DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Effect of Leaders' Managerial Coaching Behavior on Employees' Innovative Behavior: Mediating Effect of the Employees' Entrepreneurship and the Moderating Effect of LMX

리더의 관리자 코칭행동이 구성원의 혁신행동에 미치는 영향: 기업가정신의 매개효과와 LMX의 조절효과

  • Kim, Su-Yeon ;
  • Oh, Sang-Jin
  • 김수연 (서울종합과학대학원대학교 경영학과) ;
  • 오상진 (서울종합과학대학원대학교 경영학과)
  • Received : 2021.03.24
  • Accepted : 2021.04.17

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to verify the effect of leader's managerial coaching behavior on employees' innovative behavior and to confirm the mediating effect of entrepreneurship and the moderating effect of LMX(Leader-Member Exchange). Hypotheses were established based on prior research and variety of theories including broaden-build theory and self-efficacy theory. The survey was accessed via the online, 279 employees over 20's or older, who have worked in various domestic organizations were participated. SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 25.0 were used to verify the reliability and validity of the collected data, and the hypothesis was analyzed by SPSS process macro 3.0. The study found that leader's managerial coaching behavior has positive effects on both employees' entrepreneurship and innovative behavior and that entrepreneurship has mediating effect between leader's managerial coaching behavior and an employees' innovative behavior. The results of this study suggested leader's managerial coaching behavior is a prominent factor in facilitating innovative behavior among employees. Implications include an organizational requirement to develop systems for initiating effective managerial coaching behavior in leadership, and for improvement of both entrepreneurship and LMX among employees.

본 연구는 리더의 관리자 코칭행동이 구성원의 혁신 행동에 미치는 영향을 검증하고 구성원의 기업가정신의 매개 효과와 LMX의 조절 효과를 확인하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 가설은 선행연구와 긍정정서확장구축이론, 자기효능감이론 등을 근거로 하여 설정하였다. 자료는 국내 기업의 직장인 20대이상의 279명을 대상으로 온라인 설문을 통하여 수집하였다. 수집된 데이터의 신뢰성과 타당성 검증은 SPSS 25.0과 AMOS 25.0로 하였으며, 가설검증은 SPSS프로세스 매크로 3.0으로 분석하였다. 연구 결과, 리더의 관리자 코칭행동은 구성원의 기업가정신과 혁신행동에 각각 정(+)의 영향을 주었고, 코칭행동과 혁신행동의 관계에서 기업가정신이 매개효과를 가지는 것이 확인되었다. 또한 LMX는 관리자코칭행동과 기업가정신의 관계에 조절효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과는 리더의 관리자 코칭행동과 혁신행동간 관계에서 기업가정신을 제시하였다는데 의의를 가지며, 구성원의 기업가정신과 혁신행동을 촉진하는 리더의 관리자 코칭행동의 효과성을 실증함으로써 조직에서 리더의 관리자 코칭행동을 활성화하기 위한 시스템을 마련하고 구성원들의 기업가정신 강화와 LMX 향상을 위한 시사점, 그리고 향후 연구방안을 논의하였다.

References

  1. J. Hartley, How 'The New Normal' of Economic Growth Took Shape, Retrieved from Fed, 2016.
  2. S. K. Kim, J. H. Jeon, and H. D. Seol, "The Impact of High-Commitment HRM System on Innovative Behavior of Employees in SMEs: The Moderating Effects of LMX and First-Line Mangers'HR Competency," Journal of Business Management, Vol.24, No.1, pp.67-90, 2017.
  3. H. D. Seol, "Transformational Leadership, Social Capital, and Knowledge Sharing," The Korean-Japanese Journal of Economics & Management Studies, Vol.62, pp.45-70, 2014.
  4. R. E. Johnston and J. D. Bate, The power of strategy innovation: a new way of linking creativity and strategic planning to discover great business opportunities, Amacom, 2013.
  5. S. G. Scott and R. A. Bruce, "Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace," Academy of Management Journal, Vol.37, No.3, pp.580-607, 1994.
  6. M. S. Kang and Y. S. Kim "Moderating Effects of Trust on Relationship between Tourism Service Industry Entrepreneurship and Innovative Behavior," The Journal of Business Education, Vol.34, No.2, pp.73-95, 2020.
  7. C. B. Bae and J, H, Kim, "The Effects of Business Startups' Entrepreneurship on Innovation Capacity, Innovation Behavior, and Business Performance," Journal of Distribution and Management Research," Vol.22, No.4, pp.33-45, 2019.
