- Agriculture, Fishery and Food ＞ Agricultural Engineering/Facilities
Volume 34 Issue 6
Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tosa-Jidori sheds light on the origin and evolution of Japanese native chickensOsman, Sayed A.M.;Nishibori, Masahide;Yonezawa, Takahiro 941
Objective: In Japan, approximately 50 breeds of indigenous domestic chicken, called Japanese native chickens (JNCs), have been developed. JNCs gradually became established based on three major original groups, "Jidori", "Shoukoku", and "Shamo". Tosa-Jidori is a breed of Jidori, and archival records as well as its morphologically primitive characters suggest an ancient origin. Although Jidori is thought to have been introduced from East Asia, a previous study based on mitochondrial D-loop sequences demonstrated that Tosa-Jidori belongs to haplogroup D, which is abundant in Southeast Asia but rare in other regions, and a Southeast Asian origin for Tosa-Jidori was therefore suggested. The relatively small size of the D-loop region offers limited resolution in comparison with mitogenome phylogeny. This study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic position of the Tosa-Jidori breed based on complete mitochondrial D-loop and mitogenome sequences, and to clarify its evolutionary relationships, possible maternal origin and routes of introduction into Japan. Methods: Maximum likelihood and parsimony trees were based on 133 chickens and consisted of 86 mitogenome sequences as well as 47 D-loop sequences. Results: This is the first report of the complete mitogenome not only for the Tosa-Jidori breed, but also for a member of one of the three major original groups of JNCs. Our phylogenetic analysis based on D-loop and mitogenome sequences suggests that Tosa-Jidori individuals characterized in this study belong to the haplogroup D as well as the sub-haplogroup E1. Conclusion: The sub-haplogroup E1 is relatively common in East Asia, and so although the Southeast Asian origin hypothesis cannot be rejected, East Asia is another possible origin of Tosa-Jidori. This study highlights the complicated origin and breeding history of Tosa-Jidori and other JNC breeds.
The effect of extended lactation on parameters of Wood's model of lactation curve in dairy Simmental cowsKopec, Tomas;Chladek, Gustav;Falta, Daniel;Kucera, Josef;Vecera, Milan;Hanus, Oto 949
Objective: This study was focused on the estimation of parameters of Wood's model and description of the lactation curve using the cows which were lactated over 24 months on the first lactation. Methods: The database included 1,333 pure-bred dairy Simmental primiparous cows which lactated for 24 months (732 days). The initial dataset entering the procedure of assessment of parameters of Wood's function included 35,826 milk yield records. Milk yield was recorded throughout lactation, with the earliest record taken on day 6 and the latest on day 1,348 of lactation. This dataset was used for the assessment of parameters a, b, c of Wood's model using the non-linear statistical procedure. These parameters were estimated for different length of lactation. The assessed parameters were used for calculation of some characteristics of lactation curves. Results: The lowest value of a parameter (15.2317) of Wood's model of lactation curve was found out in lactations up to 305 days long, contrary to b and c parameters which were highest in those lactations (0.1029 and 0.0015, respectively). The maximum value of a parameter (17.4329) was found out in lactations up to 640 days long, unlike b and c parameters which were minimal in those lactations (0.0603 and 0.0010, respectively). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the parameters of Wood's model and the shape of lactation curve are changing with the growing number of milk yield records. Also, the assessed parameters revealed a significant milk production potential after 305 days of lactation.
