• Title, Summary, Keyword: 노화전분

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Comparison of Enzyme Resistant Starches Formed during Heat-Moisture Treatment and Retrogradation of High Amylose Corn Starches (수분-열처리와 노화에 의해 고아밀로오스 옥수수전분으로부터 형성된 효소저항전분의 특성비교)

  • Kweon, Mee-Ra;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 1997
  • Thermal characteristics and granular morphology on enzyme-resistant starches (RS) formed during heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and retrogradation were investigated in high amylose corn starches, Hylon V and Hylon VII. With each treatment, both starches showed a similar trend in the increase of RS, but RS yield of Hylon VII is higher than that of Hylon V. Specially, RS was increased remarkably by HMT. It was more than doubled from 11.4% to 26.6% for Hylon V and from 15.9% to 32.8% for Hylon VII. A small increase of RS resulted from retrogradation. HMT on starch increased gelatinization temperature, decreased enthalpy. Retrograded starch exhibited small three endothermic transitions at $94^{\circ}C$, $110^{\circ}C$ and $140^{\circ}C$ in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram due to the remained ungelatinized starch granules, dissociation of amylose-lipid complex and melting of recrystallized amylose, respectively. Enzyme-resistant starches isolated from native and heat-moisture treated starches showed a broad endothermic transition at higher temperature than native starch, while retrograded starch exhibited a very sharp peak at ${\sim}150^{\circ}C$ due to the melting of amylose crystallites. Under microscopy, starch granules with HMT was not changed, but retrograded starches showed the aggregates of starch granules because amylose leached out during gelatinization. Iodine stained RS clearly showed the differences in enzyme hydrolysis on the native, heat-moisture treated and retrograded starches.

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Gelatinization and Retrogradation Properties of Modified Starch by Steeping Sweet Potato (고구마 수침에 의한 변성 전분의 호화와 노화 특성)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.638-643
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    • 1994
  • Gelatinization and retrogradation properties of modified starches which were prepared by steeping sweet potato at $40^{\circ}C$ for 2, 4, 7 and 10 days were investigated. The peak temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy of untreated starch by DSC were $53.9^{\circ}C\;and\;1.32\;cal/g$, respectively, but those of modified starch were increased by steeping. In gelatinization by alkali, starches with 2, 4 and 7 day steeping showed higher viscosities than untreated starch, whereas the viscosities of starches with 10 day steeping decreased. The clarities in paste decreased during storage in all starches and decreased in starches with steeping. The degrees of retrogradation by ${\alpha}-amylase-iodine$ method were higher in starches with steeping than untreated starch. The enthalpy of retrograded starches by DSC increased by steeping except 4 day steeping starch. The sweet potato extract containing sugar inhibited the retrogradation of starch paste and the degree were higher in residual starches than in untreated starch.

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The retrogradation and swelling power of modified potato starches (변성 감자 전분의 노화와 팽윤력)

  • Kim, Ji-Tae;Noh, Wan-Seob
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.404-409
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    • 1992
  • Hydroxypropylated starches and acetylated starches were prepared by reaction of potato starch with propylene oxide and acetic anhydride, respectively and then degree of retrogradation and swelling power were investigated in different pHs and temperature. The extent of retrogradation determined by glucoamylase method during freeze-thaw treatment and storage in low temperature $(0{\sim}5^{\circ}C)$ showed that modified potato starches were slowly retrograded as the increase of degree of substitution. The order of the retrogradation tendencies in different pHs were pH 4>pH 6>pH 8>pH 10. Retrogradation of hydroxypropylated potato starches were less than that of acetylated potato starches. Swelling power of starches were influenced more by the temperature than by the pH. The order of the swelling power tendencies in different pHs were pH 10>pH 2>pH 8>pH 4>pH 6.