  8. N. King and N. Anderson, Innovation in Working Groups, New York Harper & Row, 1990.
  9. J. Shin and G. E. McClomb, "Top executive leadership and organizational innovation: An empirical investigation of nonprofit human service organizations (HSOs)," Administration in Social Work, Vol.22, No.3, pp.1-21, 1998.
  10. D. McGregor, The human side of enterprise, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1960.
  11. B. Chapman and R. Sisodia, Everybody matters: The extraordinary power of caring for your people like family, New York, NY: Penguin Random House, 2016.
  12. A. Heslin, D. VandeWalle, and G. P. Latham, "Keen to help manager's IPTs and their subsequent employee coaching," Personnel Psychology, Vol.59, No.4, pp.871-902, 2006.
  13. J. O. Burdett, "Forty things every manager should know about coaching," Journal of Management Development, Vol.17, No.2, pp.142-152, 1998.
  14. R. D. Evered and J. C. Selman, "Coaching and the art of management," Organizational Dynamics, Vol.18, No.2, pp.16-32, 1989.
  15. P. A. Heslin, G. P. Latham, and D. VandeWalle, "The effect of implicit person theory on performance appraisals," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.90, No.5, p.842, 2005.
  16. D. B. Audretsch, W. Bonte, and M. Keilbach, "Entrepreneurship Capital and Its Impact on Knowledge Diffusion and Economic Performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Vol.23, No.6, pp.687-698, 2008.
  17. Y. M. Hwang and K. C. Lee, "Investigating the Effect of Social Learning about Entrepreneurship on Creativity," Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship, Vol.11, No.5, pp.165-174, 2016.
  18. E. Autio, M. Kenney, P. Mustar, D. Siegel, and M. Wright, "Entrepreneurial innovation ecosystems and context," Research Policy, Vol.43, No.7, pp.1097-1108, 2014.
  19. S. A. Zahra, "Corporate entrepreneurship and financial performance: The case of management leveraged buyouts," Journal of business venturing, Vol.10, No.3, pp.225-247, 1996.
  20. A. H. Lassen, "Corporate entrepreneurship: an empirical study of the importance of strategic considerations in the creation of radical innovation," Managing Global Transitions, Vol.5, No.2, p.109, 2007.
  21. B. Antoncic and I. Prodan, "Alliances, corporate technological entrepreneurship and firm performance: Testing a model on manufacturing firms," Technovation, Vol.28, No.5, pp.257-265, 2008.
  22. M. J. Dollinger, "Use of Budner's intolerance of ambiguity measure for entrepreneurial research," Psychological reports, Vol.53, No.3, pp.1019-1021, 1983.
  23. D. Miller, "The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms," Management science, Vol.29, No.7, pp.770-791, 1983.
  24. R. R. Kilburg, "Toward a conceptual understanding and definition of executive coaching," Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, Vol.48, No.2, p.134, 1996.
  25. A. Srivastava, K. M. Bartol, and E. A. Locke, "Empowering leadership in management teams: Effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance," Academy of management journal, Vol.49, No.6, pp.1239-1251, 2006.
  26. A. E. Ellinger, A. D. Ellinger, and S. B. Keller, "Supervisory coaching in a logistics context," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol.35, No.9, pp.620-636, 2005.
  27. W. T. Gallwey and R. J. Kriegel, Inner Skiing: Revised Edition, Random House Incorporated, 1997.
  28. G. R. Collins, Christian Coaching: Helping Others Turn Potential into Reality, Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001.
  29. R. Hargrove, Masterful Coaching, Wiley, 2006.
  30. N. C. Seong, J. S. Moon, and K. H. Park, "The Effect Leader's Coaching Behavior on Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction and Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence," The journal of productivity, Vol.30, No.4, pp.189-227, 2016.
  31. J. S. Stowell, Leadership and the Coaching in organizations, Doctoral dissertation, Utha University, 1986.
  32. S. Park, McLean, and B. Yang, "Revision and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Managerial Coaching Skills in Organizations," Online Submission, 2006.
  33. J. B. Gregory and P. E. Levy, "Employee coaching relationships: Enhancing construct clarity and measurement, Coaching: An International Journal of Theory," Research and Practice, Vol.3, No.2, pp.109-123, 2010.