miR-458b-5p regulates ovarian granulosa cells proliferation through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting catenin beta-1Wang, Wenwen;Teng, Jun;Han, Xu;Zhang, Shen;Zhang, Qin;Tang, Hui 957
Objective: Ovarian follicular development, which dependent on the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells (GCs), is a complex biological process in which miRNA plays an important role. Our previous study showed that miR-458b-5p is associated with ovarian follicular development in chicken. The detailed function and molecular mechanism of miR-458b-5p in GCs is unclear. Methods: The luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-458b-5p and catenin beta-1 (CTNNB1), which is an important transcriptional regulatory factor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling were applied to explore the effect of miR-458b-5p on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of chicken GCs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels. Results: We demonstrated that the expression of miR-458b-5p and CTNNB1 showed the opposite relationship in GCs and theca cells of hierarchical follicles. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed that CTNNB1 is the direct target of miR-458b-5p. Using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry with PI and Annexin V-FITC labeling, we observed that transfection with the miR-458b-5p mimics significantly reduced proliferation and has no effects on apoptosis of chicken GCs. In addition, miR-458b-5p decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD44 molecule and matrix metallopeptidase 7, which are the downstream effectors of CTNNB1 in Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and play functional roles in cell proliferation. Conclusion: Taken together, the data indicate that miR-458b-5p regulates ovarian GCs proliferation through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting CTNNB1, suggesting that miR-458b-5p and its target gene CTNNB1 may potentially play a role in chicken ovarian follicular development.
Genetic relationship between purebred and synthetic pigs for growth performance using single step methodHong, Joon Ki;Cho, Kyu Ho;Kim, Young Sin;Chung, Hak Jae;Baek, Sun Young;Cho, Eun Seok;Sa, Soo Jin 967
Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic correlation (rpc) of growth performance between purebred (Duroc and Korean native) and synthetic (WooriHeukDon) pigs using a single-step method. Methods: Phenotypes of 15,902 pigs with genotyped data from 1,792 pigs from a nucleus farm were used for this study. We estimated the rpc of several performance traits between WooriHeukDon and purebred pigs: day of target weight (DAY), backfat thickness (BF), feed conversion rate (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI). The variances and covariances of the studied traits were estimated by an animal multi-trait model that applied the Bayesian inference. Results: rpc within traits was lower than 0.1 for DAY and BF, but high for FCR and RFI; in particular, rpc for RFI between Duroc and WooriHeukDon pigs was nearly 1. Comparison between different traits revealed that RFI in Duroc pigs was associated with different traits in WooriHeukDon pigs. However, the most of rpc between different traits were estimated with low or with high standard deviation. Conclusion: The results indicated that there were substantial differences in rpc of traits in the synthetic WooriHeukDon pigs, which could be caused by these pigs having a more complex origin than other crossbred pigs. RFI was strongly correlated between Duroc and WooriHeukDon pigs, and these breeds might have similar single nucleotide polymorphism effects that control RFI. RFI is more essential for metabolism than other growth traits and these metabolic characteristics in purebred pigs, such as nutrient utilization, could significantly affect those in synthetic pigs. The findings of this study can be used to elucidate the genetic architecture of crossbred pigs and help develop new breeds with target traits.
Xue, Qian;Li, Guohui;Cao, Yuxia;Yin, Jianmei;Zhu, Yunfen;Zhang, Huiyong;Zhou, Chenghao;Shen, Haiyu;Dou, Xinhong;Su, Yijun;Wang, Kehua;Zou, Jianmin;Han, Wei 975
Objective: Inbreeding depression of reproduction is a major concern in the conservation of native chicken genetic resources. Here, based on the successful development of strongly inbred (Sinb) and weakly inbred (Winb) Langshan chickens, we aimed to evaluate inbreeding effects on reproductive traits and identify candidate genes involved in inbreeding depression of reproduction in Langshan chickens. Methods: A two-sample t-test was performed to estimate the differences in phenotypic values of reproductive traits between Sinb and Winb chicken groups. Three healthy chickens with reproductive trait values around the group mean values were selected from each of the groups. Differences in ovarian and hypothalamus transcriptomes between the two groups of chickens were analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Results: The Sinb chicken group showed an obvious inbreeding depression in reproduction, especially for traits of age at the first egg and egg number at 300 days (p<0.01). Furthermore, 68 and 618 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained in the hypothalamus and ovary between the two chicken groups, respectively. In the hypothalamus, DEGs were mainly enriched in the pathways related to vitamin metabolism, signal transduction and development of the reproductive system, such as the riboflavin metabolism, Wnt signaling pathway, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways, including stimulated by retinoic acid 6, serpin family F member 1, secreted frizzled related protein 2, Wnt family member 6, and frizzled class receptor 4 genes. In the ovary, DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways associated with basic metabolism, including amino acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycosaminoglycan degradation. A series of key DEGs involved in folate biosynthesis (gamma-glutamyl hydrolase, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1), oocyte meiosis and ovarian function (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1, structural maintenance of chromosomes 1B, and speedy/RINGO cell cycle regulator family member A), spermatogenesis and male fertility (prostaglandin D2 synthase 21 kDa), Mov10 RISC complex RNA helicase like 1, and deuterosome assembly protein 1) were identified, and these may play important roles in inbreeding depression in reproduction. Conclusion: The results improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying inbreeding depression in chicken reproduction and provide a theoretical basis for the conservation of species resources.