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Retrogradation of Dilute Starch Dispersion (희석 전분 현탁액의 노화)

  • Kim, Nam-Soo;Nam, Young-Jung;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 1988
  • Retrogradation characteristics of 1% dilute rice starch dispersion were analyzed. The retrogradation was increased with prolonged storage, however, the trend in increase was more conspicuous during the initial phase of retrogradation period. The Avrami exponent, rate constant, and time constant of 1% dilute Chuchong starch dispersion were 0.96, 0.21 $days^{-1}$, and 4.77 days, respectively As the Avrami exponent approaches unity (n=1), it is confirmed that the dilute rice starch dispersion retrogrades following the formation of a rod-like growth of crystals from instantaneous nuclei. When the retrogradation process of dilute rice starch dispersion was traced, the three-dimensional structure of crystals which had different contour from native stach was formed.

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Effect of Sucrose and Gluten on Glass Transition, Gelatinization, and Retrogradation of Wheat Starch (밀전분의 유리전이와 호화 및 노화에 대한 sucrose와 글루텐의 영향)

  • Jang, Jae-Kweon;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.288-293
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    • 2004
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study effects of sucrose and gluten on wheat starch glass transition, gelatinization, and retrogradation. Glass transition temperature ($T_{g}$) of wheat starch decreased as the ratio of sucrose or gluten to starch increased. Both peak temperature ($T_{G}$) and enthalpy values of gelatinization endotherm increased or decreased with increasing ratio of sucrose or gluten, respectively. Wheat starch gel with no sucrose and gluten recrystallized up to 4 weeks of storage at $4^{\circ}C$, whereas those with sucrose and gluten completed recrystallization within 1 week. Both wheat starch gels with no sucrose and gluten, and those with sucrose and gluten at storage temperature of $32^{\circ}C$ recrystallized up to 4 weeks, with wheat starch-sucrose-gluten (1 : 0.5 : 0.12) system, which had highest ratios of gluten and sucrose to starch, showing lowest recrystallization. Nucleation and propagation rates of starch gel recrystallization based on polymer crystallization principles can be converted into peak width (${\delta}T$) and peak temperature ($T_{R}$) of retrogradative endotherm by DSC, because higher nucleation rate at storage temperature of $4^{\circ}C$ close to $T_{g}$ showed higher ${\delta}T$, whereas higher propagation rate at $32^{\circ}C$ (close to $T_{G}$) had higher $T_{R}$.

Gelatinization and Retrogradation Properties of Surfactant Added Sweet Potato Starches (계면활성제 첨가 고구마 전분의 호화와 노화특성)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.463-471
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    • 1994
  • Physicochemical properties, gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of surfactant added sweet potato starches were investigated. Three different surfactants, SSL (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate), Dimodan (mono/diglyceride) and SE1670 (sucrose fatty acid ester 1670) were used. Shapes and crystallinities of starch granules were not changed by the addition of surfactants. Total lipid contents increased and the amylose content decreased by the addition of surfactants and the order was as follows: SE1670>SSL>Dimodan. The swelling power and solubility at $80^{\circ}C$ decreased in the surfactant added starches. By amylograph, initial gelatinization temperature of untreated sweet potato starch was $72.5^{\circ}C$, and did not change by the addition of surfactants, but SE1670 or Dimodan added starch showed the peak viscosity. The peak temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy of untreated starch by DSC were $53.9^{\circ}C$ and 1.3cal/g, respectively. The peak temperature increased by the addition of surfactants, while the enthalpy decreased. In gelatinization by alkali, the viscosity was lower in surfactant added starches than in untreated starch at concentration. The degree of retrogradation by ${\alpha}-amylase-iodine$ method was a lower in SSL and SE1670 added starches than untreated starch and the enthalpy by DSC also decreased in surfactant added and retrograded starches.

