical handling procedure of radioactive source material and the typical dosimeter position(on the chest) be respected, the dosimeters calibrated against the broad parallel field appear to provide estimates with acceptable errors for the effective dose of workers exposed to radial broad gamma field around a point source.

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A Study on the Effect of Containment Filtered Venting System to Off-site under Severe Accident (중대사고시 격납건물여과배기계통(CFVS)적용으로 인한 사고영향과 결과 고찰)

  • Jeon, Ju Young;Kwon, Tae-Eun;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2015
  • The containment filtered venting system reduces the range of the contamination area around the nuclear power plant by strengthening the integrity of the containment building. In this study, the probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to assess the effect of the CFVS to off-site. The accident source term was selected from a Probabilistic Safety Analysis report of SHINKORI 1&2 Nuclear Power Plant. The three source term categories from 19 STC were chosen to evaluate the effective dose and thyroid dose of residents around the power plant and the dose with CFVS and without CFVS were compared. The dose was calculated according to the distance from the nuclear power plant, so the damage scale based on the distance that exceeds the IAEA criteria for effective dose (100 mSv per 7 days) and thyroid dose (50 mSv per 7 days) were compared. The effective dose reduction rates of the STC-3, STC-4, STC-6 were about 95-99% in the whole range (0~35 km), 96-98% for the thyroid dose. There are similar results between effective dose and thyroid dose. After applying the CFVS, the damage scale that exceeds the effective dose criteria was about 1 km (mean). Especially, the STC-4 damage scale was decreased from 26 km (mean) to 1.2 km (mean) significantly. The damage scale that exceed the thyroid dose criteria was decreased to 2~3 km (mean). The STC-4 damage scale was also decreased significantly as compared to STC-3, STC-6 in terms of effective dose.

Assessment of the Effective Dose to the Human Body and Estimation of Lifetime Attributable Risk by CT Examination (CT 검사별 노출되는 유효선량과 생애 암 귀속 위험도 평가)

  • Cho, Yong In;Kim, Jung Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2020
  • The number of CT scans is increasing every year due to the improvement of the medical standards of the public, and thus the annual dose of medical radiation is also increasing. In this study, we evaluated the effective dose of the human body exposed to CT scans and estimated LAR. First, five region were selected from the CT diagnostic reference level guideline, and the effective dose of human body exposed to each examination was evaluated by clinical CT device. Second, the human organs and effective dose were calculated using the ALARA-CT program under the same conditions. Third, lifetime attributable risk (LAR) estimated by the effective dose exposed through the previous CT scan was estimated. As a result, the most effective dose was 21.18 mSv during the abdomen 4 phase scan, and the dose level was below DRL for all other tests except for the abdominal examination. As a result of evaluating effective dose using a dose calculation program under the same conditions, the results showed about 1.1 to 1.9 times higher results for each examination. In the case of organ dose, the closer the organ to the scan site, the higher the scattering ray. The lifetime attributable risk to CT radiation dose in adults was gradually decreased with age, and the results were somewhat different according to gender.

Characterization of Radiation Field in the Steam Generator Water Chambers and Effective Doses to the Workers (증기발생기 수실의 방사선장 특성 및 작업자 유효선량의 평가)

  • Lee, Choon-Sik;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.215-223
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    • 1999
  • Characteristics of radiation field in the steam generator(S/G) water chamber of a PWR were investigated and the anticipated effective dose rates to the worker in the S/G chamber were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. The results of crud analysis in the S/G of the Kori nuclear power plant unit 1 were adopted for the source term. The MCNP4A code was used with the MIRD type anthropomorphic sex-specific mathematical phantoms for the calculation of effective doses. The radiation field intensity is dominated by downward rays, from the U-tube region, having approximate cosine distribution with respect to the polar angle. The effective dose rates to adults of nominal body size and of small body size(The phantom for a 15 year-old person was applied for this purpose) appeared to be 36.22 and 37.06 $mSvh^{-1}$) respectively, which implies that the body size effect is negligible. Meanwhile, the equivalent dose rates at three representative positions corresponding to head, chest and lower abdomen of the phantom, calculated using the estimated exposure rates, the energy spectrum and the conversion coefficients given in ICRU47, were 118, 71 and 57 $mSvh^{-1}$, respectively. This implies that the deep dose equivalent or the effective dose obtained from the personal dosimeter reading would be the over-estimate the effective dose by about two times. This justifies, with possible under- or over- response of the dosimeters to radiation of slant incidence, necessity of very careful planning and interpretation for the dosimetry of workers exposed to a non-regular radiation field of high intensity.

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EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM CONE BEAM CT FOR IMAGING OF MESIODENS (상악 정중과잉치 진단을 위한 cone beam CT의 유효선량)

  • Han, Won-Jeong;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : This study was aimed to calculate effective dose from cone beam CT and compare effective dose from periapical and panoramic radiography for mesiodens. Materials and Methods : Upper anteiror periapical, panoramic radiography and cone-beam CT were taken for diagnosis of mesiodens. The effective dose were calculated by using an anthropomorphic phantom loaded with thermoluminescent dosimeters at the 23 sites related to sensitive organs. Results : The highest absorbed doses were received by the mandibular body, parotid gland and cheek from periapical, panoramic and cone-beam CT, respectively. The effective doses for periapical, panoramic radiography and cone-beam CT measured 2, 18 and 48 ${\mu}Sv$. Conclusion : Cone-beam CT, although providing additional diagnostic benefits, exposes patients to higher levels of radiation than conventional periapical and panoramic radiography.