Topical application of cervix with hyaluronan improves fertility in goats inseminated with frozen-thawed semenLeethongdee, Sukanya;Thuangsanthia, Anone;Khalid, Muhammad 985
Objective: Artificial insemination plays an important role in genetic improvement in the goat farming system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cervical application of hyaluronan (HA) on the fertility in goats after cervical artificial insemination using frozen-thawed (F-T) semen. Methods: After oestrous synchronisation with progesterone sponges and pregnant mare serum gonadotropin injection, both nulli- and multi-parous goats, were randomly allocated to 2 groups, and were inseminated with 0.25 mL of F-T semen (150×106 spermatozoa) twice at 52 h and 56 h after sponge removal. Prior to the insemination, goats in Group 1 only were given topical cervical HA application at 48 h after sponge removal. Site of insemination was recorded as os-cervix or intra-cervix or intra-uterus. Pregnancy was tested ultrasonographically 42 days after insemination. The data on pregnancy rates and percentage of animals according to the site of semen deposition were compared by Chi-square analysis. Results: The overall pregnancy rate was significantly (p<0.004) higher in goats with prior application to the cervix with HA (63.3%) than without (36.0%). Same pattern was observed in the pregnancy rates of nulli- and multi-parous goats in both the groups. Percentage of nulliparous goats according to the site of insemination in the HA group did not differ between first and the second insemination. However, in multiparous goats the percentage of animals inseminated intra-cervically was significantly increased (p≤0.05) between the first and the second inseminations. Conclusion: The results suggest that significantly higher fertility rate in the "HA goats" compared to the "without HA" group was because of deeper insemination facilitated by topical cervical application of HA. The deeper insemination into the cervical canal increase the rate of fertilisation when the cervical artificial insemination is performed.
Zearalenone exposure affects the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and related genes of porcine endometrial epithelial cells in vitroSong, Tingting;Yang, Weiren;Huang, Libo;Yang, Zaibin;Jiang, Shuzhen 993
Objective: Zearalenone (ZEA) has estrogen-like effects. Our previous study has shown that ZEA (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg) could induce abnormal uterine proliferation through transforming growth factor signaling pathway. To further study the other regulatory networks of uterine hypertrophy caused by ZEA, the potential mechanism of ZEA on porcine endometrial epithelial cells (PECs) was explored by the Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing system. Methods: The PECs were treated with ZEA at 0 (ZEA0), 5 (ZEA5), 20 (ZEA20), and 80 (ZEA80) µmol/L for 24 h. The collected cells were subjected to cell cycle, RNA-seq, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and western blot analysis. Results: The proportion of cells in the S and G2 phases decreased (p<0.05), but the proportion of cells in the G1 phase increased (p<0.05) in the ZEA80 treatment. Data analysis revealed that the expression of Wnt pathway-related genes, estrogen-related genes, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-related genes increased (p<0.05), but the expression of genetic stability genes decreased (p<0.05) with increasing ZEA concentrations. The relative mRNA and protein expression of WNT1, β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) were increased (p<0.05) with ZEA increasing, while the relative mRNA and protein expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) was decreased (p<0.05). Moreover, our immunofluorescence results indicate that β-catenin accumulated around the nucleus from the cell membrane and cytoplasm with increasing ZEA concentrations. Conclusion: In summary, ZEA can activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by up-regulating WNT1 and β-catenin expression, to promote the proliferation and development of PECs. At the same time, the up-regulation of GSK-3β and down-regulation of CCND1, as well as the mRNA expression of other pathway related genes indicated that other potential effects of ZEA on the uterine development need further study.