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Comparison on Retrogradation Properties of Cowpea and Mung Bean Starch Gels (동부와 녹두전분 Gel의 노화특성 비교)

  • Yoon, Gae-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.672-676
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    • 1992
  • Retrogradation properties of cowpea and mung bean starch gels were investigated by rate of retrogradation, X-ray diffraction patterna and syneresis of gels. Retrogradation time constant of mung bean starch gel(30%) by Avrami equation had a similar value to that of cowpea starch gel. X-ray diffraction patterns of the two retrograded starch gels(10%) were B-type. The extent of retrogradation determined by syneresis showed that cowpea starch gel was a little larger than that of mung bean starch gel(6~10%).

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Influence of Water and Surfactants on Wheat Starch Gelatinization and Retrogradation (수분과 계면활성제가 밀전분의 호화와 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 1991
  • The effects of water contents and surfactants, sodium stearoyl-lactylate, sucrose ester and distilled monoglyceride(Dimodan) on wheat starch gelatinization and retrogradation were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The endothermic peak patterns of starch varied with water content of starch. When water content was less than 30%, gelatinization did not occur. The onset temperature of gelatinization peak of native starch was $59{\sim}60^{\circ}C$ and that of endothermal peak of retrograded starch was $50{\sim}55^{\circ}C$. The enthalpy value of retrograded starch were greatest in the $40{\sim}50%$ water content. In the presence of surfactants, gelatinization temperatures shifted slightly to higher temperatures. DSC endothermal enthalpies of the amylose-lipid complex increased. The degree of retrogradation in starch was lower with surfactant than without surfactant, but enthalpy of amylose-lipid complex did not change during storage.

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Retrogradation of Rice Starch Gels by Additives (첨가물이 쌀전분겔의 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Ji-Young;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Kim, Sung-Kon;Kim, Kwang-Joong;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 1997
  • The effects of different types of additives(sucrose fatty acid ester(SE), oligosaccharide and alum) on 40% nonwaxy rice starch gels stored at $20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ were investigated by ${\alpha}-amylase-iodine$ method, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The addition of SE retarded the retrogradation of gels throughout storage period and the antistaling effect of SE was increased with increasing concentration. Oligosaccharide(0.1%) inhibited the retrogradation, but oligosaccharide(0.1% or 0.5%) retarded the retrogradation at early stage of storage, and stimulated the retrogradation after 3 days. Alum of 0.1% level retarded the retrogradation, but 0.3% level activated the retrogradation after 24 hours and 0.5% level did after 12 hours. The effect of additives on the retrogradation of rice starch gels showed the different tendencies at the level of additives. On 0.1% level, the effect of those was similar but on 0.5%, the degree of retardation increased in order of oligosaccharide, SE1170, alum, no addition for up to 2 days of storage and SE1170, no addition, oligosaccharide, alum for 3 days of storage.

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Effect of Saccharides on Texture and Retrogradation of Acorn Starch gels (도토리 전분 겔의 텍스쳐와 노화에 미치는 당류의 영향)

  • Lee, Hyang-Aee;Kim, Nam-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.803-810
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    • 1998
  • The mechanical and thermal properties of solutions of acorn starch were investigated, to determine the effect of sucrose on the retrogradation. The contents of moisture and amylose of purified acorn starch was 9.35, 27% respectively. From the moecular weight distribution, Mw and Mn of acorn starch were 1,220,432 and 137,201 relatively and the polydispersity of acorn starch was 8.8952. The creep compliance of acorn starch with and without sucrose were decreased with increasing sucrose concentration in the short term. The temperatures of DSC curve of 15% acorn starch solution containg sucrose shifted slightly to higher temperatures with increasing sucrose content. The enthalpy change associated with the gelatinization was increased with increasing sucrose content. After 7 days storage, the creep compliance of acorn starch gel with sucrose were shown higher than acorn starch gel. Regelatinization enthalpy of acorn starch/sucrose/water system was decreased with increasing sucrose content and increased with storage time. In addition, the characteristic temperatures such as onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature was increased by sucrose addition. Retrogradation ratio decreased with increasing sucrose content, thus sucrose inhibit retrogradation in the long term. Sucrose acts as an antistaling reagents and retatards the retrogradation.

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