  34. P. Drucker, Innovation and entrepreneurship: principles and practices, New York: Harper Trade, 1985.
  35. J.W. Lee, J. W. Kim, and I. Kim, "Psychological Empowerment, Organizational Supports, and Innovative Work Behavior of General Hospital Employees," Health Policy & Administration, Vol.13, No.1, pp.46-68, Mar. 2003
  36. M. A. West and J. L. Farr, "Innovation at work: Psychological perspectives," Social Behaviour, Vol.4, pp.15-30, 1989.
  37. R. Rosenfeld and J. C. Servo, Facilitating innovation in large organizations, In M. A. West and J. L. Farr(Eds.), Innovation and Creativity at Work, New York, NY: Wiley, pp.251-26359, 1990.
  38. J. D. Jong and D. D. Hartog, "Measuring innovative work behaviour," Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol.19, No.1, pp.23-36, 2010.
  39. J. L. Farr and C. M. Ford, Individual innovation, In M. A. West & J. L. Farr(Eds.), 1990.
  40. O. Janssen, "Job demands, perceptions of effort reward fairness and innovative work behavior," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol.73, No.3, pp.287-302, 2000.
  41. J. G. Covin and D. P. Slevin, "Strategic Management of Small Firms in Hostile and Benign Environments," Strategic Management Journal, Vol.10, No.1, pp.75-87, 1989.
  42. R. L. Formaini, "The engine of capitalist process: entrepreneurs in economic theory," Economic and Financial Review, Vol.4, pp.2-11, 2001.
  43. J. Schumpeter, The theory of economic development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA., 1934.
  44. D. Isenberg, The entrepreneurship ecosystem strategy as a new paradigm for economy policy: principles for cultivating entrepreneurship, Babson entrepreneurship ecosystem project, Babson college, Babson Park: MA. 2011.
  45. D. C. McClelland, "N achievement and entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study," Journal of personality and Social Psychology, Vol.1, No.4, p.389, 1965.
  46. J. A. Hornaday and J. Aboud, Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs, Personnel psychology, 1971.
  47. H. H. Stevenson and J. C. Jarillo, "A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management Entrepreneurship," pp.155-170, Springer, 2007.
  48. P. M. Kreiser, L. D. Marino, and K. M. Weaver"Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial orientation scale: A multi-country analysis," Entrepreneurship theory and practice, Vol.26, No.4, pp.71-93, 2002.
  49. G. B. Graen, Role making processes within complex organizations, In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Chicago: Rand-McNally, pp.1201-1245, 1976.
  50. R. Liden and G. B. Graen, "Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership," Academy of Management Journal, Vol.23, pp.451-465, 1980.
  51. R. P. Setton, N. Bennet, and R. C. Liden, "Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member change, and employee reciprocity," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.81, pp.219-227, 1996.
  52. S. J. Wayne, L. M. Shore, and R. C. Liden, "Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective," Academy of Management Journal, Vol.40, No.1, pp.82-111, 1997.
  53. C. A. Schriesheim, L. L. Neider, and T. Scandura, "Delegation and leader-member exchange: Main effects, moderators, and measurement issues," Academy of Management Journal, Vol.41, No.3, pp.298-318, 1998.
  54. M. H. Kim, Influence of Leader-Member Exchange Quality and Team-Member Exchange Quality on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in Clinical Nurses, Master's dissertation, Ga-chon University, 2016.
  55. F. Dansereau, C. G. Graen, and W. Haga, "A Vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership into formal organizations," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol.13, No.1, pp.46-78, 1975.
  56. U. A. Agarwal, S. Datta, S. Blake-Beard, and S. Bhargava, "Linking LMX, Innovative Work Behaviour and Turnover Intentions," Career Development International, Vol.17, No.3, pp.208-230, 2012.
  57. R. P Vecchio and B. C. Gobdel, The vertical dyad linkage model of leadership: Problems and prospects," Organizational behavior and human performance, Vol.34, No.1, pp.5-20, 1984.
  58. S. J. Wayne and G. R. Ferris, "Influence tactics, affect, and exchange quality in supervisor-subordinate interactions: A laboratory experiment and field study," Journal of applied psychology, Vol.75, No.5, p.487, 1990.
  59. C. R. Gerstner and D. V. Day, "Meta-Analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues," Journal of applied psychology, Vol.82, No.6, p.827, 1997.
  60. J. S. Kim and H. C. Kim, "Linking Leaders Coaching and employees Performance: The Influence of Intrinsic Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Job Involvement," Korean Journal of Business Administration, Vol.25, No.2, pp.675-695, 2012.