Islam, Md Aminul;Noguchi, Yoko;Taniguchi, Shin;Yonekura, Shinichi 1006
Objective: Cells have increased susceptibility to activation of apoptosis when suffering heat stress (HS). An effective supplementation strategy to mimic heat-induced apoptosis of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs) is necessary to maintain optimal milk production. This study aimed to investigate possible protective effects of the anti-apoptotic activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) against HS-induced damage of bovine MECs. Methods: Bovine MECs were pretreated with or without 5-ALA at concentrations of 10, 100, and 500 µM for 24 h followed by HS (42.5℃ for 24 h and 48 h). Cell viability was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to explore the regulation of genes associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes. Results: We found that 5-ALA induces cytoprotection via inhibition of apoptosis markers after HS-induced damage. Pretreatment of bovine MECs with 5-ALA resulted in dramatic upregulation of mRNA for nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, all of which are antioxidant stress genes. Moreover, 5-ALA pretreatment significantly suppressed HS-induced ER stress-associated markers, glucose-regulated protein 78, and C/EBP homologous protein expression levels. Conclusion: 5-ALA can ameliorate the ER stress in heat stressed bovine MEC via enhancing the expression of antioxidant gene.
Daza, Adin;Souza, Jocely G.;Monnerat, Joao Paulo I.S.;Ribeiro, Claudio V.D.M. 1014
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary ground licuri on lamb performance. Methods: Forty male lambs were used in a completely randomized design to test the effects of 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg of ground licuri added to diets. The trial lasted for 75 days. Intake, digestibility, physically effective neutral detergent fiber, and chewing activity were estimated. Blood samples were taken on day 45 to determine the concentrations of glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglycerides. Average daily gain (ADG) were determined on the last day of the experimental trial. Results: Licuri inclusion markedly increased dietary neutral detergent fiber and ether extract (EE) content, but it decreased dry matter (DM) intake. However, the intake and digestibility of EE linearly increased. The ADG decreased linearly (p<0.05) with licuri inclusion. Licuri had no effect (p>0.05) on the concentrations of blood metabolites; however, blood urea increased (p<0.05), while serum glucose decreased (p<0.05). Conclusion: The physically effective fiber of ground licuri is similar to Tyfton hay and licuri inclusion decreases lamb performance due to a decreased in DM intake.
Nitrate supplementation of rations based on rice straw but not Pangola hay, improves growth performance in meat goatsPaengkoum, Siwaporn;Khotsakdee, Jiravan;Paengkoum, Pramote;Schonewille, Thomas;Yuangklang, Chalermpon 1022
Objective: Supplemental nitrate is known to be an effective tool to mitigate methane emission by ruminants. Based on theoretical considerations, supplemental nitrate can improve but also deteriorate the growth performance. The overall effect of supplemental nitrate on growth performance, however, is not yet known. The objective of the current study was therefore to evaluate the effect of a higher dose of NO3- on overall growth performance when feeding either Pangola grass hay or rice straw. Methods: Thirty-two crossbred, 3-month-old Thai native×Anglo-Nubian crossbred male goats were used. The experiment had a 2×2 factorial design with an experimental period of 60 days. Eight goats were randomly allocated to each dietary treatment, i.e. a ration containing either Pangola hay (Digitaria eriantha Steud) or rice straw (Oryza Sativa) as a source of roughage, supplemented with a concentrate containing either 3.2% or 4.8% potassium nitrate. The rations were formulated to be isonitrogenous. The animals were weighed at the start of the experiment and at days 30 and 60. Feces were collected during the last five days of each 30-day period. Results: High-nitrate increased overall DM intake by approximately 3%, irrespective the source of roughage, but only the goats fed a rice straw-based ration responded with an increase in body weight (BW). Thus, the overall feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg BW gain) was influenced by roughage source ×nitrate and decreased by almost 60% when the goats were fed rice straw in combination with a high versus a low dietary nitrate content. The digestibility of macronutrients was only affected by the source of roughage and the digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fibre was greater when the goats were fed Pangola hay. Conclusion: It was concluded that the replacement of soybean meal by nitrate improves the growth performance of meat goats fed rations based on rice straw, but not Pangola hay.
