• Title/Summary/Keyword: 불이행

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A Study on the Liabilities of Wrongful Dishonor of the Issuing Bank in UCC (미국 UCC상 신용장 발행은행의 부당한 지급불이행의 책임에 관한 연구)

  • Bae, Jung-Han
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.22
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    • pp.71-106
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    • 2004
  • Todays, L/C transactions in international trade are governed by UCP 500 and eUCP. But UCP 500 and eUCP do not cover all legal problem of L/C transactions. Therefore choice of laws in international L/C transactions are occurred. U.S.A. has an enacted law (UCC ${\S}5-Letter$ of Credit) to govern L/C transaction. But other countries has no special enacted law to govern L/C transaction. The reason is that there are difference between legal attitude of U.S.A. and other countries. American law considers L/C as a special device made by merchants. Therefore U.S.A. applies UCC ${\S}5-Letter$ of Credit instead of general contract law. UCC ${\S}5-Letter$ of Credit includes provisions of warranties, remedies, and so on that UCP 500 and eUCP do not include. But the liabilities of the Issuing Bank on the wrongful dishonor in L/C transaction is very important legal problem. First, this study is to justify concepts of honor and dishonor, and sufficient conditions for dishonor of the issuing bank. in UCC. Second, this study is to examine closely the liabilities of the Issuing Bank on the wrongful dishonor in L/C transaction. Third, this study is suggest distinctive features on the Liabilities to wrongful dishonor of the issuing bank in UCC ${\S}5-Letter$ of Credit and our trader's matters to be attended to L/C transactions governed by UCC.

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Design Criteria of the Median Barrier Considering Impulse Measurement (충격량을 고려한 중앙분리대 설계기준에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Je-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2008
  • Although a rate of car accident death is on the decrease, internal rate of median encroachment accident is still high. In order to reduce the median encroachment accident, government use median barriers but there are no exact criteria of them. Particularly, current impulse measurement method has adopted the uniformly operating speed and encroachment angle. At reality, however, there are various conditions depends on driver's characters. In that reason, this study calculates reasonable impulse quantity through encroachment angle and operating speed. It will be necessary to prevent overuse treasury and car accidents.

A Study on Legal Deposit Guidelines for Online Digital Materials (온라인 디지털자료의 납본 가이드라인에 관한 연구)

  • Kwak, Seung-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Taek;Park, Ok-Nam;Choi, Jae-Hwang
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.161-179
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to suggest elements and guidelines for online digital materials in order to ensure its comprehensive collection, preservation, and access in Korea. For the establishment of elements and guidelines, this study examined appropriate advanced countries' legal deposit Acts, discussed with stakeholders, including experts and copyrighters in related areas, and surveyed library users' opinions. Finally, this study suggests 14 elements and guidelines.

Fine Grain Real-Time Code Scheduling Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (적합 유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 실시간 코드 스케쥴링)

  • Chung, Tai-Myoung
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.1481-1494
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    • 1997
  • In hard real-time systems, a timing fault may yield catastrophic results. Dynamic scheduling provides the flexibility to compensate for unexpected events at runtime; however, scheduling overhead at runtime is relatively large, constraining both the accuracy of the timing and the complexity of the scheduling analysis. In contrast, static scheduling need not have any runtime overhead. Thus, it has the potential to guarantee the precise time at which each instruction implementing a control action will execute. This paper presents a new approach to the problem of analyzing high-level language code, augmented by arbitrary before and after timing constraints, to provide a valid static schedule. Our technique is based on instruction-level complier code scheduling and timing analysis, and can ensure the timing of control operations to within a single instruction clock cycle. Because the search space for a valid static schedule is very large, a novel adaptive genetic search algorithm was developed.

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Design of a Safety Distance Securing System using Infrared cameras (적외선 카메라를 이용한 안전거리 확보 시스템 설계)

  • Seo, Sang-Hyun;Jung, Dong-Hun;Jang, Si-Woong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.329-332
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    • 2015
  • 야간에 자동차를 운행할 때 검정색 차량 같은 어두운 색상의 자동차는 운전자가 인지를 못하는 경우가 많고 안개가 짙게 낀 상황도 운전자의 시야가 좁아져 교통사고율이 급격하게 증가한다. 도로교통공단의 자료에 의하면 최근 5년(2009~2013) 동안 가해자의 안전거리 미확보로 인한 교통사고는 매년 감소하는 것으로 나타나지만, 안전운전 의무 불이행 다음으로 두 번째로 높은 사고 건수를 기록하고 있다. 이는 아직도 운전자의 시인성 저하에 대한 방안이 부족하기 때문이다. 시인성 저하를 위한 대책으로 BMW, AUDI, Benz 회사에서 적외선 카메라를 이용한 나이트 비젼이 있으나 거리감지기능이 없어 디스플레이를 계속 주시하면서 운행하여야 하므로 시야가 좁아져 다른 위험이 발생할 수 있다. 현재 시중에 제공되고 있는 적외선 나이트 비젼 카메라를 이용하였을 때 일반 시야보다 약 4배 정도의 거리를 인식할 수 있었고, 이러한 나이트 비젼의 장점을 활용하여 전면 차량과의 안전거리를 확보하는 시스템을 제안한다. 본 논문에서는 제시하는 시스템은 시인성이 떨어지는 환경을 가정하여 설계하였고 나이트 비젼 카메라를 이용해 디스플레이로 출력하여 육안으로 구분할 수 없는 물체도 인지할 수 있어 헤드라이트를 켜고 운행할 때보다 안전한 운행을 할 수 있을 것으로 보인다. 하지만 디스플레이를 지속적으로 주시하며 운행할 경우 거리 감각이 떨어져 근접해 오는 물체와의 충돌 사고를 막기 힘들 것으로 보인다. 따라서 이러한 단점을 보안하기 위해 영상 데이터를 활용하여 앞 차량의 유무를 파악하고 차량이 있을 때 안전거리를 디스플레이에 표시함으로 앞 차량과의 거리를 유지하여 사고를 예방하여 안전 운행이 가능하도록 설계하였다.