  61. E. L. Deci, Intrinsic motivation, New York: Plenum Press. Deci, E. ,1975.
  62. E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, New York: Plenum Press, 1985.
  63. B. S. Song and Y. S. Kang, "Moderating Effects of Task and Individual Characteristics between Leader-member Exchange and Innovative Behavior," Korean Journal of Business Administration, Vol.27, pp.55-80, 2001.
  64. E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, "The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior," Psychological Inquiry, Vol.11, No.4, pp.227-268, 2000.
  65. E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective, Handbook of self-determination research, pp.3-33, 2002.
  66. M. R. Redmond, M. D. Mumford, and R. Teach, "Putting creativity to work: Effects of leader behavior on subordinate creativity," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol.55, No.1, pp.120-151, 1993.
  67. Y. G. Na, C. G. Kim, and Y. G. Kim, "A Study on the Effect of Coaching Leadership of Supervisors on Self-efficacy and Innovation Behavior: For 5star hotel chefs in Seoul," International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol.34, No.6, pp.27-45, 2019.
  68. G. H. Lee and S. H. Lim, "The Impact of Coaching Leadership on Innovative Behavior of HR Manager: The Mediating Effect of Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment," Journal of Business Management, Vol.26, No.6, pp.51-71, 2019.
  69. M. K. Kwon, "A Study on Airlines Employee's Coaching Leadership, Service Attitude, and Innovation Behavior-Focusing on Moderation Effects from Job Autonomy," Journal Aviation Management Society of Korea, Vol.13, No.1, pp.105-125, 2015.
  70. A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1997.
  71. W. G. Bennis and R. J. Thomas, Greek greezers: How, era, value, and defining moment shape leaders-how tough times shape good leaders, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
  72. E. A. Locke and G. P. Latham, A theory of goal setting & task performance, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1990.
  73. M. S. Sim, A study on the Relationship between Principal's Leadership and Organizational Performance; Focusing on the mediating effect of teacher self-efficacy, Doctoral dissertation, Myongji University, 2015.
  74. N. R. Smith and J. B. Miner, "Motivational considerations in the success of technologically innovative entrepreneurs," Frontiers of entrepreneurship research, pp.488-495, 1984.
  75. J. W. Lee, "Individual Characteristics and Entrepreneurial Intentions," Asia Pacific Journal of Samall Business, Vol.22, No.1, pp.121-146, 2000.
  76. J. M. Howell and S. Higgin, "Champions of technological innovation," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.35, No.2, pp.317-341, 1990.
  77. J. L. Farr and C. M. Ford, Individual innovation. In M. A. West & J. L. Farr (Eds.), Innovation and creativity at work: sychological and organizational strategies pp.63-80, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
  78. M. M. Hammond, N. L. Neff, J. L.Farr, A. R. Schwall, and X. Zhao, Predictors of individual-level innovation at work: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, Vol.5, No.1, p.90, 2011.
  79. T. M. Begley and D. P. Boyd, "Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses," Journal of business venturing, Vol.2, No.1, pp.79-93, 1987.
  80. J. H. Lim, Entrepreneurship influencing employee's innovative behavior and management performance in the hotel industry, Doctoral dissertation, Fareast University, 2018.
  81. T. Y. Bang, A Study on the Determinants of Corporate Entrepreneurship, Its Mediating Effects on Entrepreneurial Intention, and Innovative Behavior: Focused on the Moderating Effects of Perceived Organizational Supports and Role Models, Doctoral dissertation, Yeungnam University, 2015.
  82. A. J. Scott, "Entrepreneurship, innovation and industrial development; Geography and the creative field revisited," Small Business Economics, Vol.26, No.1, pp.1-24, 2006.
  83. D. E. Engle, J. J. Mah, and G. Sadri, "An empirical comparison of entrepreneurs and employees; Implications for innovation," Creativity research Journal, Vol.10, No.1, pp.45-49, 1997.
  84. B. L. Fredrickson, "The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions," American psychologist, Vol.56, No.3, p.218, 2001.
  85. B. L. Fredrickson, "What good are positive emotions?," Review of General Psychology, Vol.2, No.3, p.300, 1998.
  86. M. E. Seligman and P. Schulman, "Explanatory style as a predictor of productivity and quitting among life insurance sales agents," Journal of personality and social psychology, Vol.50, No.4, p.832, 1986.