Application of lactic acid bacteria producing antifungal substance and carboxylesterase on whole crop rice silage with different dry matterLee, Seong Shin;Paradhipta, Dimas Hand Vidya;Lee, Hyuk Jun;Joo, Young Ho;Noh, Hyeon Tak;Choi, Jeong Seok;Ji, Keum Bae;Kim, Sam Churl 1029
Objective: This study was conducted to investigate effects of antifungal substance and carboxylesterase-producing inoculant on fermentation indices and rumen degradation kinetics of whole crop rice (WCR) silage ensiled at different dry matter (DM) contents. Methods: Dual-purpose inoculants, Lactobacillus brevis 5M2 and Lactobacillus buchneri 6M1, confirmed both activities of antifungal and carboxylesterase in the previous study. The WCR at mature stage was chopped, and then wilted to obtain three different DM contents consisting of 35.4%, 43.6%, and 51.5%. All WCR forages were applied distilled water (CON) or mixed inoculants with 1:1 ratio at 1×105 colony forming unit/g (INO), and ensiled into 20 L mini silo (5 kg) in quadruplicates for 108 d. Results: The INO silages had lower lactate (p<0.001) and butyrate (p = 0.022) with higher acetate (p<0.001) and propionate (p<0.001) than those of CON silages. Ammonia-N (p<0.001), lactate (tendency; p = 0.068), acetate (p = 0.030), and butyrate (p<0.001) concentrations of INO silages decreased linearly with increasing DM content of WCR forage. The INO silages presented higher lactic acid bacteria (p<0.001) with lower molds (p<0.001) than those of CON silages. Yeasts (p = 0.042) and molds (p = 0.046) of WCR silages decreased linearly with increasing DM content of WCR forage. In the rumen, INO silages had higher the total degradable fraction (p<0.001), total volatile fatty acid (tendency; p = 0.097), and acetate (p = 0.007), but lower the fractional degradation rate (p = 0.011) and propionate (p<0.001) than those of CON silage. The total degradable fraction (p<0.001), total volatile fatty acid (p = 0.001), iso-butyrate (p = 0.036), and valerate (p = 0.008) decreased linearly with increasing DM content of WCR forage, while the lag phase (p<0.001) was increased linearly. Conclusion: This study concluded that application of dual-purpose inoculants on WCR silage confirmed antifungal and carboxylesterase activities by inhibiting mold and improving rumen digestibility, while increase of wilting times decreased organic acids production and rumen digestibility.
Effect of storage time and the level of formic acid on fermentation characteristics, epiphytic microflora, carbohydrate components and in vitro digestibility of rice straw silageZhao, Jie;Wang, Siran;Dong, Zhihao;Li, Junfeng;Jia, Yushan;Shao, Tao 1038
Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage time and formic acid (FA) on fermentation characteristics, epiphytic microflora, carbohydrate components and in vitro digestibility of rice straw silage. Methods: Fresh rice straw was ensiled with four levels of FA (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% of fresh weight) for 3, 6, 9, 15, 30, and 60 d. At each time point, the silos were opened and sampled for chemical and microbial analyses. Meanwhile, the fresh and 60-d ensiled rice straw were further subjected to in vitro analyses. Results: The results showed that 0.2% and 0.6% FA both produced well-preserved silages with low pH value and undetected butyric acid, whereas it was converse for 0.4% FA. The populations of enterobacteria, yeasts, moulds and aerobic bacteria were suppressed by 0.2% and 0.6% FA, resulting in lower dry matter loss, ammonia nitrogen and ethanol content (p<0.05). The increase of FA linearly (p<0.001) decreased neutral detergent fibre and hemicellulose, linearly (p<0.001) increased residual water soluble carbohydrate, glucose, fructose and xylose. The in vitro gas production of rice straw was decreased by ensilage but the initial gas production rate was increased, and further improved by FA application (p<0.05). No obvious difference of FA application on in vitro digestibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre was observed (p>0.05). Conclusion: The 0.2% FA application level promoted lactic acid fermentation while 0.6% FA restricted all microbial fermentation of rice straw silages. Rice straw ensiled with 0.2% FA or 0.6% FA improved its nutrient preservation without affecting digestion, with the 0.6% FA level best.