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Effect that Corporate Governance in Cash Flow : Focus on Entertainment Industry (기업의 지배구조가 현금흐름에 미치는 영향 : 엔터테인먼트 산업을 중심으로)

  • Ko, Dong-Won
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2010
  • So that this study confirms going concern's availability laying focus on entertainment industry possibility of default judge, focus in cash flow that is important accounting indicator pointer to do cause of bankruptcy, payable capability, insolvent estimate etc and analyzed effect that governance gets in cash flow. The sampling period was from 2005 to 2008 and the number of samples was 44. In analysis technique, implement basic statistical, t-test, correlation, regression. Is as following if summarize result. CFO, for debt ratio, negative(-), enterprise size was exerting positive(+), and cash flow by investment activity enterprise size negative(-) influence reach.

A Survey on the Visitor's Cognition of Visitor Reservation System in National Park - The Case Study of Soraksan National Park - (국립공원 탐방예약제 시행에 대한 탐방객 의식 조사 - 설악산국립공원 탐방객을 대상으로-)

  • 이주수;조중현;김용근
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.92-100
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study is to survey and analyze of the visitor's cognition of Visitor-Reservation System in Soraksan National Park. To accomplish the purpose, a questionnaire survey was employed in Soraksan National Park. The contents of questionnaire consist of the socioeconomic characteristics and the types of visiting, the activity, the cognition of Visitor-Reservation System. 166 samples of total 170 respondents were used for final analysis. As a result of the analysis, the socioeconomic characteristics and the type of visiting were showed similar trends with results from other National Park visitor survey Most of respondents recognized the enforcement Visitor-Reservation System and A majority of respondents affirmatively recognized the introduction Visitor-Reservation System. Most of respondents wanted an easy method reservation and cancel in enforcement Visitor-Reservation System. Besides Most of respondents recognized negative conception on regulation(nature-rest system, facility-reservation system etc) of National Park Authority(N.P.A). About expanding enforcement Visitor-Reservation System of National Park's preservation, 'Agree Group' was almost equal with 'Disagree Group'. About more effect operate the Visitor-Reservation System Most of respondents were agree to introduce penalty.

Relationship between Conceptual Understanding and Mapping Errors Induced in Learning Chemistry Concept with Analogy (비유를 사용한 화학 개념 학습에서 유발되는 대응 오류와 개념 이해도의 관계)

  • No, Tae-Hui;Kim, Gyeong-Sun;Sin, Eun-Ju;Han, Jae-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.486-493
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    • 2006
  • study investigated the relationship between conceptual understanding and mapping errors induced in learning chemistry concept with two analogies presented in current science textbooks. Each of the two groups from 7th graders (N=260) in three middle schools studied with one of the analogies, and then a conception test and a mapping test were administered. Analyses of the results indicated that students conceptual understanding has a significant relationship with their understanding about the mapping. The scores of the conception test and the mapping test for the unshared attributes were lower than those for the shared attributes. Five types of mapping errors were also identified: overmapping, mismapping, failure to map, rash mapping, and artificial mapping. Many representative misconceptions were found to be associated with their mapping errors. Educational implications are discussed.

A Study on the Clauses of Allocation of Costs in the Incoterms 2010 (Incoterms 2010의 비용분배조항에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Soon-Hwan
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.481-511
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    • 2012
  • Incoterms 2010 Rules consist of 11 rules. The 11 rules are presented in "rules for any mode or modes of transport" and "rules for sea and inland waterway transport". The each rule of Incoterms 2010 rules has the guidance note, 10 articles(A1~A10) in relation to the seller's obligations and 10 articles(B1~B10) in relation to the buyer's obligations. The A6 and B6 of Incoterms 2010 rules, likewise previous Incoterms rules, have the article of allocations of costs. These articles of Incoterms 2010 rules provide the allocation of costs between the seller and the buyer. According to These A6 and B6, in principle, the seller must pay all costs relating to the goods until they have been delivered in accordance with A4, and the buyer must pay all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered as envisaged in A4. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to analyze the clauses of allocation of costs in Incoterms 2010 and to provide the problems of the clauses.

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Deduction or Importance Analysis for Pre-dispute Factors in the Constructions (건설공사 사전분쟁요인 도출 및 중요도 분석)

  • Park, Sung-Yong;Ko, Dae-Jun;Ha, Bong-Gyun;Yang, Jin-Kook;Lee, Sang-Beom
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute Of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • pp.505-508
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    • 2008
  • It's hard to express a lot of information within the drawings and the specifications as construction projects have gradually become large-size and complex. So, disputes are caused by that and reason that the usual practice(culture) of contract of the constructions in Korea is based on unfair rather than the fair principle between clients and contractors. However, the contractors don't try to solve this kind of things because they are worried about at their disadvantage situation. Therefore, this paper deduced the factors in the pre-dispute phase by analysing the cases of the civic counseling in the office of supply and the pre-dispute factors, and conduct analysis on the factors' importance by using AHP. The results will be used for a check-list to prevent the disputes.

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