  87. D. Watson, L. A. Clark, C. W. McIntyre, and S. Hamaker, "Affect, personality, and social activity," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.63, No.6, p.1011, 1992.
  88. M. S. Lee and Y. S. Kang, "Relationship between Creativity and Innovative Behavior; Moderating Effects of Organizational Situations," Korean Academy of Organization and Management, Vol.27, No.1, pp.251-272, 2003.
  89. T. M. Amabile, "Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do," California Management Review, Vol.40, No.1, pp.39-58, 1997.
  90. T. M. Amabile, "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.10, No.1, p.123-167, 1988.
  91. I. S. Lee, "Empirical Study on the Preceding Factors of Innovative Behavior," Journal of Organization and Management, Vol.23, pp.89-113, 1999.
  92. H. K. Park, "The Effect of Coaching Leadership on Resilience, Interpersonal Competence and Job Performance," Journal of the contents association, Vol.1, No.10, pp.368-381, 2018.
  93. J. H. Song, A Study on Influential Effect of Learning Motivation and Volition to Entrepreneurship and Company Performances according to Technology Based Entrepreneur, Master's dissertation, Chung-ang University, 2010.
  94. J. Jiang, K. S. Hong, and B, Yang, "Leader-Member Exchange, Creative Self-Efficacy and Employees' Creativity-The Moderating Role of the Task Uncertainty," Korea-China Social Science Studies, Vol.34, pp.335-360, 2015.
  95. O. Epitropaki and R. Martin, "The impact of relational demography on the quality of leader -member exchanges and employees' work attitudes and well-being," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol.72, No.2, pp.237-240, 1999.
  96. G. B. Graen and M. Uhl-Bien, "Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective," The Leadership Quarterly, Vol.6, No.2, pp.219-247, 1995.
  97. Z. Han, Q. Wang, and X. Yan, "How Responsible Leadership Motivates Employees to Engage in Organizational Citizenship Behavior for the Environment: A Double Mediation Model," Sustainability, Vol.11, No.3, 605, 2019. do: 10.3390/su11030605 https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030605
  98. M. Prieto and M. P. Perez-Santana, "Managing innovative work behavior: The role of human resource practices," Personnel Review, Vol.43, No.2, pp.184-208, 2014.
  99. S. Bibb and J. Kourdi, Trust matters: For organizational and personal success, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
  100. Y. K. Kheng and R. Mahmood, "The relationship between pro-innovation organization climate, leader-member Exchange and innovative work behavior: A study among the knowledge workers of the knowledge intensive business service in Malaysia," Business Management Dynamics, Vol.2, No.8, pp.15-30, 2013.
  101. B. Redshaw, "Do we really understand coaching? How can we make it work better?," Industrial and Commercial training, Vol.32, No.3, pp.106-109, 2000.
  102. J. Whitmore, Coaching for performance, 3rd ed., London, UK: Micholas Brealey Publishing, 2002.
  103. D. Y. Cho and Y. H. Park, "The Relationship between the Manager's Coaching Behaviors and the Job Performance of the Employees," The Korean Journal of Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol.13, No.4, pp.89-109, 2011.
  104. J. K. Jung, Effect of leader's emotional intelligence on member's attitudes, behavior - The mediating effects of leader's coaching, LMX, Doctoral dissertation, Kyonggi University, 2017.
  105. S. W. Kim, A Study on the Effect of Organizational Justice on Innovative Behavior: Focusing on the Mediating Variable Effect of Work Engagement and Knowledge Sharing, Doctoral dissertation, Ho-seo University, 2019.
  106. J. G. Covin and D. P. Slevin, "A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior," Entrepreneurship theory and practice, Vol.16, No.1, pp.7-26, 1991.
  107. J. H. Lim, The relationship between LMX(Leader-Member Exchange)/TMX(Team-Member Exchange)and Work-Family Conflict: Based on mediating effect of Self-Determination and moderating effect of Job Security, Master's dissertation, Korea University, 2010.
  108. T. A. Scandura and G. B. Graen, "Moderating effects of initial leader-member exchange status on the effects of a leadership intervention," Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.69, No.3, pp.428-436, 1984.
  109. G. T. Lee, "The structural relationship between hotel middle managers' coaching leadership, job autonomy, and innovative behavior," International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol.34, No.3, pp.75-88, 2020.
  110. R. M. Kanter, "When a thousand flowers bloom: Structural, collective, and social conditions for innovation in organizations," Knowledge Management and Organizational Design, Vol.10, pp.93-131, 1988.