Endogenous enzyme activities and tibia bone development of broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase, β-glucanase and phytaseAl-Qahtani, Mohammed;Ahiwe, Emmanuel Uchenna;Abdallh, Medani Eldow;Chang'a, Edwin Peter;Gausi, Harriet;Bedford, Michael R;Iji, Paul Ade 1049
Objective: This study assessed the effect of different levels of xylanase, β-glucanase and phytase on intestinal enzyme activities and tibia bone development in broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets. Methods: Twelve experimental diets were formulated using a 3×2×2 factorial design (three doses of phytase and two doses of both xylanase and β-glucanase) and offered to 648 day-old Ross 308 male chicks having 6 replicates groups with 9 birds per replicate and lasted for 35 days. Results: An interaction between the enzymes products improved (p<0.01) the activity of chymotrypsin. Protein content at d 10 was highest (p<0.001) with addition of phytase while general proteolytic activity (GPA) (p<0.02) and lipase activity (p<0.001) were decreased. At d 24, there were improvements in protein content (p<0.01) and lipase (p<0.04) with supplementation of superdose phytase. Addition of superdose phytase decreased in chymotrypsin (p<0.02), trypsin (p<0.01) and GPA (p<0.001). The optimum dose of xylanase decreased the chymotrypsin activity (p = 0.05), while the GPA (p<0.001) was increased with the optimum level of β-glucanase. Superdose phytase supplementation at d 10 improved maltase (p = 0.05), sucrase (p<0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (p<0.001) activities in the jejunum while aminopeptidase activity was highest (p<0.005) with the low level of phytase. Protein content of jejunum mucosa was bigger (p<0.001) in birds fed superdose phytase while maltase activity (p<0.001) at d 24 was reduced by this treatment. Sucrase (p<0.04) and aminopeptidase activities (p<0.001) improved when diets supplemented with low levels of phytase. Tibia bone breaking strength was highest (p<0.04) with addition of low level of superdose phytase or optimum level of β-glucanase. Bone dry matter content decreased (p<0.04) when diets supplemented with phytase. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, supplementation of superdose phytase was the most effective, however, the cost-benefit analysis of the use of such a dose needs to be evaluated.
Effects of feed form and particle size on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gastric health in growing-finishing pigsJo, Yun Yeong;Choi, Myung Jae;Chung, Woo Lim;Hong, Jin Su;Lim, Jong Seon;Kim, Yoo Yong 1061
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed processing and particle size on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gastric health in growing-finishing pigs. Methods: A total of 360 growing pigs (22.64±0.014 kg initial body weight [BW]) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replicates by BW and sex, and 10 pigs were housed in one pen in a randomized complete block design. The BW and feed intake were recorded to calculate growth performance. For the digestibility trial, a total of 24 barrows with an initial BW of 33.65±0.372 kg were split into 6 treatments with a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments were designed by a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments based on two main factors, particle size (600, 750, 900 ㎛) and feed form (mash and pellet) of diet. Experimental diets were formulated to contain the requirements of the NRC (2012). Results: The BW and average daily gain were not changed by dietary treatments, and the feed intake of finishing pigs (wks 6 to 12) was increased when the pigs were fed a mash diet (p<0.05). For the overall period, the feed efficiency of pigs was improved with the pellet diet (p<0.01) and reduced particle size (p<0.05). The pellet diet had effects on increasing crude fat digestibility (p<0.01) relative to a mash diet, but there was no considerable change in dry matter and crude protein digestibilities by dietary treatments. In the evaluation of gastric health, a trend for an increased incidence of keratinization in the esophageal region was observed as particle size decreased (p = 0.07). Conclusion: Feed efficiency could be improved by pellet diet and reduced particle size. Nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, and gastric health were not affected by feed form, and particle size ranged from 600 to 900 ㎛.
Influence of pre-slaughter fasting time on weight loss, meat quality and carcass contamination in broilersXue, Ge;Cheng, Silu;Yin, Jingwen;Zhang, Runxiang;Su, Yingying;Li, Xiang;Li, Jianhong;Bao, Jun 1070
Objective: An experiment was conducted to determine the appropriate fasting time prior to slaughter for broilers in floor-feed and scatter-feed mode. Methods: On 21 d since hatching, 120 Arbor Acres broilers were divided into floor-feed and scatter-feed groups, chicks from each group were further assigned to feed withdrawal treatments for 0, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h. Some resultant indicators such as carcass contamination, body weight loss, meat quality of 54-day-old broilers were measured. Results: It appears that longer feed withdrawal increased weight loss, lightness, drop loss of meat but reduced pH. A significant higher weight loss and lightness for both floor-feed and scatter-feed chicks coincided after 6 to 10 h feed withdrawal (p<0.05). pH for breast muscle at 45 min postmortem reduced when chicks of scatter-feed were fasted 6 and 10 h, while the reduction of floor-feed group occurred only in 10 h (p<0.05). A noticeable effect of feed withdrawal on drop loss occurred after 10 h fasting in scatter-feed of which drop loss were significantly higher than that for other groups including control (p<0.05). The change of contamination propensity revealed that 6 to 10 h fasting significantly reduced the likelihood of carcass contamination under both floor-feed and scatter-feed (p<0.05). Net weights of intestinal contents for gizzard were significantly reduced after feed deprived for 10 h in floor-feed and 6 and 10 h in scatter-feed (p<0.05). The decrease for whole intestine occurred after floor-feed broilers have been without feed for more than 4 h, scatter-feed broilers for more than 8 h (p<0.05). Conclusion: On the premise that poultry product properties and welfare were not significantly damaged, proper fasting time could reduce carcass contamination. Current data implied that 6 h fasting was recommendable for both floor and scatter feed pre-slaughter broilers.
Isolation and identification of goose skeletal muscle satellite cells and preliminary study on the function of C1q and tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 geneWang, Han;He, Ke;Zeng, Xuehua;Zhou, Xiaolong;Yan, Feifei;Yang, Songbai;Zhao, Ayong 1078
Objective: Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs) are significant for the growth, regeneration, and maintenance of skeletal muscle after birth. However, currently, few studies have been performed on the isolation, culture and inducing differentiation of goose muscle satellite cells. Previous studies have shown that C1q and tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 (CTRP3) participated in the process of muscle growth and development, but its role in the goose skeletal muscle development is not yet clear. This study aimed to isolate, culture, and identify the goose SMSCs in vitro. Additionally, to explore the function of CTRP3 in goose SMSCs. Methods: Goose SMSCs were isolated using 0.25% trypsin from leg muscle (LM) of 15 to 20 day fertilized goose eggs. Cell differentiation was induced by transferring the cells to differentiation medium with 2% horse serum and 1% penicillin streptomycin. Immunofluorescence staining of Desmin and Pax7 was used to identify goose SMSCs. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot were applied to explore developmental expression profile of CTRP3 in LM and the regulation of CTRP3 on myosin heavy chains (MyHC), myogenin (MyoG) expression and Notch signaling pathway related genes expression. Results: The goose SMSCs were successfully isolated and cultured. The expression of Pax7 and Desmin were observed in the isolated cells. The expression of CTRP3 decreased significantly during leg muscle development. Overexpression of CTRP3 could enhance the expression of two myogenic differentiation marker genes, MyHC and MyoG. But knockdown of CTRP3 suppressed their expression. Furthermore, CTRP3 could repress the mRNA level of Notch signaling pathway-related genes, notch receptor 1, notch receptor 2 and hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 1, which previously showed a negative regulation in myoblast differentiation. Conclusion: These findings provide a useful cell model for the future research on goose muscle development and suggest that CTRP3 may play an essential role in skeletal muscle growth of goose.